Yini elawula nathi – What Controls Us in Zulu

This is my book in Zulu. I decided to translate it into Zulu next partly because my sister went to South Africa shortly before she died in India and she learned some Zulu there. (She also learned an impressive amount of Ladakhi in India.) What Controls Us will be translated into Hindi next to honor her and her last places on Earth. I would translate it into Ladakhi as well, but I can’t find a free program that can do that. I also think this book could benefit many people who only speak Zulu or Hindi. “Yini elawula nathi” literally means what governs us, so it’s not an exact translation. Some words were changed in the book to be more easily represented in Zulu. I did my best with the translation using Google translate again, but it’s surely rough as the other translations are. Please share and like. Thank you.

Lena incwadi yami ngesiZulu. Nganquma ukuhumusha kube Zulu elilandelayo ngokwengxenye ngenxa yokuthi nodadewethu saya eNingizimu Afrika ngaphambi nje kokuba ashone eNdiya futhi ayekufunde ezinye Zulu. (Wafunda isamba umxhwele Ladakhi eNdiya.) Yini Elawula Sibe uzobe zihunyushelwe Hindi eceleni imnike udumo futhi izindawo zakhe lokugcina Emhlabeni. Ngicabanga le ncwadi babekwazi kanjani abantu abaningi abangase nje akhulume Zulu noma Hindi. “Yini elawula uNathi” nezwi lisho lokho okubusa us, ngakho akuyona into nguqulo ngqo. Amanye amagama zashintshwa encwadini lokumelwa kalula ngesiZulu. Ngenza okusemandleni ami ne translation usebenzisa Google ukuhumusha futhi, kodwa ngokuqinisekile olugubhayo njengoba ezinye izinguqulo kukhona. Sicela ukwabelana futhi uthanda. Ngiyabonga.

Yini elawula nathi

Incwadi mayelana nendlela amandla ezine ekuphumeni ziye elawulwa human umcabango, ungubani nangezenzo emlandweni nokuthi singaba kanjani aphinde athole control.

by

Adam Goldstein

“Akekho zibizwa sesiphelelwe bayizigqila kunalabo labo ngamanga bakholelwa bakhululekile.”

– UJohann Wolfgang von Goethe

Index

A Note ishosha kuya Reader mayelana umsuka sale ncwadi ……………………. (6-8)

Part One: Isingeniso

  • 1.1 Yini elawula nathi …………………………………………………………………… (9-10)
  • 1.2 Ohulumeni …………………..……………………………………………………(11-13)
  • 1.3 Izinkampani YeSizwe……………………. …………………………………………… (14-15)
  • 1.4 Izindaba media enkulu………………………… .. ………………………. … (16-19)
  • 1.5 Inkolo: Wesine iningi unique Iyakuthonya…………………………… (20-26)

Okuyingxenye ezimbili: Umlando Omfushane imali, uhulumeni, inkolo, kanye nesayensi nokuthi kungani savela

  • 2.1 umcabango imali, kahulumeni Nenkolo …………………… .. (27-33)
  • 2.2 Ukuthuthukiswa komqondo yenkolo nokuziphatha ……………… .. … .. (34-36)
  • 2.3 Inkolo Lihlelwe ………………… .. ……………… .. ……………………… .. … (37-39)
  • 2.4 Izinkolo Abrahama ……………………………………………………. ……… .. (40-41)
  • 2.5 Imibhalo Abrahama ………………………………………………………………… .. (42-45)
  • 2.6 Ukuziphatha okubi futhi aliziphikisi ematheksthini zenkolo …………………………. (46-53)
  • 2.7 I “Inkinga ububi” ………………………………………………………… .. …… (54-55)
  • 2.8 Ukuzalwa nokuthuthukisa isayensi nenkolo sika umphumela walo progress………………………………..…………………………………………….……(56-58)
  • 2.9 Zokholo kanye nesayensi emva Ephakathi ……. …………………… (59-63)
  • 2.10 Ithonya lenkolo emlandweni wamuva phambi kolwazi lwesayensi ………………………………………………………………………….…….(64-66)
  • 2.11 inkolo, ubulili, kanye nokuhlukunyezwa ……………………………………………………. … (67-71)
  • 2.12 lwati lwesayensi futhi umphumela wawo ukusabalala kwamandla …………… (72-73)
  • 2.13 kwabamhlophe ukuzobusa zasendulo futhi eya imperialism yanamuhla …. …… (74-79)

Incenye ezintathu: Ukuzalwa bezinkampani zesimanje futhi Ukukhula ukungalingani kwezomnotho

  • 3.1 Izinkampani kanye imperialism ……………………………………………………………… (80-81)
  • 3.2 Ukuvelela abaphathi ezinkampani kanye bebhange eMelika……………… (82-85)
  • 3.3 kuthathwa kombuso Corporate kanye nokubhujiswa esigaba sabasebenzi eMelika……………………………………………………………………………………..(86-89)
  • 3.4 Kwembulunga Yonke kanye Indima izinkampani………………. ……. ………………. (90-91)
  • 3.5 The abacebe of the rich ………………………………………………………… .. (92-93)
  • 3.6 The exchange stock: ikhasino rigged ………………………………………… (94-97).
  • 3.7 The abampofu futhi impilo yabo ……………………. …………. … (98-102)

Incenye ezine: Ukuthuthukiswa Senkulumo-ze, izindaba media okukhulu, ukukhangisa kanye yako ungubani

  • 4.1 asathuthuka ze futhi sondla ukuthenga…………………… (103-105)
  • 4.2 nokwasungulwa ucingo nethelevishini, umthelela wabo on amasiko, kanye nokuthuthukiswa counterculture eMelika ………………… .. (106-107)
  • 4.3 ngaphezulu ukushintsha kwamasiko………………………………………………………. … (108-109)
  • 4.4 Izindaba media ukucwaninga kanye biases, ukukhangisa, futhi inthanethi….……………………………………………………………..(110-112)
  • 4.5 abezindaba ukuxhaphaza , ukuhloba, futhi ilungelo lobunikazi yokuphila ……. ……… (113-116)

Incenye ezinhlanu: The abakhethayo izidakamizwa impi, ukuboshwa kanye esibhedlela abaphoqelelwe: more Indlela ezintathu control kwezenhlalo nezomnotho

  • 5.1 gentrification……………………………………………………………………(117-119)
  • 5.2 Isizathu sangempela ukuze abakhethayo ukwenqatshelwa of izidakamizwa………… (120-125)
  • 5.3 Izidakamizwa nobuphekula…………………………………. …………………. …… (126-130)
  • 5.4 Ukuhlaziya wamanje, opium ezingemthetho kanye cocaine ezimakethe …………… (131-136)
  • 5.5 Ukuhlaziya nokuqonda kwezomthetho opium emakethe kanye ketshezi abahlukunyezwayo Emhlabeni …………… .. ………………… .. …………………………. …… (137-141)
  • 5.6 Umlando Omfushane the ukwenqatshelwa of insangu e-United States ………….……………………………………………………………………………….(142-150)
  • 5.7 insangu futhi ukusebenza kwawo njengendlela umuthi ………………………………….. (151-154)
  • 5.8 Ibe Ngokomthetho Izidakamizwa Ngendlela Abavuthiwe …………………………………… (155-160)
  • 5.9 ukubuyekezwa Ukuvuselelwa Izinhlelo “njengensimu Izinyathelo Twelve” ………… (161-164)
  • 5.10 The inzuzo yezomnotho ukuboshwa……………. ………………………………… (165-167)
  • 5.11 Imiphumela ezenhlalo of Emajele nokuthi singaba kanjani ukushintsha nabo ………….……………………………………………………………………….(168-171)
  • 5.12 The yengqondo Imboni yezempilo kanye Ukuzibophezela abaphoqelelwe .. ……… .. (172-174)
  • 5.13 Umzamo Rosenhan … .. ………………………………………………. (175-177)
  • 5.14 Imithi zengqondo Kanye kuka-imithi……………………………. (178-180)
  • 5.15 Rethinking evamile, “Ukungaphili engqondweni”, Nobungqabavu ngokwengqondo …………. ……. (181-185)
  • 5.16 ngemibuzo umahluko phakathi Amafomu Okwamukelekayo futhi Ingamukeleki Kobudlova …… .. …………… .. ……………………………………… .. …………… (186-187)
  • 5.17 Lo wezokuVikela Ukungaphili engqondweni futhi Ukwakha Alternative obugebengu zokuzivikela ………………………………………………………………………………(188-194)
  • 5.18 Ukucindezeleka okuguquguqukayo, engeza, ukusangana, kwasebuntwaneni wezifo zengqondo kanye Antipsychotics …………………………………………………………………………….(195-200)
  • 5.19 Rethinking iziyaluyalu engqondo, izifo ubuchopho kanye nobuhlobo babo nezifo somzimba……………………………………………………………………… (201-206)
  • 5.20 Ubugebengu, Ziyisijeziso kanye namaphoyisa nenkohlakalo ……………………………… (207-208)
  • 5.21 Izimpi ezinkulu …………………………………………………………………………. (209)

(Ingxenye Six: Izimpi global for capitalism kanye corporations, kanti ekulweni ‘ubu Khomanisi ”

  • 6.1 Ubunikazi ohlanganyelwe, intando yeningi kanye eqondile Marxism ……………… (210-212)
  • 6.2 Umlando Omfushane Sokusebenzela futhi kungani wazihlaziya ngu Imperial amandla ………………….……………………………………………………………..(213-215)
  • 6.3 The Soviet Union ……………………………………. ……………………. …… (216-219)
  • 6.4 Impi Korean ………………………………………………………………… (220-221)
  • 6.5 Impi Vietnam……………………………………………………… .. ……… (222-224)
  • 6.6 I CIA nokuzinikela walo kuya izinkampani……………………………… .. (225-228)
  • 6.7 JFK kanye CIA ……………………………………………………… .. ………. (229-241)
  • 6.8 izimpi Amafutha ……………………………………………………………………. …… .. (242-245)
  • 6.9 Le ndaba Iran-contra ………………………………………………………… (246-249)
  • 6.10 ePersian Gulf empi kanye nezimpi okulandelayo Afghanistan and Iraq ……………………………………………………………………………………..(250-253)
  • 6.11 Ohulumeni, impi, ukubulala kanye namazinga double …………… .. …… .. (254-256)
  • 6.12 The azimele of Impi ……………………………………………. ……… (257-258)

Ingxenye ziyisikhombisa: ukwakha Iziphetho

  • 7.1 Inkinga eyisiSekelo kanye Isidingo uhlaziye Ukuziphatha ………. (259-263)
  • 7.2 Yini Engenziwa? ……………………………… .. ……. …………………… .. (264-268)
  • 7.3 Yini Ukukwenza …………………………………………………. …………… .. (269-280)
  • 7.4 amazwi okugcina ……………………………………………………… .. ……………. (281-282)
  • Uhlu esifushane izinhlangano zosizo, amasevisi free kanye nemithombo…………………… .. (283-286)
  • citations……………………………………………..………………………..………(287-290)

A inothi iDemo kuze umfundi mayelana umsuka sale ncwadi:

Lapho ngineminyaka iseyingane, ngase wayehlale kakhulu ukhathazwa ngemibuzo big mayelana nokuphila ukuthi akekho ngangazi babekwazi ukuphendula. Imibuzo mayelana nencazelo yokuphila, injongo yethu nokufa ohlale engqondweni yami ngokushesha nje Ngatshelwa ngabo, kodwa akekho omunye yobudala sami babebonakala njengoba ukhathazwa kubo njengoba kwenza Mina ngangingeke ukubona ukuthi kungani. Ngabona kangaka enganakiwe ukuhlupheka, ingxabano nokufa emhlabeni futhi ngazibuza ukuthi kungani uNkulunkulu (ngubani ngafundiswa ukukholelwa nowayekhona okuthiwa ungumninimandla) kwakuyoba ake konke lokhu kwenzeke futhi asinike isiqondiso kancane kangaka.

Ngakhulela ukuba abe enkolo ngafundiswa ngenkolo yami kwadingeka eziningi izimpendulo ukuthi Ngafuna. Ngaqale abawamukela futhi wenza konke okusemandleni ukuze abe umuntu omuhle zenkolo ngenxa Ngatshelwa kwakudingeka abe umuntu zokuziphatha avunyelwe ukufinyelela a (omuhle) kwelizayo. Kodwa ngakhulela sasivumela ngizithola abophiko iSonto kanye nesikole yayo. Iningi reverends at Church kwami ​​kwakubonakala like zokuziphatha, abantu abanezisusa owanakekela abanye, kodwa abakwazanga ukuphendula imibuzo enganginayo. Lapho ngibuza, abakwazanga ukungitshela ukuthi kungani uNkulunkulu wayeyothi abantu abaningi kangaka ake abafa nsuku zonke ngenxa yendlala, ukuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni, izifo kanye nempi nobe unginike ubufakazi bangempela ukuthi laba bantu zihlale phakade. Kunalokho, babeyothola hlabelela amazwana ajwayelekile efanayo mayelana nokuziphatha, uNkulunkulu nokukhulekela ezintshumayelweni zabo, futhi izingoma choir ukuba kuhambisane kubo ngokuvamile nje wenza ngingakhululeki. Ivolumu yabo kanye pitch bekufanele kube eziyizingelosi, kodwa lapho kwakukhona enjalo nezindaba sína kwenzekani, ngaba nomuzwa wokuthi kwase eziyinqaba. Ngazibuza, kungani kungafanele umculo ezibonisa ngalezi zindaba? Kungani kufanele senze ngale Isikhala elihle ngenxa yokuba enhle? Kungani ungenzi kuyini ngaphandle ngathi enhle?

Kusukela izikhonzi zami abazange babe izimpendulo, ngaqala ukutadisha ngenkolo yami nabanye ukuze babone ukuthi babenabo izimpendulo. Yini nesithakazelo kimi kunazo mayelana izinkolo kwaba umzamo wabo ukuphendula imibuzo ezazingenakubalwa iphendulwe isayensi. Kwabonakala izinkolo ukuze ugcwalise izikhala, futhi ngaqaphela ababenakho imiphumela ezinkulu on izimiso zokuhle emhlabeni wonke. Kodwa njengoba ngazifunda kakhulu, ngathola ukuphikisana ngaphezulu. Ngatshelwa iBhayibheli liyincwadi izindaba mayelana nezimiso zokuziphatha. Kodwa iTestamente Elidala Imbalwa kakhulu izindima sothando esivela kuNkulunkulu. Ezingxenyeni eziningi, uNkulunkulu ethatha isinyathelo njengohlaka bengenandaba, umphindiseli angry for “izono” zesintu. (Sicela ufunde lonke Old Testament uma abavumelani nalokhu.) Ngabona nokuthi iBhayibheli alivumelani okuningi ngalokho isayensi isitshela ngomlando wethu, futhi ngathola nje njengoba abaningi, uma kungenjalo ngaphezulu, unenzondo, yinqaba netindzaba enobudlova kunokuba abanothando futhi sekufakwe ones. Abasekeli abaningi kanye namakholwa eBhayibhelini abawazi la izindaba ngoba bonke kubo baye ngempela ukulifunda. Ngicabanga ukuthi kungenxa yokuthi kunzima kakhulu ukufunda.

Ngabuye ngibona Abashisekeli benkolo lase babangele udlame emhlabeni wonke. Ngabona abapristi obekufanele babe amathe kuNkulunkulu ezindabeni for ekunukubezweni amahlazo, futhi ngabona ngokuhlukana kanye nemingcele adalwe abantu abane enamandla, izinkolelo zenkolo engafani ukuba ziwavimbela okade nabanye. Inkolo kungase futhi ukuxhuma nabantu, kodwa enhlanganweni mass of pathos zenkolo akusho ngaso sonke isikhathi ukukhiqiza umphumela okuwukuthi omuhle. Abantu ababa bayahlangana ukuze nenkolo njalo ukubutha ngenxa nomunye, futhi lapho umehluko nqwamana futhi anqobe ubunye owadalwa, ingxabano ngokuvamile umphumela.

Ngemuva kokuba bahudulelwa Church ngamaSonto, ngingathanda ahlale kuleli, sakhiwo namadili imigodi bayazibuza mayelana ubuzenzisi konke. Nakuba izingane babelamba futhi befa, sihleli a Church izigidi elibiza futhi ngayiphi? Angizange ngiqonde ukuthi kungani kwadingeka ukuza kule sakhiwo ezithile njalo ngeSonto ukuba abe mumuntu zokuziphatha. Ngangibona ukukwenza isevisi kanye wokuzithandela msebenzi ofanayo iSonto wakwenza ngaphandle nokuya noma ngisho ekubeni izinkolelo zenkolo.

Inkolo ayizange kubonakale impendulo evela lapho ngase ngihlezi. It nje babebonakala isiphazamiso noma uchungechunge izimpendulo lula zemibuzo eyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu. Inkolo ukhonza njengelungu indlela sesiqongweni ngalokho ayaziwa, futhi ngase besebenzisa njengento iningi ukukwenza. Ngangingafuni ukukholelwa ekuphileni kwami ​​noma izimpilo zalabo I wayebanakekela babekwazi kuphele kanjalo kweso futhi phakade. Kodwa ekugcineni ngayeka ukuya Church, lukhulu becasukile kamama kakhulu inkolo, ngoba ngangazi kwakuyisikhathi ithemba bamanga. Akuzange kokuthola kwangisondeza lutho.

Ngabhalela ngenkolo ukuze azame ukwenza umqondo walo, futhi ngazama ukuvumelanisa ezicini ezinhle izinkolo ngikwazi ukubona ne izingxenye ibonakala ngokulinganayo negative futhi eziphikisanayo, kodwa ngangingakwazi ukukwenza. Ayikho nkolo kwadingeka yimuphi of izimpendulo zemibuzo enganginayo zokuziphatha, futhi ngabona izinkolo eziningi ukwenza ingozi ngaphezu okuhle ngokunikeza abantu ithemba yamanga ngubani nje wayefuna izimpendulo efana ngangenza. Ngakho ngawayeka ncwadi yami ngenkolo futhi ngaqala ukufunda okwengeziwe isayensi, indlela zesayensi nokunye okuye kwatholwa isayensi emlandweni wethu.

Ngaba ezithile izimpendulo yayiyobizwa kakhulu simile isayensi, futhi ngangifuna ukufunda mayelana zonke ethile yomlando kusukela Big Bang kuze samanje. Ngafunda ukuthi i-Universe ezisencane savela futhi ekugcineni kwakhiwa izinkanyezi, zonozungezilanga, uMhlaba nokuphila. Ngabuye ngafundela i-kwemvelo kokuphila Emhlabeni kusuka isiqu salo nxazonke 3,85 billion eminyakeni edlule kube lamanje. Ngafundela kwemvelo, ukuthuthukiswa kolimi, amathuluzi kanye nomlando yenkolo.

Nocwaningo lwami on yonke, imithetho ngokomzimba, umlando uMhlaba, futhi ekuqaleni kuka nomlando wesintu wanginikeza nombono. Ngafunda ekuqaleni ekuphileni wokuthi kukhona ukungaguquguquki endaweni yonke, futhi indawo yonke ililalele imithetho efanayo kusukela cishe ngokushesha emva Big Bang ngu-billion 13,7 eminyakeni edlule. Lokhu kwenza ikusasa nkomoni. Kungakhathaliseki igalelo womuntu, emihle noma emibi, ayikho indlela elaziwayo ukuphula imithetho ngokomzimba. Lokhu kusho khona angeke kube umgcini jikelele of oda zokuziphatha. Kodwa lesi akusona isizathu ukhathazeke. It empeleni oqondile. Umkhathi kufanele baziphathe ku okungaguquki, izindlela netitfombe nobe ngenye siyobe njalo sesabe ukuthi indawo yonke ingase babe ngenhloso ezinonya kanye chaos babekwazi kunikezwe. Abanye abantu bahlala ukungaqiniseki ngoba bakholelwa uNkulunkulu noma umkhathi angase ajezise noma imindeni yabo. Abanye baze bakholwe UNkulunkulu uzoletha Apocalypse at esithile ngenxa imibhalo zenkolo ezenza lezi zibikezelo efana Encwadi YesAmbulo eTestamenteni Elisha kanye la ukukhathazeka ngokuvamile okhathaza kakhulu kulezi ngabanye.

Lapho ngithola ukuthi ukungalingani nokuhlupheka kungukuthi okubangelwa sodwa by amabutho angaphezu kwawemvelo, noma uNkulunkulu noma imithetho noma ngokomzimba, kodwa kunalokho ezime ngokuyinhloko izikhungo manmade, ngabona engangikudinga ukuze unciphise focus yami kulezi zikhungo. Ngalesi sikhathi, ngahlangana nabantu ezivela ezihlukahlukene izizinda owasiza ningazise ngalezi zimpikiswano, ezifana oprofesa, zokusebenza kwengqondo, abeluleki ejele, abezombangazwe, abaphikisi bombuso ezombusazwe, ababhali, kanye izingxenye olwisana labantu efana ngabanye abangenamakhaya nezidakamizwa abayimilutha. Engangikufunda konke lokhu wukuthi kukhona izikhungo ezine primary ukuba usibuse namuhla iningi. Bangabantu ohulumeni ezinkulu, lo lokuhlushwa yamandla zenkolo wemfundiso, massive izinkampani zamazwe ngamazwe, futhi mass zabezindaba. Lezi amabutho kanye kwemvelo sabo yilokho le ncwadi imayelana.

Kwangithatha iminyaka eyisikhombisa yocwaningo nokubhala ukuqedela le ncwadi, yesithathu yami. Kuye kwaba uhambo olude. Nakuba isimo izwe palpably okubi, inhloso yale ncwadi neze ukuba sicindezeleke kuwe. It kuphambene. Ababekushalazela kulezi zinkinga nje kwenza kubo sibi nakakhulu. Ngokutadisha la izikhungo sifunda indlela silungise kubo futhi kanjani enhlalakahleni yabantu kwansuku zonke kungathuthukiswa kalula kangaka. Ukwenza kanjalo kungaba kakhulu esikhuthazayo. Esigabeni esilandelayo bayofaka la amabutho ezine futhi kanjani baye ezimise esintwini. Lonke ncwadi kuyoba yinto yomlando lengakahleleki mayelana nentuthuko yabo kanye iziphetho izobe enikelwe njani bona zingaguquka kahle nenjabulo yabo bonke izinhlobo zokuphila nekhaya lethu planethi.

Okuyingxenye Eyodwa

Isingeniso:

1.1 Yini elawula nathi

Ukungalingani okuhambisana nezenhlalo zibonakala kakhulu namuhla. Bathi kusekhona ukweqisa eziphazamisayo futhi ngokuvamile ezindaweni ezifanayo. Beverly Hills, isibonelo, liyaziwa umcebo walo bourgeois, izindlu zikanokusho, kodwana nane nje ngamakhilomitha away kukhona elikhulu LA ghettos yaphahlazeka ubugebengu kanye isihluku samaphoyisa. Lezi izinhlobo Ukungalungi basuke ikakhulu isikhule yilokho ulawula us. Nakuba lezi zikhungo ziye kwadingeka inala nemiphumela emihle on emhlabeni, zingabantu ngokuyinhloko onesibopho ukuhwebelana kwembulunga ngesimo sawo esivelele kunazo.

Ukuhwebelana kwembulunga ukwelulwa ubudlelwano kwezenhlalo nezomnotho emhlabeni wonke. Izinhlelo yezokuxhumana, ezokuthutha kanye wezohwebo ziye isicaba emhlabeni futhi washesha le nqubo kakhulu. Uma ubudlelwano okuhambisana nezenhlalo base enwetshiwe emhlabeni wonke ngendlela wemfanelo kunazo, le kwakuzomelwe inzuzo enkulu. Ubudlelwano alinganayo obunokuthula emkhatsini bonke abantu babekwazi ziqiniswe. Borders nezilimi bekungeke kudingeke ukuba kube imingcele kuze exchange free kolwazi kanye nemibono. Kodwa lokhu akusho kwenzeke zonke izindawo ikakhulu ngenxa Izıhlabane ezimbalwa sobugovu abangasiqondi abantu. Ukuhwebelana kwembulunga yonke kuye ikakhulu iye eliqhutshwa isifiso sokunqoba kwezomnotho kanye control, okuyinto eye yabangela lezizimo alulingani.

Kubalulekile ukuphawula ukuthi akukho lutho abazalwa ezinonya mayelana ohulumeni, izinkolo, izinkampani noma abezindaba zindaba. Zingathola izici emihle, kodwa izinkinga eziphawulekayo kunazo nalezi zikhungo ngukuthi baye baba kanzulu futhi, onamandla lelikhulu, nesiqondiso sabo is ikakhulu kunqunywa ngamaqembu amancane emikhaya acebile, onamandla, (futhi ngokuvamile bigoted) kanye ngabanye. Laba bantu bebulala ezicini ezinhle kunazo kulezi zikhungo efana onesibindi izintatheli eliphikisa, lesichubekako, izishoshovu zezombusazwe, osombusazwe qotho, futhi izimfundiso ezingokwenkolo ekhuthaza kahle bonke. Abantu abanamandla kunabo futhi ecebile abafuni ukulingana okuhambisana nezenhlalo ngoba zenza imali yabo kusuka nabulungisa.

Njengezinye izikhungo ukuba usibuse, amandla benkolo baba global kanye. UbuKristu nobuSulumane baye basakaza cishe wonke izwe emhlabeni futhi 84% zezwe nenkolo ngo-2010 ngokuvumelana isihlalo sasesontweni Forum on Religion & Public Life. Labantu yenkolo ikhule kangaka ngenxa yokuthi inkolo ngenkani kithi. Inkolo ingaba yinduduzo kwabaningi, kodwa izwe ibuye akhungethwe yizimpi ngalo. Inkolo zihlukanisa nabantu nge ezahlukene, nezinkolelo aphethwe ngokujulile, futhi siyimbangela evamile zempi. Abashisekeli benkolo namanje ushayela nokuqothulwa kohlanga kuze kube namuhla, ikakhulukazi Central, Eastern, no Northern Afrika naseMpumalanga Ephakathi. Ngeshwa, lapho abanye izithunywa zevangeli enkolo abanezinhloso ezinhle ezitholwa ezindaweni ezinjalo ukusiza, ngokuvamile bagcina babangele izingxabano ngokunikeza Izakhamuzi inkolo ukuncika, okubenza babe usophe for lukhuni futhi lokhu kungase kubhebhezele Abashisekeli zangaphakathi. Zevangeli okunjalo ngokuvamile angazi ngomlando ngemuva ezithile imperialist of abomdabu futhi liye lasakazekela udlame omkhulu esikhathini esidlule njani. Lapho izinkolelo ezingcwele (ikakhulukazi mayelana ngemva kokufa) yilezi konke iqembu labantu babe ukulahlekelwa, ngokuvamile baba uthambekele kakhulu benze eyeqisayo, izindlela engenangqondo.

1.2 Ohulumeni

Kakhulu ezweni elilawulwa force, usongo force, ze noma inhlanganisela abathathu. Lawa Amathuluzi ngokuyinhloko ohulumeni. Uma ngabanye ayikwazi elawulwa ngenkani, indlela elula zokuzisebenzisa ngokuvamile ngokusebenzisa amagama, futhi ngokuvamile amazwi asikhohlise nobe ukugxilisa ukwesaba are the eziphumelela kakhulu. Imibono yethu ezime ngokuyinhloko abantu esingakaze siwabone futhi sitshelwa ukubamba izikhundla ukuthi bamelene izithakazelo zethu siqu collective best ukuze abacebile nabanamandla bayozuza. Ngokwesibonelo, sivame baxwayisa ngabathile usongo futhi ezinonya noma ezibhubhisayo, kangangokuthi siyokwenza ukusekela silwa it ngisho give up inkululeko yethu ukuba ‘anqobe’ lapho “usongo” eqinisweni azinakwa noma abangewona akukho kanye izinsongo zangempela ziyadalwa by kweyethu ezikhulayo amabutho nokushisekela impi. Sizophinde utshelwe ukuthi yentela ukusikeka for abacebile zinhle for ekilasini sabasebenzi ngenxa ‘nomphumela trickledown, “okuyinto lutho ngaphezu ze lombusi. (Kunalokho, of nje intela abacebile ukuze azuze abampofu, abaningi ukwethembana wokuthi zentela ukusikeka ngeke nigxilise superrich nge wokupha, ngakho ngeke iphe abampofu. Akukho kungaba ukuzikhohlisa kakhudlwana.)

Out of the amabutho ezine usibuse, ohulumeni bangase inemiphumela sobala kakhulu kubantu. Ukuze kubuse izindlela ukulawula. Ohulumeni kufanele ulawule ukukhiqiza kanye nabantu okuhle ovamile kodwa ohulumeni abaningi kakhulu ngokucacile ngeke. Cishe bonke ohulumeni liyakukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa force ukulawula abantu banendlela ekahle. Ohulumeni bheka force njengoba ithuluzi edingeka kakhulu. Kodwa amandla kuphela walungisiswa uma state ezihlanzekile futhi amandla kwesixazululo nezokugcina, okuvamise akunjalo. Ngokuvamile anobudlova inketho yokuqala futhi ethandwa kakhulu. Ohulumeni do pheze lutho angenze sobudlova nokunciphisa intando for ubugebengu nodlame, futhi kaningi benza ubugebengu enkulu kunazo zonke. Iningi basondele abasiphikisayo kanye nabagxeki yezenzo zabo maqondana kakhulu ngendlela izigebengu, okuyinto kudala imijikelezo engapheli sezinxushunxushu nobudlova.

Ngo-2013 kwakunabamemezeli futhi abantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingu eziyishumi ejele, futhi ngaphezu okwesihlanu savalelwa eMelika [i]. Iningi lethu abahlala emazweni “mahhala” abakholelwa ukuthi uhulumeni wethu nethonya malicious ngenxa ohulumeni asenze sikholelwe kudingeka ivikelwe kubantu nezinkinga (efana izigebengu nobumpofu) nohulumeni basize udale kakhulu. Ohulumeni iningi asize ukukhiqiza lezi zinkinga ngokudala nokugcina massive nengcebo iphutha ngokusebenzisa ukuxhashazwa amakilasi ukusebenza kanye nobugebengu kanje. Ngisho nalapho (ikakhulu ecebile) ohulumeni asungula amaphrojekthi kakhulu ngekwesimonhlalo ewusizo efana ukwakhiwa imitapo yolwazi, izikole noma ezibhedlela, awayenzi umsebenzi ngokomzimba. Abantu abavamile benze umsebenzi. Abantu ezivamile futhi ukulwa izimpi zabo futhi uthenge iningi imikhiqizo yazo. Kodwa enkulu ohulumeni omele nababusi babo musa ukumela abantu abavamile.

Iningi lethu liyakwazi avumelane singakhathali okudingeka imithetho ehlukahlukene emhlabeni ngoba usebenze kahle futhi ngikhona phakathi kwabo. Kodwa iningi labantu futhi bevumelana asimdingi izinhlobo imithetho esinawo ezabhalwa abantu ngamandla ayehlome kanzulu ukuze balondoloze amandla abo. Isiphithiphithi uye kuzihlanganisa iziyaluyalu, kodwa uhlelo Anarchic ingenye nje kuyo amandla angeke ezisetshenziswa wombuso, futhi uma senza ayeke ukuzama ukulwa ubudlova ngobudlova, chaos ngeke umphumela. Umphumela ungaba nokuthula emhlabeni wonke ukuba ezinye izinyathelo zithathiwe ukwehlisa intando for udlame.

Nakuba kungezona zonke abezombusazwe kukhona ezinonya, bonke ohulumeni ukulawula abantu ngezinga elithile ngezindlela okungadingekile ngokuyinhloko ukuze kuzuze bona futhi ithethelele izindlela benza kanjalo ze yabo. Ohulumeni zenza abantu bakholelwa zonke esinye imithetho yabo nje nokuthi izimpi yabo ihlale kuwufanele belwa ngisho ozithandayo. Babuye bazame ukusenza sikholelwe ukuthi abantu isihluthulelo emakhejini asalokhu abazalwa okubi njengalezo silwa aphesheya. Kodwa iningi lokhu kwenziwa ukuze nje sizuze ababusi bethu ngemibono kanye ngokwezimali.

The US uphinde ubelokhu esalwa eMpumalanga Ephakathi cishe isigamu leminyaka noma ngaphezulu ngenxa yobuningi amafutha abo izinqolobane kanye khona, inkolo ehlukile eliphawuleka. America namanje Inombolo eyodwa umbuso wezwe futhi usongo. Lena sasivumela kusobala uma nje sibheke ubungako wezempi US. UMnyango Wezokuphepha umqashi esikhulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, nokuba isosha waseMelika kuyinto umsebenzi ethandwa kakhulu kule planethi, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi abambalwa kangaka ukuzuza lutho kuwo. Ukuntuleka kwemisebenzi, ukungabi namakhaya, ukuzibulala, iziyaluyalu engqondo (PTSD, ukucindezeleka okukhulu, nokukhathazeka), kanye nokulimala ukukhubaza sonke ovamile kakhulu phakathi Veterans.

America futhi uye waba nomlando omude kanye ubugqila kanye nokucwasa, kanye nemithetho yethu kanye nasemajele ezibonisa ukuthi. Ezincane bakha ingxenye disproportionately enkulu yomphakathi ejele. Ngo-2008 oyedwa 36 omdala amadoda America bangenisa imigubho kwaba ngemuva imigoqo futhi oyedwa amadoda abamnyama ayisishiyagalolunye (abaneminyaka engu 20-34) waboshwa kanye. [Ii] Ngokusho Bureau of Justice Statistics, izinga yokwanda bevalelwe for african baseMelika of bobudala 2008 kwaba 3.161 per 100,000 kuyilapho isilinganiso omhlophe kuphela 487 per 100,000. Ezingu ukungafani lingama ngenxa nokucwasa emithethweni yethu, enkantolo izinhlelo, amaphoyisa kanye ejensi federal, ubuphofu ngofuzo emiphakathini kanye ezincane eziningi. Lezi ukungafani nawo ngenxa okulindelwe ngokungafanele abantu abaningi abanawo of ezincane. Yini ithengisa in kwabezindaba olujwalekile akuyona ngokuvamile indaba ukuphumelela mayelana kwisibalo owayesebenza kanzima ngendlela esemthethweni. Kunalokho, izindaba mayelana ezincane ukudayisa izidakamizwa, pimping nobe rapping ethengisa. Eya empumelelweni for anabambalwa senziwa ngenhloso emincane kakhulu.

“Izigebengu” kukhona imikhiqizo zomphakathi njengawo wonke omunye umuntu. Basuke okwenyanga ngu izindawo basuke wakhulela. OHulumeni kanye nezinye amabutho ukuba usibuse azithandi zichaze nabo ngendlela ngoba bafuna njalo ukulwa nabo kunokuba baqonde nabo. Kodwa nobugebengu okwandile akusoze ukuqeda ngaphandle ukulungisa izinkinga kwezenhlalo nezomnotho adalwe ohulumeni corporations.

Zokuvimbela banendlela ekahle kanye ekulondolozeni ubugebengu, ubudlova nempi uhlale kangcono kunokuba ngokusebenzisa amandla ukuze silwe nalezi zinkinga. Ubugebengu ingavinjelwa ngokunciphisa ububha, yithemba nokuhlupheka, okuyinto okudalwe izikhungo kakhulu efanayo uyakuthethelela usebenzisa ubudlova ukuboshwa mass njengendlela aqukethe ubugebengu. Yiqiniso, kuyohlale kukhona abanye ubugebengu, futhi iningi labantu bevumelana ngabanye kufanele ehlukanisiwe nomphakathi uma ngiziphatha futhi abazimisele ukushintsha, kodwa abantu iningi abawazi ngokuthi bambalwa kakhulu abantu abaya ejele ngenxa ubugebengu enobudlova. Abantu abaningi ejele America cishe kuwo wonke amazwe akhona ngamacala izidakamizwa. Ngo-2011 1.7 million aphume abantu abayizigidi 2.1 ejele baseMelika kwakukhona ngenxa yokuqiniseka izidakamizwa non-enobudlova. [Iii] Ejele, cishe wonke amacala, kwenza abantu abanobudlova kakhulu kangakanani. Uma kwakungekho udlame kangaka bubangelwa izikhungo enamandla, kakhulu bambalwa abantu ongafuna ezinobudlova.

Ohulumeni aphishekele izigebengu eziningi nokuyibona into lapho kungukuthi imali kulabo emandleni (kanye nezigebengu akuvamile akhokhe intela on ngemali kuluthola illicitly), abaningi kangaka zibanjwa wafaka emajele lapho baphoqwa ukuba basebenzele uhulumeni kanye izinkampani zayo for pennies ngehora. Kodwa jele liyindawo ukujeziswa, hhayi beziNguquko. Ohulumeni bathi inhloso sokuboshwa ukuvikela abantu, kodwa benza okuphambene ngokugcina iziboshwa emakhejini lapho kuphela babe more anti-social, uthukuthele futhi axhunyiwe nezinye izigebengu, okubangela iningi lazo ukuba babe izinsongo xaxa emphakathini lapho Bayakhululwa. Kanjalo okusezingeni ngokuyinhloko ngenxa yokuthi amajele musa ukusebenza Recidivism kuyinto. War ibuye ngokuvamile yokulawula ukuzizuzela ngokwezimali futhi ofanayo ngokwesaba amaqhinga asetshenziswa ukuletha ukwesekwa umphakathi ngoba. Abantu okudingeka uphoqelelwa ibe yokulwa kanye ukusetshenziswa kwemali, nokwesaba ngokuvamile ithuluzi zokufinyelela le. Kodwa akusikho nje ohulumeni ukugxilisa valo. Kuyinto corporations, okuyinto ukushayela futhi inzalo evela ukusetshenziswa okungaphezu kwalokho ohulumeni ukukwenza.

1.3 Izinkampani YeSizwe

Izinkampane ezinkulu kunethonya ukulawula nje okuningi okuhambisana nezenhlalo phezu kwethu njengabantu ohulumeni do, (uma kungenjalo ngaphezulu) kodwa amathuluzi abo primary zihlukile. Sizungezwe corporations. Ngaphandle kwalapho uhlala ezintabeni eSiberia, izikhangiso ezinkampani kungenzeka okunzima ukugwema. Akuyona yonke zinhlangano kukhona ezinonya, amathonya nokulawula, kodwa abanendlela enenzuzo kakhulu kodwa baba onenzuzo kangaka sihileleke ukuhweba ngokungafanele kunazo. Bayoba ukuthenga (noma zebe) izinto zokusetshenziswa kubantu ampofu kakhulu ukuba intengo ephansi kungenzeka, futhi ahwebe abasebenzi babo lemali okungenani of capital kungenzeka ngokukhandleka kwawo ukuze adale imikhiqizo ashibhe ukuwedlula emakethe. Lokhu kudala ukuba ngabodwa on amasevisi athile abalulekile kanye nemikhiqizo, okuyinto waphika labo abangakwazi ukukhokhela nabo ’emakethe free “ohlelweni lwethu.

Nokho, izinkampane ezinkulu musa nje into zilawule umphakathi ngalo imikhiqizo thina “okudingeka ‘ukuthenga. Banyathelisa imali futhi uboleka it kithi ngenxa yezinto angeke, futhi zikhokhisa ngokungenangqondo high interest rates on Ngaboleka imali, ukuze bakwazi asuse zonke izimpahla zethu kanye nathi ezizenzakalelayo. Baphinde adayise nathi imithi ukuthi ungakha neendakamizweni abulale nathi. Bathi uthengise us Ukudla okungenamsoco ukuthi ngokuyinhloko sokudliwa abampofu ngoba yizona ukudla eshibhe atholakalayo. Zenza ngihlehlise ugwayi notshwala (izimbangela ngobukhulu siyavikeleka zokufa) phezu kwethu lapho uhulumeni Ibopha nabantu for insangu ezikhulayo, umuthi eye wabulala akekho. Izinkampani ukwenza lokhu ngokuthi ugcwalise airwaves kanye nasemigwaqweni nge izikhangiso koda ukuba adale ufuna. Banquma ukuthi abantu bafuna futhi sesabe imiphumela hhayi enamaphiko lokho basuke ukuthengisa. Benza Abantu wokuthi asikufanelekeli ngaphandle idivaysi zamuva noma endlini enkulu kunazo zonke, futhi benza abantu besabe ophela up yedwa uma singazi ukuthenga umkhiqizo owodwa noma kwenye, futhi benza abantu value imikhiqizo phezu nomunye. Sitshelwa ukuthi ngandlela-thile yonke mkhiqizo “ebalulekile ‘ezimpilweni zethu ngenye ezingenalutho ngenxa singakhonzi kuthengiswa nje umkhiqizo; sivame kuthengiswa indlela yokuphila noma lonke ungubani, into sikwazi ukufihla ngemuva.

Ohulumeni kunazo yempucuko emlandweni njalo ngangizizwa unelungelo ngaphezu ababenakho, ngakho ababengaphansi kwemibuso yakwamanye amazwe ezweni elisha ukuthatha kwemithombo kanye ukuxhaphaza amasiko ukuba ayemancane yempucuko. Out kwemibuso lakhula imperialism yesimanje kanye kuyinto engemukelekile eliqhutshwa ohulumeni abanamandla kunabo futhi ekugcineni by amandla yezinkampani kanye. Izinkampani banamuhla bakwazile kabusha brand imperialism, ngakho bambalwa abantu bayaqaphela ukuthi imperialism yilokho is ukuphoqelelwa phezu kwabo. Othisha emlandweni emakilasini bavame ukukhuluma mayelana mibuso mlando yeNgilandi, eFrance, China, Japan, iU.S. njalonjalo, kodwa zisekhona futhi ayathuthuka. Asenawo kakhulu kwezomnotho nakwezempi namandla kakhulu, okuyinto bona basebenzisa ukuzuza kakhudlwana efanayo.

The British East India Company wayengomunye izinkampane yokuqala zanamuhla YeSizwe owabeka isisekelo wezinkampane yangaleso. Ngekhulu le-17, The East India Company wayeba elinye igatsha uhulumeni waseBrithani. Kwathatha phezu ohulumeni yezizwe namabutho ayo ukuxhaphaza kwabakhileyo zabo, futhi ekugcineni lokhu kwaphumela Bengal Yindlala 1770 ukuthi wabulala amaNdiya ayizigidi eziyishumi. Le nkampani futhi bathengisa (angokoqobo) amathani opium eChina, ngisho nangemva yezwe wenza izidakamizwa ngokungemthetho. Lokhu kwadala umlutha okwandile China. Izinkampani ezinkulu namuhla siphathwe izimiso ezifanayo. Benza imali ukusizakala kwabantu abampofu kanye bazizwa bona banelungelo emalini kakhulu ngendlela bangakwazi kungenzeka wenze ngaphandle kokunikeza emuva ubani has engaphansi. Lona misanthropic. Ezinye izinkampane ngamanye ukwenza imali ecishe okuningi njengoba wonke amazwekazi. Ngokwesibonelo, inzuzo Walmart BakaJehova ngo-2010 kwaba $ 421 billion, mkhulu ukwedlula GDP ngabanye of amazwe ngokomthetho mayelana 165. . Ngu-27 nje kuphela yamazwe acebile saba GDP mkhulu kuka 2010 ezingenayo Walmart, futhi Walmart wenza iningi lokhu mali ngokuxhaphaza abasebenzi babo abaholelwa kancane Chinese futhi American.

Angikholelwa ukuphishekela yenzuzo akulungile. Kodwa izindlela ngokokuziphatha ayinamali izikhungo ezithile ezinkulu kanye nabantu hamba ngokuphishekela inzuzo kuyinto ngomqondo ovulekile okungalungile kakhulu. Izinkampani sonkana futhi bebé onamandla ngaphezu kohulumeni iningi, nabezombusazwe okungaphezulu ngokuvamile enza lokho izinkampani bafuna bakwenze, ubone lokho umphakathi jikelele ufuna, okuyinto eye abe nenkinga esinzulu.

1.4 Izindaba media enkulu

Njengoba kushiwo, ohulumeni corporations basebenzisa nabezindaba njengoba ithuluzi lokusebenzisa ngobuhlakani nabantu ngemifanekiso yabo, izinkulumo, inkulumo-ze kanye nezinye abezindaba. Mainstream media conglomerates ukwenza lutho ngaphandle ukugxilisa ukwesaba ze basakaza. Ngokukhululekile pundits ezombusazwe Partisan ukugxilisa kakhulu lokhu kwesaba kodwa ngisho olujwalekile wezindaba Castors abazama ukuba inhloso basaqhubeka kakhulu ehlaselwe izithakazelo ezinkampani nezombusazwe. Nje idlanzana izinkampane ezinkulu ungumnikazi wayebukele kunazo iziteshi zindaba emhlabeni futhi amanga kubabukeli nsuku zonke. Viacom ungumnikazi CBS, ngaphambili eyayaziwa Colombia Broadcasting System. Disney ungumnikazi ABC, American Broadcasting Company. General Electric ungumnikazi NBC (National Broadcasting Company) kanye News Corporation owns Fox News. Ngisho Iziteshi Izindaba zendawo kungokwakho izinkampane ezinkulu efana Belo, Gannett, Media General, futhi Post-Newsweek eziteshini. Lezi conglomerates giant yenza izigidigidi zamaRandi ngokuthengisa kithi ‘amanga big “njengoba Josef Goebbels akubeka.

Ubudlelwane Lezi zinhlangano abezindaba kumele kosopolitiki kanye nezinye imithombo kahulumeni ngokuvamile abalulekile futhi ngezinye izikhathi kakhulu unhidden. Ngokwesibonelo, umphathi-dolobha New York, uMichael Bloomberg, (elibiza $ 27 billion) owns Bloomberg LP, i sezizwe ezihlukahlukene mass media corporation, okubandakanya Bloomberg News, Bloomberg Television, WBBR esiteshini somsakazo, no Bloomberg Terminal, ikhompyutha ukuphela subscription service enikezela e-ukujula, nelungelo imininingwane stock ngokuyinhloko amafemu ezinkulu ngokwezimali. Ubuye lo NYPD. On November 29 2011 yena waqhoshela Mit ngesikhathi inkhulumo: “enginakho ibutho lami siqu e-NYPD, okuyinto ibutho yesikhombisa enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni.” Le ibutho liye cishe udale amaphoyisa-state eNew York kanye namaphoyisa nenkohlakalo kukhona kudlangile.

Abezindaba mass kunethonya olucashile kubantu kunokuba kohulumeni ngoba akawasebenzisi amandla ukuze alawule abantu, kodwa amazwi ngokuvamile anamandla kakhudlwana. Ngisho ngaphandle ngokusebenzisa amandla, abezindaba has igazi ezandleni zayo. Naphezu kokuba ikhono bayeke zonya mass ngokugqugquzela ukuqwashisa ngabo, abezindaba mass ngokuvamile uyakugwema zokubika izindaba ezinjalo, ikakhulukazi uma implicate Uhulumeni yabo siqu. Ukubhuqwa exhasiwe US-of abangenacala e-East Timor ngo-1991 iyisibonelo. Eziningi eziyinhloko US Izindaba Izitolo akuzange ukubika it. Eziningi zezimpi ezibulalayo kunazo kungukuthi umbiko. Kodwa ukuhlaselwa the World Trade Center nePentagon on September 11 (okuyinto wabulala 3000 abantu) baye bathola ukuqashelwa ezindabeni cishe kunanoma yimuphi omunye attack ebuhlungu emlandweni. Umbiko phezu kwabo kanye mpendulo ngokuyinhloko kwakungenxa isetshenziselwe kuvunwe ngamabhomu e Afghanistan and Iraq.

Okuningi lokubika on the imizamo iMpi Yomshoshaphansi abangu baphotha bezimo on zombili izinhlangothi zempi futhi lokhu ungesinye isibonelo I sizoxoxa ngale encwadini. Namuhla, sizwa ngamasosha US abaye bafa ezimpini eMpumalanga Ephakathi cishe nsuku kusuka US Izindaba kwabezindaba conglomerates, kodwa thina kuyaqabukela uzwa emakhulwini ezinkulungwane izakhamuzi (nokubala) abaye kwabulawa esifundeni by ezempi US kanye izinkontileka ezempi.

Abezindaba mass bebonke akafuni ukubika noma yiluphi izinkinga zezenhlalakahle ukuthi kukhona polarizing kakhulu, ezicindezelayo noma ukuthi implicate uhulumeni wabo funa bayolahlekelwa abaxhasi zabo noma ukusekela ohulumeni. Izintatheli okuphenya ngokuvamile uthole imininingwane yabo kusukela ezikhulwini zikahulumeni abayoba madolonzima ukuba aqhubeke ezinika ulwazi newsworthy uma baphotha esivuna kahulumeni. Ke, ngezinye izikhathi ukuzwa kabanzi mayelana ezimpilweni social of osopolitiki kuka izinqubomgomo zabo ngoba lokhu yilokho uthengisa ngokuphepha, futhi iningi lethu bona US ukhetho nje rigged, udumo nemincintiswano.

Kwendlala yamanje eMpumalanga Afrika cishe ungalokothi wakhuluma on ezinkulu iziteshi izindaba e America noma kwamanye amazwe ezicebile, kanti izigidi ezingaphezu angase afe ngenxa yalokho. (The kohlanga kwamuva e-Congo ukuthi wabulala ayizigidi ezinhlanu bafika wahamba kancane kwekhava US noma ukungenelela, ngaphandle kusukela izintatheli ikakhulu abazimele.) Izibhicongo efana iziphepho akuvamile ukuthola ukunakwa emhlabeni wonke, ngaphandle uma kunjalo kakhulu nobe zihilela izwe ezicebile noma zakhiwe eduze eyodwa. Mainstream Izindaba izintatheli ngokuvamile kuvele ukopha izinhliziyo lapho lokhu kwenzeke, kodwa lokhu kuvame ukwenziwa ukuheha utshalomali ngokomzwelo nesikhathi ngoba lokhu uhumusha zibe izilinganiso kangcono futhi imali eningi abanikazi izinkampani Broadcasting. Ngokuvamile, uma kukhona inhlekelele kungcono ukuba bahlale kuwo futhi phakade Bakhumbule isipiliyoni ngoba kwenza kube nzima ngokwengeziwe ukuba siqhubekele phambili.

Imithombo yabezindaba likapondo like America ngokuvamile kuphazamisa ngabanye abavela izindaba ezithinta umthelela omkhulu kunabo kwezenhlalo. Izindaba ngokuyinhloko kugcina abantu abanandaba emazweni acebe ngenxa izinkampani iningi nabezombusazwe abafuni izakhamuzi acebile ukuba ephikisayo ngoba babe nezinto kuthinta ukungalingani. Zikhona ezehlukile izihlakaniphi kuyo abezindaba Yiqiniso, kodwa akuvamile futhi ngokuvamile esingaphansi ethandwa ngoba cha sizibeke basuke by bezinkampani ezinkulu.

Lezi iziphazamiso abezindaba zikhona ngoba kukhona isidingo ngabo. Izinhlelo eziningi zethelevishini, izingoma, amabhayisikobho kanye nezinye izinhlobo abezindaba nabo baye benza abantu sesisanganiswa ngokuphila udumo nokuphishekela ingcebo. Benza abaningi bethu bakholelwa ukuthi singakwazi babe abacebile nabadumile nje sisebenza kanzima ngokwanele, okuyinto eyenza us sisebenze kanzima emisebenzini yethu abanelisanga kwangasiza. Umgomo ukugcina us nokujaha iphupho bengakaze yokuwufinyelela. Lokhu kwenziwa ngu njalo ngokwandisa ukuncintisana kanye ngenkani ukukhiqiza, usebenzisa abantu eziyimidlwembe kakhulu kuzuzwe izindleko ezijulileyo zabasebenzi nokwakha kwakonakele kule nqubo, engakuthola ifilimu, ukukhiqiza kabusha kanye twist ngezindlela angathanda.

Ngisho nalapho umsebenzi onzima ezivela kubantu abavamile usuthela futhi bayakwazi ukufezekisa sikhalo mass ngokusebenzisa talent noma ulwazi lwabo, bavame bexhashazwa ezizimele ukuzuza labo kakade okuningi of capital. Abafundi bengabahlakaniphe kunabo bonke, isibonelo, bavame kakhulu wasizakala ulwazi lwabo kanye nemibono by izinkampane ezinkulu futhi washiya bempofu. Kodwa abafundi kungaba akhande le nkinga ngokwenza wayesizana futhi lisakazeka nolwazi ngokukhululekile futhi ngentando yeningi.

Kakhulu ngokwezimali ngempumelelo wezindaba media emazweni ampofu ngokuvamile yakha yokwesaba noma ngaphezulu futhi demonizes amaqembu athile abantu (ngokuvamile ezincane) unapologetically ukuchaza ukuthi kungani kukhona ukungalingani okukhulu nokuhlupheka. Lokhu kuvame ukwenziwa ukuze sivuselelane isinyathelo, kunokuba ngabandayo. Izifunda abampofu ngokuvamile ukufinyelela kangako emfundweni, ngakho-ke lokhu kungavimbela nabo ngokwazi uma kokuba amanga ukuze, futhi lezi zakhiwo namandla ngokunenzuzo leso. Kukhona iziphazamiso engaphansi obungenangqondo emazweni ampofu ngoba abantu kuvamile kubo abanalo imali kubo, nababusi babo ikakhulu bafuna kubo ukukhiqiza, esikhundleni kokuphazamiseka.

Umcebo Extreme kuyaqabukela umkhiqizo womsebenzi onzima, kodwa kunalokho of yezinzuzo ngefa. (Cishe akukho billionaires ngempela “self-ezenziwe.”) Lokhu kuyiqiniso ikakhulukazi emazweni ukuthi babe namathuba noma esingaphansi kuka America nobe akekho nhlobo. Too Abantu abaningi bafuna kube osaziwayo likapondo efana America ngakho yokusakaza bese bekhanyisa ngazo zonke izindlela ukuthi ubuchwepheshe ivumela ukuba benze kanjalo kuze lutho ekuphileni kwabo iyimfihlo kusaba, futhi lutho kubhekwa banal too ukwabelana. Abaningi Too abawazi izinkinga zomhlaba-kabanzi ngenxa yalokhu, futhi lokhu kwenza abanye bachithe okwengeziwe omakhalekhukhwini futhi wenze-up kunabo benze emizamweni yokuvimbela kohlanga nendlala. (BaseMelika yachitha billion $ 52 on izilwane ngo-2012 [iv] Kodwa aid angaphandle Afrika kusekude ukuthi lemali.) Nokho, uma abantu iningi zazenziwe uyazi nalezi zinhlekelele yobuntu, babengeke cishe bazizwa bephoqelekile ukuba silungise kubo futhi benze lokho abangakwenza ukuze basize ngoba abantu iningi bafuna ukwenza okulungile. Large zabezindaba ukuthi kufanele sihlale unolwazi mayelana konke lezi zimpikiswano (kodwa ungapheli) ikakhulukazi ezinemininingwane ukusola.

Kukhona izinhlelo Amazing zethelevishini, amabhayisikobho, pundits ezombusazwe, futhi enokwethenjelwa iziteshi zindaba esinokwethenjelwa cishe embulungeni yonke. Kodwa jikelele kukhona le nethonya omningi ezinkampani nezombusazwe on the media, kanti lokhu obhekene izinkinga zalo yembulunga yonke. Abezindaba kabanzi kusatshalaliswa kunazo kufanele abe kakhulu ngekwesimonhlalo ewusizo, ezemfundo noma uwusizo kwezinye izikhundla. Kodwa lokhu akulona neze iqiniso. Kunalokho, lokho kusatshalaliswa kakhulu okwamanje konke ngithengise kalula kakhulu.

Ohulumeni of abacebile, amazwe “yabantu ‘kudingeka bawakhohlise senkululeko kanye akhiqize imibono ethandwayo. Kodwa emazweni ampofu ukubuswa unapologetic bomashiqela Amakhosi nobe oligarchs, le illusion wenkululeko akudingeki zikhona ukuze alondoloze umcebo wabo. Force lisetshenziswa okungaphezulu ngokuvamile ngenxa yokuthi izakhamuzi khona kuphela kubhekwe usizo kuhulumeni njengoba zomculo zokukhiqiza noma ezimpini. Ngabanye emhlabeni wonke kuphela kubhekwe ukuba asisebenzise ohulumeni kanye izinkampane njengoba abakhiqizi, abathengi noma amasosha futhi ngezikhathi ezithile abavoti, (yize ukhetho kungaba njalo rigged). Ke, abezindaba ezicashile ze livame kakhudlwana abavame ukusetshenziswa njengendlela ithuluzi emazweni acebile. Njengoba izwe-odumile umlobi, uprofesa nongqondongqondo, Noam Chomsky, wathi “Propaganda iwukuba wentando yeningi lokho udlame iwukuba kobushiqela.”

1.5 Inkolo: Wesine iningi unique Iyakuthonya

Ababusi kunayo ohulumeni, izinkampani, abezindaba Izitolo nezinkolo kubangele iningi ukuhlupheka okukhona emhlabeni. Bahlale obhekene iningi ubumpofu, izinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene engenayo-futhi ababulawa izimpi. Cishe wonke umuntu emhlabeni ehlaselwe la amabutho ngandlela thile, kodwa abantu abaningi sisole la amabutho for izimo ukungalingani ezisezweni ngoba baphumelela kangaka at ukuxhaphaza abantu. Abaningi kithi kunalokho ukusola noma bafune usizo kuNkulunkulu noma ezinye amabutho angaphezu kwawemvelo.

Ohulumeni nabaholi benkolo ukutshela abantu ukuthi kunesizathu esihle sokuthi nabanye behlupheka, futhi iningi noma bakholelwa lokhu noma ahlale engazi zonke kobukhulu yokuhlupheka ezisezweni, kodwa thina (abantu ezivamile) babe ikhono ukuvimbela lokhu kuhlupheka futhi ngikholwa sinawo isibopho zokuziphatha ukwenza kanjalo. The ngabanye bani ohulumeni ukusenza ukwesaba uzonde kakhulu (efana abantu silwa ezimpini kanye abantu bopha) ngokuvamile ngeke okuningi kuhluke kithi. Iningi labantu silwa babekhona nje ngeshwa ngokwanele ukuba azalelwe endaweni unokuthile esinye Uhulumeni ufuna. Abantu abaningi ejele nazo azihlukile kakhulu kunalokho labo abalalela umthetho noma. Abantu benecala the ezishaqisayo kunazo ubugebengu, enobudlova zidinga uhlukaniswe emphakathini, kodwa iningi labantu nje babe “izigebengu” ngoba bayitholile okuningi lweshwa ezimpilweni zabo, okuyinto wabenza zifune Izinyathelo Eziphuthumayo, njengoba nathi sonke ukube abeke ezimweni zabo. Kodwa ngenxa yokuthi abaningi kithi ofuna bakholelwa kabi ukuthi abantu ababuzwa undeservedly, abaningi bakholelwa ohulumeni nezinye amabutho abazishaya abalungile lapho basitshela bonke ukuhlupheka. Siphinde sonke nobuhlungu bethu uqobo kanye ekhomba iqembu labantu njengoba imbangela sole kuyinto okulula out ukuthi singazuza zababusi.

Iningi lethu abajwayele ukucabangela lokho okwenza umuntu aphule umthetho bese engozini nokuboshwa, futhi yini eyenza umuntu ‘okubi. “Abaningi kithi baye ezijulile izinkolelo ngalezi imibono ukuthi bavela nakho kwethu siqu. Kodwa njengoba nje abantu abenza wazibona njengoba okubi bayajeziswa, abaningi bethu ungazizwa isidingo bangabaze izinkolelo zethu. Abantu abaningi abenza okungalungile musa ngamabomu ukwenza kanjalo ngaphandle ukucasulwa. Izindawo zethu kuvusa izimpendulo eziyingozi kutenhlalakahle. Ngezinye izikhathi, uchungechunge lwezenzakalo ngeshwa kuyinto konke kudinga ukuba uguqule ukuziphatha kanye nemininingwane yabantu ngabanye. Ephelelwe ithemba kuholela Izinyathelo Eziphuthumayo, kodwa abanonya ikakhulukazi abashushisi, abahluleli kanye amaphoyisa alimkhathalele ezimbi zethu. Abaningi kwemithetho yethu zidalwe nje ngenxa ukuhaha noma ukucwasa.

Evil Ngini ngokuvamile wadala kunalokho wabhubhisa lapho abantu ababoshiwe kanye namazwe ayokulwa. Abantu abahle bangaba okunonya futhi enobudlova uma ungena yezinyoni nobe zibona emndenini wabo Kushone empini. Kodwa iningi lethu bathi okuvela kuyo izenzakalo ezimbi ukuba i igunya enkulu nakakhulu efana yonke noma Nkulunkulu. Uma umuntu ehlushwa noma ajeziswe, abaningi bathambekele ukukholelwa kunesizathu ngoba.

Sivame satshelwa ukunakekela ngabantu abenza ngezindlela emphakathini noma ngokwesiko engamukeleki ngoba abaningi bethu abaqondi ukuthi kungani abantu bayakujabulela la izenzo. Kodwa akekho umuntu ozalwa misanthropic nobe zosizo. Intando ukwenza ‘okubi “noma kabi akuyona esivela kunoma ubani. Lapho kuxoxwa for The Corporation, Noam Chomsky wathi “ngamunye wethu ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile kungaba esikhonzini gas egumbini kanye saint.” Okulungile nokungalungile, okuhle nokubi, futhi ungubani kukhona imiqondo Nayenza futhi ngubani siba ngezinye izikhathi kube kakhulu okuningi out of control yethu ngenxa izindawo zethu kanye DNA yethu esingasoze ukukhetha.

Abantu ngokuvamile baphathwe futhi wabuka kusekelwe benza kanjani, bheka futhi bamele ngokwabo kuyilapho ezinye zezici eziphawulekayo (efana wenza lokho kubo ngaleyo ndlela) anesizotha indiva. Identity liyinkimbinkimbi futhi uketshezi. Akekho bangakhetha ukubukeka kwabo ngqo Yiqiniso, kodwa ungubani is hhayi akhethwe ngokuphelele noma. Lezi amabutho ezinonya emikhulu emsebenzini ukuthi ingabe usibuse ukuze kuzuze bona noma ngenxa ubandlululo zabo siqu kungaba nzima ukubona ukwedlula amathonya kungavamile ukuba ingozi okwengeziwe ungubani. Uma ngaphezulu kithi owayazi indlela la amabutho engemihle kusithinte, siyobe Cishe le esingaphansi uzwela of abashikashikana ntu basolwa ngokuba le nkinga. Lezi amabutho ukuba usibuse ngokuvamile adale amaqembu abantu ukuba ubahlulela iningi ngokhahlo futhi beqonda njengoba zokuziphatha okubi, indolent nobe okubi.

Abantu, bebonke, abajwayele ucabangele esintwini sisonke yokuthi sitshelwa ukuba. Abantu abaningi obakhathalelayo abangane babo, umndeni kanye nabanye abambalwa ngenxa yokuthi laba bantu ziye kwaba nethonya elihle ekuphileni kwabo. Kodwa le uthando hhayi ngokuvamile enwetshiwe emhlabeni jikelele. Singabantu bonke abantu abafanelwe amalungelo afanayo kanye nje abantu abambalwa yokuzinikela baye bakwazi ukuqaphela lokhu ngokusebenzisa sikhathi. Nokho, zikhona izizathu eziningana ubandlululo kanye nokunganaki basaqhubeka ezivame kangaka. Okokuqala, i-Internet neminye amadivaysi ukuthi sikwazi ukukhulumisana global ziye nje iye muva nje yasungulwa futhi abantu sebeqala nje ukubona futhi bafunde emhlabeni wonkana, kanjalo abanye nje awazi ukuthi okwandile ukuhlupheka nokucindezelwa sikhona. Okwesibili, abaningi bazi ukuthi yini kwathonya abangani nomndeni lwabo ebuhleni nasebubini, kanjalo bayakwazi ukubheka emuva ngamaphutha abo futhi sibaxolele. Kodwa kunzima ukwenza lokhu wonke umuntu eMhlabeni, ikakhulu lapho sinikwa kuphazamiseke ezihlukaniswe nababusi bethu ngokwezimali. Ngakho-ke, kulula generalize hhayi unendaba esithile nomuntu esikude, uhlanga, lenkolo, noma izwe. Lokhu kuyinkinga enkulu ngoba uma iningi labantu kuphela qhutshwa ukuba kahle ithonye nalabo phakathi kwamaqembu abo siqu senhlalo noma ngisho kungakapheli kwemingcele yabo siqu, khona-ke ukungalingani okukhulu nokuhlupheka okukhona emhlabeni kuzoqhubeka uphikelele lapho ayinayo kuya.

Njengoba kushiwo, cishe 84% wezwe enkolo cishe wonke umuntu okholwa oluthile ‘yokucabanga imilingo’, lokuyintfo becabanga nobe izinkolelo ezingekho kwesayensi, ikakhulukazi eziphathelene causality. Abantu abaningi bakholelwa kwenzekani kubo kwenzeka ngesizathu (lokhu isibonelo ‘ukucabanga imilingo “) ngoba kunzima kakhulu ukukholelwa ngenye. Abantu abaningi bakholelwa konke okwenzekayo kuyingxenye ‘plan kaNkulunkulu’ ngisho abaningi bengasonti bathanda ukuthi kukhona abanye esoteric, umgcini universal of oda zokuziphatha. Uma izinto zingenzeki njalo ngenxa yezizathu okunenjongo, abanye ke yesabe singabantwana nje at isihe kwabanye abantu (kanye namabutho ukuba usibuse ngempela), kanye ikusasa of ubunikazi ethu ngokuyinhloko aphume ezandleni zethu. Abantu abaningi abafuni ukukholelwa lokhu ngoba singazi ukwethemba wodwa. Iningi abafuna ukukukholelwa kukhona amandla athile ephakeme ngaphandle lapho lokho uyabakhathalela ngabo, futhi thina ngokukhethekile okudingeka ukukholelwa kunesizathu okunenjongo ukuhlupheka kukhona ngenxa uma engekho, ayikho isiqinisekiso siyophela. Emhlabeni nje libukeka chaos ngokuphelele ngaphandle ukuqonda isayensi noma inkolelo kuNkulunkulu ekulawuleni konke, futhi lokhu kuyinto ebuhlungu kakhulu kubantu abaningi ukwamukela. Ngakho-ke, abantu abaningi bakholelwa kuNkulunkulu.

Abantu abaningi noma babe waqiniseka ukuthi bonke abantu abangamkhonzi behlupheka ebafanele noma bayishaya indiva laba bantu futhi sigxile ekuphileni kwabo siqu. Kodwa singakwenza kanjani sithandazele thina kuyilapho izingane thandazela ukudla, amanzi, nokuthula musa ukuthole? Abanye abantu bakuthola kunzima omncane abakholwayo Abantu ababuzwa ngaphandle ngesizathu esihle ngenxa nje baye bahlupheka ngenxa yezizathu okunenjongo noma baye lokungenani zazikhohlisa abanakho. Kodwa kufanele bona indiva bonke abantu abaye bakhuthazelela ukuhlupheka okungaka ongenangqondo. Ngenxa yokuthi isifiso ukukholelwa ukuthi izinto zenzeka ngenxa yezizathu zaphezulu sinamandla kangaka, yebo abantu ababa ngokungadingekile bahlupheke le ngokuvamile iningi basakholelwa kunesizathu sokuba yobuhlungu babo. Futhi amabutho ukuthi empeleni ngibangele ukuhlupheka iningi ukujulisa lesi kahle ukuze angabonwa njengezitha zethu.

Abantu abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi isimo sabo ekuphileni (okuhle noma okubi) kuyintando kaNkulunkulu noma indawo yonke. Uma basuke bayahlupheka, bayohlala bathi omunye kulaba nezinhlangano sizama ukubafundisa isifundo nobe kangcono nabo ngandlela thile. Kodwa izimbangela eqiniso enkulu yokuhlupheka ukulawula lokho futhi phatha us akuzona angaphezu kwemvelo, noma esoteric. Ziyakwazi manmade, futhi kuba la amabutho ukuba babe bantfu kangaka uyaqiniseka ngempumelelo ukuthi angaphezu kwemvelo imbangela ups zabo nezinkinga ngisho ngubani siba njengabantu. Lezi Amabutho nazo bathethelele abakwenzayo ngokuthi UNkulunkulu wabo ngasohlangothini lwabo; bona bathi izinhlekelele zemvelo noma amaphutha inhlekelele ezibulala kukhona izenzo zikaNkulunkulu. (Ngokulandela Iningi service [TOS] izivumelwano izinkampane ezinkulu enza abantu asayine futhi abavikele nabo ngokomthetho emacaleni ‘izenzo zikaNkulunkulu. “) Futhi abaphathi ezinkampani cela abantu ukuba bathandaze Gods zabo lapho ayengathola kalula ixazulule izinkinga basuke ukudala.

Zonke lezi amabutho ukuba usibuse axhunyiwe. Bashukunyiswa the izinhloso ezifanayo futhi ngezinye izikhathi efanayo. Basebenzisa eziningi izindlela ezifanayo ukulawula abantu futhi bonke benze ukulawula abantu lula nomunye. Kodwa inkolo, amandla wesine ukulawula, kuyinto nethonya elilawulayo unique kakhulu futhi omunye onamandla kakhulu ngoba ngokuvamile sithinta ababusi ophethe okuningi njengoba enza uquqaba yakhipha. Abanye abaholi benkolo ukulawula futhi balolonge izingqondo zabantu ngezindlela negative, kodwa hhayi ngaso sonke isikhathi ngenxa yezizathu zobugovu ngenxa yokuthi abaningi abaziboni umonakalo abakwenzayo, futhi eqinisweni, bakholelwa basiza.

Like abaphathi zenkampani nabezombusazwe, abaholi benkolo kanye izikhulumi basebenzisa ukwesaba ukuphoqa okukhulu. Abantu benziwe ukwesaba uNkulunkulu, futhi nemiphumela angikholelwa konke Book Holy inkolo yabo espouses. Force iye yasetshenziswa ngokomlando lukhulu by amaqembu enkolo, futhi inkolo namanje imbangela yezimpi eziningi kanye nokuhlasela omkhulu. Cishe zonke mbuso enobudlova emlandweni saba benkolo ephezulu ukuthi kwakusetshenziswa kuthethelelwe ukunqotshwa yasebukhosini kanye nodlame. Kwesizwe, iNkantolo Yamacala Ezihlubuki, i Taiping Ukuvukela, lo amathathu Years War, Zokholo, izimpi French benkolo, kwabathakathi izangoma, lwamanje ngamabhomu ukuzibulala Iraq, ukuqothulwa kohlanga Christopher Columbus of baseMelika kanye izimpi eziningi walwa kuka-Israyeli baxoshwa by Abashisekeli benkolo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izimpi eziningi ezazingabelwe kuphela ukushukunyiswa ngenkolo abangu ezilwiwa ngabantu ababa wokuthi babenzani iziqondiso zikaNkulunkulu, okuyinto akumangalisi ucabangela imibhalo iningi zenkolo bathi ukubulala kanye nempi ngaphansi kwezimo ilungelo iyamukeleka. Ngabanye iningi abesabayo kakhudlwana kaNkulunkulu kunalokho abayikho izitha zabo noma ohulumeni babo, ngakho uma nosopolitiki abefundisi ungakwazi ubabonisa bazojeziswa nguNkulunkulu wabo uma ungakwenzi lokho afuna bakwenze, ngezinye izikhathi kungaba ukuyilawula ngokuphelele.

Lapho inani labantu abaphethwe undeservedly futhi abakwazi ukushintsha lokhu noma ngokwabo ngendlela ephawulekayo iyabhekwa, isiphetho libukeka mqondo iwubuphukuphuku. Sonke siyazi hhayi konke lokhu kwenzeka yinhle nobe ewusizo. Izenzakalo zenzeka ngenxa esandulele izenzakalo futhi izenzakalo zenzeka ngenxa imithetho lwezesayensi elawula indawo yonke. Okwamanje alikho ubufakazi besayensi esekela khona kukaNkulunkulu, futhi uma kukhona oyedwa, Nkulunkulu yayiyobizwa breaking imithetho ngokomzimba by ezithinta umkhathi nganoma iyiphi indlela. Kodwa izinkolo iningi indiva le qiniso, okuyinto esinye isizathu bangaba yingozi kangaka, futhi izinkolo kwenziwa yingozi nakakhulu ohulumeni ukuthi ukusebenzisa ngokunenzuzo ukuba alawule abantu.

Nakuba uhulumeni US kuthiwa ukugcina Church and state ahlukene (it oludingeka ukuchitshiyelwa lokuqala yomthethosisekelo) abanye osombusazwe baye namanje baphumelele ezidlulayo izinyathelo ezidinga abantwana bafundiswe izinkolelo-mbono zenkolo kunokuba abanhliziyo zesayensi. Lokhu kungesinye sezizathu iningi amaMelika namanje abakholwa endalweni. Kwezinye izifunda zomhlaba, isimo nakakhulu nezikole babe ncwadi eyodwa nje futhi kuyinto eyodwa yenkolo.

Isayensi ongachaza ukuthi kungani nje mayelana konke kwenzeka ubufakazi obuqand, nokho abantu abaningi kangaka namanje babambelele izincazelo zabo angaphezu kwemvelo ngoba laba izikhungo anamandla nabantu ugijime kwabo kukhona kangaka emihle at ukuxhaphaza. Izincazelo zethu angaphezu kwemvelo (yenkolo hhayi) kungaba izinto ezizwelayo kakhulu. Bangakwazi babe izinkolelo uzokwenzenjani, okuyinto kuqinisekiswe ingxabano futhi ngokuphamazela, izinqumo engacabanganga. Indida wukuthi kobuchwepheshe besayensi sisetshenziswa futhi wasebenzisa nsuku ngaphandle umcabango wesibili abantu bathi abakholelwa kule eyisisekelo kunazo, izimiso zesayensi. Kodwa imithetho zesayensi akhona noma sikholelwa kuzo nobe cha.

Inkolo ungamandla endala nokunqanda. Kwakuthinta okokuqala wadala ukuphendula imibuzo sasingenazo izimpendulo lesifanele kuya. Imbangela yonke imicimbi okokuqala ashiwo amabutho angaphezu kwawemvelo ngenxa yokuthi kwakungekho okungaka nxazonke ukuthi sasingakwazi ukuchaza. Ekugcineni, izinkolelo Senziwa ngalezi amabutho angaphezu kwavamile yaba ezingcwele kanye nezindaba sathatha kakhulu mathupha, futhi abaningi babezimisele ukufa ukuze sivikele kubo, futhi abaningi benza ngenxa yezinkolelo zabo predictably siyangqubuzana. Ababusi yaseGibithe eMesophothamiya yasendulo babesebenzisa leli ukugxilisa ingqondo namandla abo. Abaningi ababusi lokuqala ohulumeni ababethi ukusondelana Gods nobe Gods ngokwabo futhi lokhu kwaba isizathu esiyinhloko esenza abantu wabalalela futhi uzivumele babuse. Kunjalo nanamuhla. Abanye abaholi ozishaya uNkulunkulu-like namtjhana omunye eduze noNkulunkulu ukuze ukulawula abanye. Izinkolo eziningi nohulumeni futhi nje bafunde ngenxa nomunye, futhi yingozi kakhulu lokho abakwenzayo.

Izinkampani nawo ngezinye izikhathi ukusebenzisa uNkulunkulu ukuba bathethelele abakwenzayo. Abanye shayela siqu amaphutha abo inhlekelele noma imithelela abhubhisayo lokuhaha kwabo ‘izenzo zikaNkulunkulu. “Esinye sezibonelo sína kakhulu ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke. Ekukhiqizweni kanye nokusebenzisa amakhemikhali anobuthi [1] futhi zokubasa ezimbiwa phansi unesibopho abangamakhulu ezinkulungwane, uma kungenjalo izigidi lokufa, futhi inkolo ivame ukushweleza nabantu ngalenkinga. Ezikhishwa izinjini of zokubasa ezimbiwa phansi (amalahle, ongahluziwe kanye negesi yemvelo) oxygenates izakhi eziningi kuzo, ukudala byproducts ezehlukene okufaka carbon dioxide. Isikhutha kuyinto element wemvelo umkhathi esisikhiphayo emva wonke umphefumulo, kodwa okweqile carbon dioxide izicupho ukufudumeza emkhathini, ukukhulisa okushisa global nekunciphisa namanzi esiqinile (ice) Emhlabeni. Uma siqhubeka ovuthayo ngalezi zokubasa ngamazinga wamanje noma esheshayo, izikhukhula emhlabeni wonke kanye nomunye yobudala ice kungaholela. Izikhukhula okwenzekayo kakade njengoba ezingeni olwandle kancane liphuma. Kodwa osopolitiki eziningi zenkolo abezindaba talking-amakhanda kubulale ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngeke abangele omunye uZamcolo ngoba uNkulunkulu wamemezela khona ngeke kube olunye ngesikhukhula global kuGenesise eBhayibhelini. Lezi izinhlobo zokubuyiselwa iwubuphukuphuku ukukholisa abanye, kodwa izikhukhula okwenzekayo kakade, futhi izinkulungwane Kuye dengwane futhi ebulawa ngalo kanye nezinye izinhlekelele zezemvelo okubangelwa umswakama ngokweqile umoya.

Izinhlekelele zemvelo babé ezivame kakhulu eminyakeni yamuva. Lezi izinhlekelele zemvelo do ukulimala okungaphezulu emazweni ampofu efana eHaiti, okuyinto yabhekana Ukuzamazama komhlaba ngo-2010 ukuthi abulala abantu abangu 380.000, ngoba abanalo izimali sokulungiselela ezimweni eziphuthumayo kanye nemali ukuze kabusha uma benza isiteleka. Izinkampani eziningi zokwakha nazo indiva amakhodi yokwakha edingekayo ukuze kuqiniswe izakhiwo futhi uvimbele nciphisa ukusindisa ngemali on izimpahla. Kwenhlekelele eHaiti, kanye nabanye abaningi ukuba ezibangwa noma kubhebhethekiswe ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke (efana iSiphepho uKatrina [2]) ngisho ukuhlasela kwamaphekula, ziye ngokuthi “yizenzo zikaNkulunkulu,” by yenkolo, kwesokudla-wing pundits ahlukahlukene ezombusazwe futhi abaholi corporate.

Steve Lafermine of Columbia AmaKristu for Life uthe iSiphepho uKatrina kwaba isijeziso ‘nokubekezelelana of isisu’ yezwe kusukela ekholelwa isithombe satellite of nhlekelele wabheka njengokhozi fetus kukhanseliwe. Esimisweni yobuKristu namanje athandwa TV, “The 700 Club,” uMfundisi Jerry Falwell wabiza ukuhlaselwa September 11 izenzo zikaNkulunkulu. Yena wathi: “Ngikholelwa ngempela amaqaba, kanye abortionists, kanye feminists, kanye namageyi kanye abathandana bodwa abazama ukwenza yokuphila enye, i ACLU, Abantu for the American Way, bonke abaye bazama secularize America . I ukhombe umunwe ebusweni babo bese ngithi, ‘nawe kwasiza lokhu. “Host we show futhi nowake sesikhathi Baptist, uPat Robertson, wavumelana naleli uxhumano iwubuphukuphuku.

Iqiniso Kuyishwa liwukuthi uma izikhungo ukuba usibuse kungukuthi wama nobe ngilunge, bangase ukusibhubhisa noma ngokuphelele ungcolisa Emhlabeni nobe ophaka impi yezwe. Uma bengakuqondi ukusibhubhisa bayoba Okungenani uqhubeke ukuwenza uvumelane ngokuphelele ungubani nokuthi kusho ukuthini ukuba babantu. Uma i negative iningi la amabutho kwadingeka indlela yabo, siyobe nje sibe abanye ngokungenangqondo, drones izakhamuzi zaseBosnia, ikhiqiza njalo, zidle futhi belwela kuzuze ezimbalwa ngenkathi njalo bethandazela ushintsho. Inhloso Kuyavunywa lokufuna isikhundla sale ncwadi ukusiza ukuvimbela lokhu.

Kule ncwadi, ngiyakwenza ukuhlola umlando la amabutho. Izinhlangano ukulawula kakhulu futhi enamandla, izindawo zabezindaba, futhi ejensi kahulumeni zisekelwe e-US, nokho America ibonwa njengoba izwe freest Emhlabeni abaningi ngenxa ze kwalezi zikhungo. Ke, le ncwadi sizogxila kakhulu phezu kwabo. Ngizobonisa kanjani futhi kungani ngikholelwa la izikhungo ephambili.

Isiphetho ncwadi ngeke tie zonke lezi zici ndawonye futhi uchaze ukuthi yini ngikholwa kuyinkinga eyisisekelo kunazo okubangela la amabutho ukuqhubeka ukuzizwa inelungelo ukulawula abantu. Lokhu kuzosisiza siqonde ukuthi yini esingakwenza ukuguqula la ezikhungweni, ukuze sikwazi ukubuye bathole ukulawula ubunikazi ethu futhi sithuthukise ukuphila kwethu ukuphila kwabanye emhlabeni wonke kule nqubo.

(okuyingxenye ezimbili)

Okuyingxenye ezimbili: Umlando Omfushane imali, uhulumeni, inkolo, kanye nesayensi nokuthi kungani savela

2.1 Umcabango imali, kahulumeni Nenkolo

Amashumi ezinkulungwane eminyaka edlule ngaphambi izikhungo ezinamandla kakhulu ukuba usibuse ithuthukiswe, abantu zase lula kakhulu. Ubunikazi zethu kwezinwele eziningi ezindleleni efanayo nezinye izilwane ngenxa besingenayo self-zokuqwashisa, futhi kwaba kancane kakhulu njengoba yalokho intuthuko yethu. Iningi izenzo zethu kanye nemicabango zazishukunyiswa umzwelo ongokwemvelo esingaphakathi kithi ukusinda, futhi izimpilo zethu ayihlanganisi okuningi ngaphezu iminako yethu yansuku ukuhlala ephila. Kodwa wagcina njengoba senza saba ngaphezulu uyazi thina izindawo zethu, saqala ukungabaza ubuhlobo bethu nabo futhi ubone ukusetshenziswa kunamathuba lezinto kanye nemithombo esasingakaze ngaphambilini walisebenzisa. Lokhu kwaba isisekelo ezobuchwepheshe. Siyazi cishe lapho lokhu kwenzeka ngenxa archeologists ziye yango amathuluzi okhokho bethu asishiyela.

Iningi eziphilayo phatha imvelo sabo ukuze basinde, kodwa kuphela ngezindlela basuke bangempela ehlelwe. Ithuluzi Ukusetshenziswa komuntu okuningi ezahlukene. Ushintsho in ukuqonda futhi zokucwaninga ukuthi wenza us uyakwazi ukubona izicelo multiple for izinsiza ebesingasisebenzisela siphathe ngayo nandaba kwavusa eningi iqhaza ubuchopho futhi bagcina kwaholela zonke izinhlobo technology. Iphinde wandisa umcabango zomuntu ubunikazi. Ngaphambi amathuluzi sokuqala ngqa yasungulwa, abantu abazange abathi ngumnikazi okuningi, ngaphandle kokudla. Kodwa nobuchwepheshe wasinika wasinika okungaphezulu ukuze bathi ubunikazi nokubaluleka bethu izinhlelo zashintsha njengoba isikhathi siqhubeka. The Ukusungulwa lwemali wenza kahle. Imali cishe ngokushesha amise uhlelo walondoloza ngamandla phakathi elinamandla kakade. Okubaluleke kakhulu, ezobuchwepheshe kanye nemali kakhulu kwashintsha lokho izinzuzo ezinikezwe ngabanye kwadingeka lula basinde yabo. Abantu baqala ukuzizwa ababenakho zinelungelo hoard imithombo yemvelo futhi ekugcineni le kwaphumela ukungalingani enkulu.

Amathuluzi Itshe endala itholakele imayelana million 2.5 ubudala, kodwa okhokho bethu kunazo cishe waqala ukusebenzisa izinto zangamalanga ezindaweni zabo like izinkuni ecishe million ezine edlule, ngakho ngaphambi Homo sapiens ephambili. Homo iyona uhlobo lwe womuntu kanye Homo habilis (muntu Ukugunda) kwaba kwezinhlobo lokuqala uhlobo lwe. Babesebenzisa amathuluzi ikakhulu for yokubola, esikhundleni wokuzingela.

Lapho imali okokuqala athuthukile, it akazange okokuqala ibe nemtselela letsite ungubani womuntu ngoba umsebenzi sasingeyona njengoba olunzulu njengoba manje nemali lalisetshenziselwa esingaphansi. Abantu abazange athembele isiphi hlobo omunye imali kuze izinhlobo ezingaphezu zanamuhla imali asethuthukile.

Ukubaluleka yezimbiwa kuyinto latikhetsela kakhulu, futhi lokhu kungenza nzima yokuhweba, yingakho nemali kuyasiza njengendlela thuluzi ukunikeza imikhiqizo value eziqondile. Nokho, ukusungulwa imali nazo lula amadoda middle kakhudlwana emkhatsini kwabahwebi, kanye abathengi kanye nabathengisi of zabasebenzi, kuphumele ukuxhaphaza xaxa nokuhlukaniswa emkhatsini amakilasi kwezomnotho.

Amafomu yokuqala yemali, okuyinto badalwa eminyakeni engaba ngu 100-000 edlule babengenalo value oluqinisekile ngoba zemvelo imithombo efana zasolwandle kanye ocher futhi okudingekayo akukho nokuwotawota ukuba abe value. Ngalesi sikhathi, noma yini kwaba eyivelakancane, okuphawulekayo ngokomoya noma kokubili ingasetshenziswa kutsengisa goods.Supply uphoqe ngokuvamile le eziguquguqukayo ngobukhulu ukuba anqume ukubaluleka imikhiqizo kanye services.Gold nesiliva kakhulu ezingavamile, okuyinto yini eyenza kubo kangaka bafuna valuable.We lokho akuvamile nokuthi yini asikwazi have.Gold nesiliva, kanye nezinye izinsimbi eziyigugu namatshe isaba aziswa kakhulu, kodwa value abo ayashintshashintsha kakhulu ngenxa ukuthengisela ukufuna kanye nokushintsha izinsimbi economies.Precious namatshe ziyehluka kusukela proto-ngemali ngoba kuthathe isikhathi eside ukuthuthukisa naturally.Proto-imali efana zasolwandle is wadala yonke time.If bonke izinsimbi eziyigugu ayatholakala futhi amatshe ambiwe ngesikhathi esisodwa, value abo kwakuzoba yehle, yingakho abanye ezweni kusala angaphazanyiswa isikhathi eside. (Izishoshovu nabantu bomdabu abafuna ukulondoloza ezweni nazo ziye wavikela izwe okuningi kusuka izimayini imishini.)

Imali kungenye nje yithuluzi basinde like amathuluzi yokuqala zamatshe of okhokho bethu bokuqala. The Ukusungulwa imali ebonisa self-ukwazi yethu. Imali isetshenziswa exchange ngezinto sinqume ukuba sibe value. Imali nakho kwenza abantu abangaphezu abasengozini. Lapho esiwazisa ngaphezulu, siba kakhudlwana ukulahlekelwa. Kukhona ngaphezulu ukuze asuse, futhi lokhu kubangela predictably ingxabano okuningi.

Abanye amathuluzi wenza ukuphila kwethu kube lula futhi bavumela abantu abuthaka lokusinda. Benza sibone kukhona okungcono ekuphileni kuka esikwenza nsuku zonke, ngoba lapho amathuluzi kwafinyelela izinga elithile yinkimbinkimbi, okusinda kwakungeyona ecishe esiningi of kuwumshikashika. Kodwa kwaphakama izinkinga lapho abantu baqala ukuxhaphaza inqwaba yabantu, amathuluzi kanye nezimali ukukhonza izithakazelo zabo siqu. Obhekwe wenkolo wanikela abaningi indlela ukuchaza umthombo wabo ‘ukuphakama abazalwa nawo. “The endzaweni yinye lokulawula imali, amathuluzi kanye nezwe nakho wenza ingxabano kanye nempi ekude cishe.

Le “Neolithic Revolution” kwenzeka lapho okhokho bethu baqala baqonde indlela izitshalo zizalana nendlela ikhule nabo kusuka inzalo. Ukuzingelwa nokubuthanela nendlela yokuphila yayiya ezivamile lapho Neolithic Revolution basakaza. Lokhu wakhuthaza abantu ukuba benze zokukhosela futhi ukwakha amapulazi ngakho babekwazi kuwo endaweni eyodwa unomphela noma isikhathi eside. It zakuqonda abantu baphile basondelana. Survival kwaba lula ngokumandla bebaningi (uma nje wonke umuntu wakwazi sebenzisana futhi ahlele angabacwasi). Kwaba nabantu abangaphezu cishe zaziphuma ndawonye ngesithakazelo ezivamile, kodwa ekugcineni kwaba khona ukuncintisana ezingaphezu kuka izinsiza. Ekugcineni lokuhlushwa kwamandla phakathi ngabanye nelungelo kwaphumela hierarchies okusemthethweni nohulumeni. Imali waba eziwusizo kakhulu ngoba ohulumeni abenziwe abantu abathembele kuwo ukusinda. Ingxabano phezu ezweni baba more yande njengoba ezweni aba sparser.

Abantu abanamandla kunabo wayefuna ukulawula ukusatshalaliswa ezweni ukwenza none eliqinisekile ‘izwe labo’ kwathiwa eyebiwe. Njengoba okhokho bethu baba ehleliwe kakhudlwana, imizana ezinkulu landiswa nobuchwepheshe baba eziyinkimbinkimbi ngokwengeziwe futhi eyinkimbinkimbi. Ohulumeni abangu wathi futhi kudingeke ukuqinisekisa kwakukhona oda kanye nokusimama. Ohulumeni Early yehlulekile ukusekela ukuhleleka nesithunzi womuntu. Abantu ngamandla, ngoba ingxenye enkulu weyengenandaba abantu bona lulawulwa. Zazingafuni bafuna izwe labo siqu noma imali eyebiwe, futhi wayefuna hoard ngaphezulu kokubili.

Imitsetfo Kwakuthiwa kudingeke emphakathini ngenxa yokuthi kwakungekho ngaphezulu ukuze bakwazise futhi asuse kodwa imithetho engashiwongo kanye nemitsetfo unofficial ubukhona zeminyaka. Kwakukhona ngekuvisisa nezimiso ezivamile kuhle ngaphambi ohulumeni, futhi isetshenziswa kangcono ngaphambi amandla eyodwa rose. La amandla babefuna lokho abantu kwadingeka futhi ngokumthanda kwabo ngoba wokuthi hola it, ngakho bathatha kubantu ngenkani futhi abaningi silungisiswe it ngokuba athi kade Gods noma okungenani eduze Gods. Abaholi bohulumeni basendulo baseGibithe cishe bonke ayethi ukuba exhunywe uNkulunkulu noma Gods abazazisayo womuntu-fomu. Izinkolo wayeba isisekelo sokuba ohulumeni abaningi ngenxa izinkolo emenza izinhlobo ezintsha hierarchies. Ngenxa yokuthi kwakungekho lomkhuba kangaka simbe ngesikhathi, kuyaqondakala ukuthi kungani senza u bakholelwa ezinye abantu neziphathimandla xaxa ofayo ababekwa exhunywe la amandla ezicatshangwayo.

Kuyilapho imiphakathi ukuba athuthukiswe ngokushesha emva Neolithic Revolution babekhona ikakhulu enokuthula, kwakungekho bagcina ngilwa for ezweni evundile. Isibonelo esiphawulekayo izwe lalilokhu alwa phezu kuyinto Oluvundile, isifunda eMpumalanga Ephakathi emise like a inhlendla, esihlanganisa baseLevant, eMesophothamiya Ancient, neGibhithe Ancient. Halaf isiko athuthukiswe khona ngo 5500 BC. Kwakukhona ukufinyelela ukulungele emanti kanye emhlabathini wawucebe umsoco, yingakho bekubonakala kangaka alwa kuka. EMesophothamiya uye linqotshiwe by namasiko amaningi ehlukene emlandweni walo, futhi inkolo iye yafeza indima eyinhloko iningi lalabo yokunqoba.

Ukuthuthukiswa kwezolimo kanye ohulumeni wadala Umqondo ezweni kobunikazi kwezomthetho. Kodwa ohulumeni yokuqala babefuna ngaphezu ezweni. Baphinde wayefuna abantu. Ohulumeni yokuqala cishe ngokushesha wasebenzisa izigqila. Amasiko amaningi yaseMesophothamiya wasebenzisa izigqila. I Code of uHammurabi, omunye imibhalo endala zomthetho itholakala ezindaweni eziningi eMesophothamiya, lisitshela ubugqila kakade waqanjwa ngesikhathi indalo yayo ngo-1772 BCE. Abantu ababeke wazonda izigqila runaway wayengase abulawe. Lezi mithetho okuthiwa ebhaliwe ngaphansi ukufundiswa of the Sun kaNkulunkulu. [V] The Code wabuye wamisa “Iso ngeso” uhlobo kwezijeziso kuwo iTestamente Elisha sibhekisela. Kodwa ukusetshenziswa ubugqila kunenkolo elotshiwe, ngakho akuyona ezithile lapho ubugqila kuqala waba ezivamile.

Ohulumeni iningi enkulu zasendulo nazo kwadingeka imithetho enonya ngokwedlulele futhi engenabulungisa ngaphezu ubugqila. Ancient eBhabhiloni, (lapho Ikhodi yadalwa) Ikakhulukazi, kwadingeka imithetho extreme kakhulu. Death kuyisijeziso ovamile ngamacala iningi eBhabhiloni. EGibhithe lasendulo, umzimba kwakuvamile okuningi. Egypt wabuye akazange bopha nobe begqilaza labo babekhona ezikweletini. Nokho, uma umuntu ephula umthetho ngokuvamile nomndeni wakhe wonke wajeziswa, (efana Sharia law namuhla). Uma othile weba isilwane eBhabhiloni futhi ayikwazanga alikhokhe, wayezobulawa. (Lokhu kwaba umthetho lesishiyagalombili.) Abesifazane zazibhekwa abalinganayo zomthetho ngomqondo wokuthi ngumnini impahla yabo siqu, ifayela isehlukaniso noma ifayela suit, kanjalo kwakungeyona njengoba misogynistic njengoba eminye imiphakathi kamuva, kodwa abesifazane babengavunyelwe baphathwe ngokulingana kuzo zonke ezimweni. [vi] kwakukhona futhi yeshekeli nje eyishumi (a unit elincane imali) isijeziso abatelekile owesifazane okhulelwe bese ibangela ukuzala ingane isifile. Uma owesifazane wafa kanye, indodakazi ndoda wayezobulawa.

Umphakathi wamaGreki wasendulo kwaba kutsenga lokwentiwa ubugqila. I Roman and imibuso nesiGreki babenenkululeko elilawulayo ngokweqile futhi kucindezela kwabesifazane (mhlawumbe ngaphezu babenjalo yaseMesophothamiya namasiko zaseGibithe). Abesifazane base ngokuyisisekelo baphathwe njengezigqila ngesikhathi lamaRoma futhi imibuso nesiGreki. Abesifazane kwadingeka ukumboza izici zawo emphakathini wamaGreki. Babengavunyelwe ukuba ocansini ngaphambi komshado, futhi base ngokuyisisekelo baphathwa njengoba impahla abayeni babo. Ngokusho Code of Law eRome of the Nambili Emathebula, isihloko esithi “VI. 2 Uma owesilisa nowesifazane bahlale ndawonye ngokuqhubekayo unyaka, babhekwa ashade; owesifazane ngokomthetho iphathwa njengoba indodakazi le ndoda. V. 1 “Okhokho bethu wabona kufanelekile ukuthi izinsikazi, ngenxa levity of sengqondo, basale sivikelwe, ngisho nalapho attained Iningi labo.” Le mithetho kusho lukhulu mayelana nendlela amadoda beqonda abesifazane. Amadoda ayazi ukuthi ucansi wazizwa omuhle kangaka benza kube kaningi ngangokunokwenzeka, bese amanye amadoda ayisekho wazizwa isidingo athole imvume yabo njengoba ezinye izilwane iningi ukuyenza emvelweni. Ukudlwengula, impoqo kanye imishado ngenkani baba kuvamile. Cishe ubudlelwano waba wayeyeya nezinjabulo ngokushesha kwaba okubaluleke ngaphezu okuhlala njalo, izinjabulo nokunenjongo.

Kancane kancane, ithonya ngokuhlanganyela kohulumeni ngamandla eyodwa kanye nezinkolo ezinkulu ehleliwe akuqede le ukuzimela izindawo iningi Emhlabeni. Ezindaweni eziningi, nabo olwathi ukucabanga creative kanye kwentuthuko yesayensi. Lapho imali namathuluzi zaqale yasungulwa nabo wenza kwemvelo futhi ‘nomthetho primal’ engaphansi efanele kubantu Ngokuyinhloko ngoba ukuphila yayiya bethembele zofuzo ezinhle futhi kuncike okwengeziwe lemali kwezinsiza, ulwazi kanye namathuluzi umuntu ngofuzo emindenini yabo noma imiphakathi . Ohulumeni wenza kwemvelo pheze ngokuphelele kungahlangani for ubani abaphila ngaphansi kwabo ngenxa yalokhu. Kakhulu kufanelekile bangempela abantu okusinda kwakungabantu nje ababengaphambi ifa lukhulu, kanjalo le setha kwemvelo on inkambo ohluke kakhulu.

Ekuqaleni inguquko Neolithic lapho reproduction plant okokuqala baqonda, uma umuntu kwaba ohlakaniphile, okusinda kwaba kungenzeka ngaphandle kokuba ayimiqemane nhlobo futhi lokhu kwaba nomthelela omuhle kakhulu esintwini ekuqaleni. Kodwa once ohulumeni aqala ukulawula umhlaba, ngabanye abakwazanga sikhule izitshalo kuphi ezikuthandayo. Umqondo komhlaba nobunikazi wezomthetho ngokushesha bamise uhlelo wenzela abampofu ukuhlala abampofu abacebile ukuhlala ocebile. Lokhu wagcina Abantu bevaleleke ububha, kanye ukudalwa ehlukile, izinhlelo abambisana yayiya okusebenzayo futhi enembile.

Kusukela ngemali isiqeshana esiphakathi ngokwayo ibe amasiko womuntu ezicebe engasekho okudingekayo ukwenza eziphawulekayo ezincwadini eziphilayo ngoba babekwazi okuguqula isimo sabo ukuze ivumelane kangcono zofuzo zawo kanye nezidingo. Izinzuzo Zemali ngofuzo Manje kuthinte ikhono lethu ukusinda ngaphezu ezincwadini ukuthi kwakuyoba uyothuthukisa uhlanga lwesintu nobe bakhicite abantu iningi. Lokhu kuyinkinga ngoba isenza ungakulungele ukubhekana nezwe ngaphandle system yokufakelwa sidale, futhi lezi izinhlelo ushiye abaningi dengwane.

Ngabanye akusadingeki bathembele imizimba yabo okuzingela noma embuthanweni uma imali. Imali anganikeza ukudla, amanzi, indawo yokukhosela, kwezempilo, ezezindlu kanye ngaphezulu. Uhla Izinto sithenge liye lenyuka ngokuphawulekayo nje. Akudingeki ukuba uvumelane ukuze basinde manje. Asazi noma kudingeka babe okunempilo nobe ezihlakaniphile. Thina nje badinga imali eningi. Kodwa lokhu kuye kwenza ubudlelwano bethu zero-sum zibalo, futhi lokhu gxila umcebo akuyona enempilo ukuze ubani. Imithombo kanye nokwaziswa ingangeni basakaza ngokulinganayo futhi angabacwasi, futhi sonke abathintekayo ngale.

Ukuthola umsebenzi omuhle futhi imali ngendlela esemthethweni, ngokuvamile kudingeka imfundo yasesikoleni, kodwa ngaphandle kwemali kamatikuletsheni kuyinqubo enzima. Ezemfundo kanye nolwazi oludingekayo ukuze basinde ibilokhu njengoba zokunethezeka ngokuyinhloko okunikelwe abacebile. Ezinye izindawo abampofu akudingeki ngisho izikole noma imisebenzi etholakalayo, futhi ngenxa yokuthi siye saba uncike ngemali kanye nohulumeni ukusinda, sesiye okungaphezulu nzima ukusinda kubantu abaningi.

Money njengenkulumo ithuluzi basinde by amaningi ngabanye acebile. Kuyinto nje luyithuluzi ukubukisa. Abantu abaningi musa khumbulani ukwenza imisebenzi ukuthi asidingi intelligence noma lokucabanga ngoba kulula olukhulu, kodwa nje babe lula, futhi namanje baphile Iholo-kuya-Iholo. Akukho lutho olubi ngalokhu, kodwa umphumela ekugcineni wukuthi abasebenzi enjalo basebenzisa ubuchopho babo kuncipha ngenxa uzama hhayi okuhlobene nomsebenzi, futhi ubuchopho bethu akufanele neze abe amathuluzi alula asetshenziswa kuphela nibale nobe ukuphinda imisebenzi ephansi. Uma lokhu kwenzeka ngeke ukwazi ukucabanga noma ngalokwakhako ngokuhlolisisa ukuze sibone futhi kulungiswe amaphutha emphakathini.

Sasingakwazi ukusebenzisa imisebenzi ephakeme ubuchopho bethu ‘ukwehlisa noma ukuqeda ukuthembela kwethu ohulumeni abakhohlakele bese usika-nasemphinjeni izimakethe isicebi. Sasikwazi ukuyisebenzisa ukusebenzisa thina wenzeni kusenza sijabule futhi eyashukumisela, kodwa abantu abaningi abakwazi ukukwenza noma. Lezi amabutho bafuna ukuba sigxile angashoni, highs okwesikhashana ngenxa yileyo indlela zidla izifiso zabo siqu ngenxa efanayo.

Ukube wonke umuntu kwadingeka ukufinyelela ngokwanele ukuthi kudingeka ukusinda, futhi nemiphakathi ngamanye esebenza ngokusebenzisa ngokubambisana, ukuhloniphana kanye nobudlelwano okuhambisana nezenhlalo alinganayo, kwakuyoba khona kungekho sizathu okunengqondo njalo sebe noma ubugebengu, bese kwakungeke isidingo ohulumeni okusemthethweni. Ohulumeni behluleka ukuqeda noma ngisho ukunciphisa intando for ubugebengu obungathi sína, futhi ngokuvamile iqhaza ukungalingani. Baphinde babe namandla ukuchaza ubugebengu, ngakho kokuba isikhumba amnyama noma gay ekubeni kungenziwa wenza ubugebengu uma ukhonza izintshisekelo zababusi. Omashiqela kwakukhona abaholi lokuqala ohulumeni, futhi omashiqela (ezinye esingalindelekile njengoba abanomusa) abuse nohulumeni iningi namuhla.

Iningi umsebenzi singaqali khokhela akuhlobene ngalutho nalokho sithola in ukubuya ngoba. Iningi lethu nomthelela emphakathini wethu ngokwenza izinto singabantwana umhlabeleli at bese wamukele imali ukubuya, okuyinto uthenga us imikhiqizo kanye namasevisi sasingakwazi ngenye nithole. Kodwa singakwenza lokhu ngaphandle ngemali ngokusebenzisa enana noma a lwemali ashukumisayo social. Imali akudingekile ukuqinisekisa abantu ezibuthakathaka, abasha, asebekhulile noma abakhubazekile usinde futhi akalokothi icinisekise wonke sala eside ngangokunokwenzeka. Njengoba kushiwo, izigidi zabantu die lokufa kalula siyavikeleka ngenxa destitution yabo.

Ohulumeni oyenzile ingozi ongalungiseki kithi. Yebo, sidinga imithetho kodwa kohulumeni kunawo izinhlobo zawo samanje ziyonakalisa futhi enezinkinga. Wonke umuntu kudingeka abe ngokuvumelana mayelana imithetho leyo ekhona emphakathini, (njengoba ku democracies ngqo) Nokho kunzima lokhu kungase kube ukuyifinyelela. Lokhu kungadinga imiphakathi ukuba babe ezincane, kodwa kakhudlwana isigqoko. Ukuthuthukiswa le mihlangano kwezikhungo ezenziwa ngokubambisana, yelinyenti, okungezona ezikahulumeni kanye inter-zikahulumeni nayo kubalulekile.

Abantu abaningi abasebenzayo kanye amaholo ehloniphekile kukhona sizethembe ngomqondo ngenxa yomsebenzi wabo ibanikeze nokokwembatha. Kodwa bathembele kubaqashi babo ukuhlinzeka lokho nemali kungenziwa umklomelo, kanye nohulumeni ngokunenzuzo le ukuthembela. Babona zabasebenzi njengendlela ngempahla kanye abantu bathenga futhi ithengiswe like yezimbiwa. Lokhu ngeshwa ngimbone njengento evamile abaningi.

Lapho ukusinda akunzima ngenxa yobuchwepheshe, amafa noma ukuthembela encekwini zabasebenzi (noma isigaba sabasebenzi an ngokuyisisekelo bayizigqila), ubudlelwano nabantu kungenziwa baba ezingabalulekile ezibalulekile, futhi acebile ngokuvamile baba engaphansi ushukumiseleka ukuba umzamo nokucabangela ibe khona kwabo siqu . Imali ezidabula Abantu zibe castes phambili, engafani kakhulu.

Ubudlelwane washintsha njengoba ukudlwengula aba kuvamile. Cishe Technology kwaba akalokothi okubaluleke kakhulu emadodeni kuka sex, kodwa lapho abantu baqala bethi nobunikazi phezu kwabantu, abesifazane babengamadodana ngokuvamile eyigugu kunazo walwa kuka. Kuyilapho ukudlwengula ngokuvamile imayelana egomela amandla noma okubusa, ukudlwengula kungenzeka zashintsha out of emikhulu eziyinqaba kanye okulindelwe esilisa nawesifazane, ezinye zazo ukudala yithemba. Lapho sex nonconsensual eba kuvamile, leli nomphumela wokwehla, nobuhlobo obunothando nokunenjongo. Uma abantu alahlekelwa ngokubaluleka kwabo, konke washiya lokuthola kuyinto ezibonakalayo, futhi baningi bakwazi bathethelele (okungenani ngokwabo) ukulawula nobe ekucindezeleni abantu abengeziwe ukuba bayithole. Abanye futhi bakholelwa ukuqakatheka ababusi babo sinikezwe ezivela kuNkulunkulu. Kodwa yini abazi bayaqaphela wukuthi izinzuzo abaholi bawo ‘ngofuzo musa abenze kubaluleke yimuphi ngaphezu ubani omunye, ngoba abantu kungaba ukulawula lokho izinzuzo enikwa basuke.

2.2 Ukuthuthukiswa komqondo yenkolo nokuziphatha

Ngoba ukuphila kwase kwenziwa lula kakhulu by amathuluzi, okhokho bethu ababenolwazi futhi zazinobuso nesikhathi esengeziwe sokuphishekela ezinye kumalungiselelo futhi angabaze eziza kanye nendima yabo entsha. Baqala ukufunda ngendlela izinqubo umvuzo wokuthi ukushayela ukuba sisinde kungenziwa ukusetshenziswa for self-ukwaneliseka. Imizwa ugqozi, injabulo ngisho nothando kungenziwa zishukunyiswa izitshalo ezahlukene ezithinta neurotransmission.

Izilwane, ngaphandle abantu, musa ngokuvamile benza izinqumo ukuzingela basinde; bona nje qhubeka ngoba isifiso ukusinda hhayi bahlupheke kuyinto hardwired. Kodwa lapho saba sikwazi ukuqaphela siyizidalwa futhi imibuzo, le sokucasuka imibono eminingi, abanye zenkolo, futhi abanye bagcina iholele ukuthuthukiswa izinkolo ezihleliwe.

Ngenxa yokuthi abantu babengase cabanga ngalokho okushiwo ukufa kanye nobudlelwano zase beba eziyinkimbinkimbi nokubaluleke, lokhu kwenza ngabanye nethonya kunamandla on nomunye. Ukufa kwabantu kwakufanele ikhono kube yinhlekelele noma ngaphezulu, ngakho wagcina saqala ukuzibuza ngokufa nokuthi yini noma cha kuba ukuphela khona. Ekugcineni, singase cabanga ukufa kwethu siqu futhi uzakhele umbono emhlabeni ngaphandle khona kwethu, futhi ukufa kwelungu lomndeni noma othandekayo Manje kwadingeka ikhono ukwenza abantu unmotivated bese ususa isazela sabo ukuze asinde. Le neurotransmitters ezisiza khuthaza abantu ababebhekene cishe kukhiqizwa engaphansi njengoba baba waminza out by eziyinkimbinkimbi, imizwelo inoveli nemicabango. Lena akusho kwenzeke nezinye izilwane. Lapho umndeni isilwane olukwazi kokuba imizwelo efa Yiqiniso, lokhu silwane uyozizwa sad, kodwa silwane ngeke azizwe kabi nobe bekhohliswa. Lena kuphela umuntu Isifanekiso womuntu, njengoba kuyinto ukuzibulala. (A ambalwa ezinye Primates ezehlukile).

Kusukela ingekho yisiphi ungamandla ebonakalayo ukuthi kungaba njalo ozoba elibhekele usizi siqu efana ukusabalala kokufa nezifo, okhokho bethu baqala ukuqokomisa ngokwabo phandle ongaphika ukuthi hola okwakwenzeka kubo ngoba abazange. Ngoba ngaphezulu imibono eyinkimbinkimbi zokuziphatha base asathuthuka, kwenza umuzwa wokuthi siyobe bazibuze ukuthi kungani izinto ezimbi zenzeka kuwo abantu abalungile, futhi lokhu kwashintsha waphinde umuzwa wethu ifanelwe. Saqala ukuzizwa (Kuyaqondakala) banelungelo baphile isikhathi eside, izimpilo kangcono futhi mhlawumbe ngeke bafe nhlobo.

Abantu futhi waqala ukuzibuza ukuthi kungani konke kwenzeka. Izincazelo adingekayo ukuze kwenziwe ukuze sikwazi sizizwe ukuthi kwakungekho oda zokuziphatha futhi angaziwa ezimbalwa kunathi ayecabanga kwakukhona. Lezi angaziwa yayihlanganisa zonke izinqubo ezingokomzimba sasikwazi ukubona ngoba isayensi sasingakafiki itholakele. Njengoba izingxoxo ngalezi angaziwa zaqala, abantu cishe waqala ukuzizwa ukhungathekile ngazo. Ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokufa, lo emva-ukuphila noma ukungabi eyodwa no (njengoba eshiwo) imizwa kokuba wone nobe bekhohliswa can sonke ziholela izenzo ezedlulele.

Lapho siqala ukuzibuza ebabuza causality (kungani izinto zenzeka), indlela kuphela okhokho bethu bokuqala babengeke ukuphendula le mibuzo kwakuwukuba bathi konke ibangwa ngamandla aphakeme ngezizathu zaphezulu. Kwakungu futhi namanje kulula, enembile, futhi elula ukukholelwa le kunalokho kuyinto ukukholelwa ukuthi indawo yonke ongaguquki futhi elawulwa ngemithetho eziyinkimbinkimbi zesayensi ukuba sasikwazi thola nge esifundweni okuningi. Bekholelwa i Amandla ezididayo ephakeme obangela zonke izenzakalo zokuphila ezenziwe ezingabalulekile nzima ngabantu abaningi. It wasinika ithemba lokuthi ngelinye ilanga siyobe kuyokhulunywa izimpendulo “imibuzo big,” ngakho akuzange kudingeke ukuba bawathole thina.

Siyazi cishe lapho abantu baqala ukuzibuza mayelana angaziwa ikakhulu ngenxa khona emhumeni Art. Cave Imidwebo eqoshwe lokho abantu akakwazanga ukuchaza, futhi cishe base kwaqubula ezicatshangwayo ngalezi tifundvo. Imibono zefilosofi nezenkolo ababe eziyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu ukuba ngokuhambisana babexhumana nobe kuxoxwa abangu kuboniswa kuqala by emhumeni Art, futhi cishe it catalyzed izinhlobo eziyinkimbinkimbi zokuxhumana kanye ngekukhula.

Cave art wasebenza njengendlela ukushiya irekhodi umlando wethu nokwenza uphawu engokoqobo. It wazwakalisa izifiso zethu, futhi kungenzeka sacabanga ukuthi imifanekiso zethu zaziyokwenzeka timphawu ngokoqobo sasingakwazi ukulawula nobe baqonde. (Ngokwesibonelo, abazingeli bangase babe izithombe Wayeyithathela of sibulewe ngomkhonto, izinyathi efile on emhumeni izindonga ngoba babecabanga le kungaholela kwabathakathi yimpumelelo kakhudlwana.) Lesi esinye isibonelo yokucabanga imilingo.

Siyazi uma abantu waqala ukucabanga ngokufa ngendlela yazo esabalele ngoba siyazi lapho abantu baqala kungcwatshwa ngamabomu efile yabo. Nokho, okushiwo zokungcwaba ngenhloso is izazi. Abanye bathi imilando saqala kungcwatshwa bethu abafile ngenxa okunamathiselwe kunamandla ngokomzwelo kubantu ezimpilweni zethu, kodwa kungenzeka kwenziwa ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukene ngokuphelele. Uma senza nje washiya ngezidumbu abangane nomndeni ukubola wethu, izilwane zingakhetha nabo ngaphandle kwaze kwakungekho lutho kwesokunxele kodwa amathambo ezihlakazekile futhi ugcwele mayelana. Zokungcwaba ngenhloso ngokuvamile kuwuphawu inhlonipho angcwatshwe. NeyamaJuda ngenhloso ngisho emikhosini zokungcwaba awazange wayekwenza kuphela abantu ababekholelwa an emva-ukuphila, kodwa. Lapho abantu bokuqala baqala kungcwatshwa efile yabo, umbono i emva-zokuphila angeke iye Ukhulelwe okwamanje. Izinsalela ezingokomzimba kungaba nje usitshele kangaka, ngakho kunzima ukukhomba lapho ncamashí la izinkolelo athuthukile.

Kungenzeka Ingabe AmaNeanderthal engcwabana ngenhloso ngaphambi thina (Homo sapiens) akwenza. Kunezibonelo eziningi owaseNeanderthal yokungcwaba in Kebara Cave kwa-Israyeli, Krapina e Croatia [vii] futhi ngo Shanidar, Iraq lapho owaseNeanderthal izidumbu bangcwatshwa izimbali. (Nokho, kukhona impikiswano abanye mayelana yini noma cha le kwaba ngenhloso.) Lo wezinsalela human endala (okuqondene uhlobo lwe Homo) ngenhloso angcwatshwe Kungenzeka Tabun C1 owaseNeanderthal, okuyinto kungaba njengoba endala njengoba 120.000 iminyaka. [Viii] In Atapuerca Spain, isibonelo endala of sebethule babantu ngenhloso kwatholakala kude emnyama emhumeni okuthiwa “Sima de los Huesos,” [ix] (nobe gebe of amathambo.) kulesi emhumeni, Homo heidelbergensis zamathambo kuka-32 atholakala, abanye iminyaka 300000 ubudala. Izidumbu cishe imali emhumeni ngenhloso in Lieu of kungcwatshwa kubo. Lokhu akulona ngempela kuyefana zokungcwaba, kodwa cishe kwenziwa ngezizathu ezifanayo.

Kokubili Art womhume zokungcwaba ngenhloso babengabantu izinhlobo yokuziphatha zenkolo andulelisa nkolo ehleliwe by amashumi ezinkulungwane eminyaka. Cishe izinkolo ehleliwe ithuthukiswe lulwimi ngaphambi ebhaliwe akwenza, kanjalo asazi ncamashi lapho kuqala kwakhiwa. Kodwa kusukela ezinye emhumeni imidwebo zokuqala oboniswe amacebiso zenkolo, singakwazi bahwebe izinkolo zokuqala ohlelekile kwakheka esikhathini esithile phakathi 28.000 BCE no 5,000 BCE ekupheleni the Neolithic / Agricultural Revolution. Ngaphambi Neolithic Revolution, imicabango [x] yenkolo nemibono zazinedumela kakhulu ongenakuzibona wadlulisela kodwa imiqondo enkolo ethile wahlala elingalodwa phakathi bands elincane labantu. Amaqembu nobe bands yayinesimiso abantu-10 100.

I Neolithic Revolution kwaholela ukuthuthukiswa imiphakathi emikhulu futhi elikhudlwana, okuyinto bavumela imibono engokwenkolo namandla ukuze basakaze ngokushesha futhi babe evelele kakhudlwana. Njengoba imiphakathi ayekhula denser emva Neolithic Revolution, thina belahla amafomu yokuqala yenkolo, ezifana nemilingo nokukhulekela yokhokho futhi waqala ukuthuthukisa izinkolo ehleliwe ukuthi ekugcineni basakaza futhi wanqoba abanye emhlabeni wonke.

2.3 Ehleliwe

Izinkolo kuqala ihlelwe ayengabantu ikakhulu polytheistic. Polytheism kuyinto inkolelo onkulunkulu abaningi. Lezi zinkolo zase ofanele ngalokho engaka kwaba engaziwa ngokuphila konke ezisizungezile. Izinkolo kuqala ihlelwe wenza imizamo ukuba baqonde izwe lethu. Omunye impucuko endala enkolo kwaba yamaSumer of eMesophothamiya owayehlala zanamuhla eseningizimu Iraq kusukela 5500BCE kuya 3500BCE.In nesi izinganekwane Gods babelwa cishe zonke inqubo ngokomzimba asizange baqonde. Lutho kwenzeka ngaphandle kokungenela abathile Nkulunkulu. “Sharezeri” kwaba uNkulunkulu yokugula nempi. “Adad” kwaba uNkulunkulu ka iziphepho. “Uttu” kwaba unkulunkulukazi izitshalo, futhi “Labar” kwaba izinkomo Nkulunkulu. [Xi] Nammu wayengunina Goddess no Anu kwaba isibhakabhaka Godess. Ninsun kwaba izimvu Goddess and Enki wayenguNkulunkulu amanzi ahlanzekile. YamaSumer nawo ayabelwe Gods kuya amaplanethi nelanga lethu, okubonisa a more nombono yonke. Izwi esetshenziswa ngoNkulunkulu e nesi kwaba dingir, kanti glyph esetshenziswa ukumela dingir esibhakabhakeni futhi kwakusho noma ezulwini. Lezi Gods yayihlanganisa ilanga, inyanga namaplanethi amahlanu emthaleni wethu ebonakalayo ngaphandle isibonakude. YamaSumer nawo babekholelwa amademoni futhi ezilo, eyayibonakala kuthiwa obangela ububi emhlabeni.

Imiphakathi eminingi yaseMesophothamiya kuhlanganise yamaSumer kwakhiwa bezungeza isakhiwo wethempeli. Ekuqaleni, la amathempeli yayakhiwa izingcezu ephakanyiswe yomhlabathi (obizwa ziggurats) lapho abantu beza banikele scarifies kanye Amazwi enduduzo. Kodwa njengoba emadolobheni ayekhula, amathempeli kwenziwa ezinkudlwana kanye ziggurats baba zinde okuningi. Baphinde baba more eyinkimbinkimbi. Abanye kwadingeka amaduli elula okwaholela ithempeli nabanye kwadingeka ngeZitebhisi nge namakhulu izinyathelo. Abanye ziggurats kwadingeka izinyathelo ezinkulukazi, okuyinto abantu abakwazanga ukusebenzisa. Yesikhulumi phezulu Ziggurat lapho ithempeli wema eyasetshenziswa ukukhulekela, umhlatshelo, imicikilisho nokucabangela. Amathempeli yayakhiwa ziggurats zinde nesinabantu abade ngoba abapristi abakhulu babekholelwa le kubalethele emzimbeni kakhudlwana Gods. Indawo kwalezi amathempeli wanika abefundisi benkolo ikhono ukufihla imisebenzi yabo.

Abanye baseMesopotamiya ayekholelwa ukuthi izikhundla izinkanyezi ayenencazelo ethize nawabantu. Ngokungafani izinkanyezi (eceleni elangeni), amaplanethi ebonakalayo siqhubekele ngezindlela ezibonakala akuqinisekile unyaka. Izinkanyezi do avele ukuthutha njengoba uMhlaba osebenzisa ezisekelweni zawo nsuku; ezinye izinkanyezi avuke bese usetha emkhathizwe nabanye benze tindilinga egcwele esibhakabhakeni. Kodwa aqoshiwe motion sobala of izinkanyezi kwakuzinzile, kuyilapho amaplanethi babebonakala azulazule ongayilindele unyaka. Lokhu kungase kube ukuthi kungani yamaSumer awakhe babephila njengoba Gods, (yize izincwadi ezithile yaseMesophothamiya amaplanethi noma “izinkanyezi ezihambayo” abangu okukhulunywa nje izimpahla of the Gods.) Leli gama iplanethi has kwaqala eGrisi lasendulo (planetai) futhi kusho ezulazulayo star ngoba ngisho ngesikhatsi ingxenye yoMbuso lesiGreki besisolo engazi kade amaplanethi efana Earth. (Anaximenes waba ngowokuqala ukuhlukanisa amaplanethi kusukela izinkanyezi fixed ngenxa ukunyakaza kwabo.) Nakuba izinkolo yaseMesophothamiya babengafani phakathi amasiko eyahlukahlukene lapho, isigaba yomlando yaseMesophothamiya ngamunye kwakufanele onkulunkulu primary ukuthi amasiko iningi okwabelwana, kanjalo izinkolo ngokuvamile ayizange ishintshe ngokuphawulekayo .

AbaseGibhithe lasendulo babewatadisha ngokucophelela ngokukhethekile esibhakabhakeni. Nabo kwadingeka unkulunkulu esibhakabhakeni, kanye air Nkulunkulu. “Nut” kwaba unkulunkulukazi esibhakabhakeni (nonina ilanga, inyanga kanye nemizimba yasezulwini) owayebizwa osekelwa emoyeni kaNkulunkulu, “Shu” (owayeneminyaka uyise) kanye nonkulunkulu enguMhlaba, “Geb,” umfowabo nomyeni of Nut . [3]

AmaGibhithe wayekhulekela ilanga njengoba kwenza yamaSumer, kanye Sun UNkulunkulu “Ra ‘wayengomunye onkulunkulu abakhulu. It is babecabanga by mlando uRichard Talcott noPatricia Blackwell Gary ukuthi okwashiwo baseGibhithe of lwezinkanyezi light (okuyinto ngokuvutha lenabo ngezinye izikhathi kubonakala esibhakabhakeni ebusuku njengoba imisebe yelanga ezibonisa off luthuli cosmic) kwaba ugqozi for ukuma imibhoshongo. [Xii] Baphinde bakholelwa izinsika ukukhanya, okuyizinto izinsika abade wokukhanya ekhiqizwa yi-reflection yokukhanya (ngokuvamile ukukhanya kwelanga, kodwa ngezikhathi ezithile ebusuku noma kukhanya yokufakelwa) off amakristalu zeqhwa emkhathini, kwakukhona ugqozi for amatshe ayenzelwe baseGibhithe.

Ngaphezu Sun, abaseGibhithe nazo kakhulu balibele nokufa, mhlawumbe ngaphezu yimuphi isiko emlandweni. Bakholwa kwakukhona uxhumano omkhulu phakathi nomzimba kanye “umphefumulo,” ngakho wazikhandla kangakanani ukuzama ukulondoloza izidumbu ababusi emva lokufa kwabo. AbaseGibithe babekholelwa ukuthi ukulondolozwa kwaphakade komzimba kwakuyoholela ekuphileni okuphakade ngenxa ukuxhumeka palpable emkhatsini imizimba yethu futhi ubunikazi bethu. Isimo zaseGibithe kwaba Yiqiniso, yomile futhi omile, kanjalo le wehlisa lo yokubola ka kakhulu kwezitho ezibalulekile ngokuzenzekelayo. Kodwa amaGibhithe wazikhandla kukhulu kakhulu ukuvimbela somzimba kwamazinyo ngokwakha emathuneni ezimnyama cool komhlaba, asuse jarring izitho ezibalulekile futhi evala umzimba ngelineni noma ngoseyili. The insides of the izidumbu nabo ezihlanganiswa natron, ingxube sodium carbonate (ukuwasha soda), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) kanye sodium chloride, (usawoti) zonke ngokwemvelo ezenzeka. Lo mummy bokuqala eGibithe kuhlehlela emuva 3300 BCE, kodwa mummy endala ezaziwayo Okwamanje nxazonke 9000 ubudala. Kwatholakala oGwadule Atacama eNingizimu Melika. [Xiii] The mummy cishe wafika evela isiko Chinchorro ekwathoma mummifying kuhle ngaphambi kwabaseGibhithe. Mummifying, eqinisweni kungenzeka, kwaba inqubo evamile phakathi impucuko kunazo asendulo ukuba owakhiwe eyomile desert ezweni.

Imibhoshongo ecijile of Giza, (kuthambekele ne-ndlela eziyinhloko) i Sphinx Omkhulu, ezinye amathempeli amaningi kanye Monyumenti emathuneni, eyayisetshenziselwa kugujwe ababusi Ancient bonke yakhiwa sesigqila zabasebenzi. Kwakumelwe Izenzo omkhulu nosebenza of zabasebenzi, ikakhulukazi uma ucabangela ubuchwepheshe etholakalayo ngokuncane kakhulu, kodwa Yiqiniso, kwafa abaningi futhi bahlupheka ngesikhatsi kwakhiwa yabo. Kuyinto edabukisayo ikakhulu ngenxa yokuthi la ezikhumbuzo yayakhiwe ngokuyinhloko ngenxa yokwesaba. Ababusi babesaba kokuba ukhohliwe, hhayi kokuba anikezwe i kwangemva kokufa, futhi izigqila babemesaba kokuba Kushone noma basiza ukwakha noma cha.

Izimpi okuqala cishe bonke alwa ngenxa umehluko zenkolo. Amaningi okhokho bethu wokuthi njengoba izimpi base ezilwiwa emkhatsini amadolobha, izimpi yasezulwini base ezilwiwa kanyekanye emkhatsini Gods ezahlukene. Kubumbeke amakhosi futhi kwaketula phezu zeminyaka eMesopotamiya. Kodwa izinkolo yaseMesophothamiya, sasivumela efanayo, futhi izinkolo monotheistic ukuba abe ethandwa kakhudlwana kamuva nazo zifana eziphawulekayo. Naphezu le udlame phakathi kwamaqembu enkolo kuyaqhubeka.

2.4 Izinkolo Abrahama

Izinkolo Monotheistic like ubuKristu, nobuJuda nobuSulumane bayafana kakhulu ngezindlela eziningana. Bonke athuthukiswe nxazonke enkathini efanayo. Konke umprofethi eyodwa noma isithunywa sikaNkulunkulu, (uJesu, uMose no Mohammad ngokulandelana) futhi konke Nkulunkulu oyedwa, okuyinto yini eyenza kubo monotheistic. Zezinganekwane zabo nazo zonke zihilela izinganekwane ka-Abrahama, yingakho bebizwa izinkolo Abrahama. The Old Testament in the Bible yobuKristu kuyinto version sitlolwe yeBhayibheli yesiHebheru, Torah [4] ebhaliwe kusuka 600 BCE kuya ku-400 BCE. Abaningi Ezinganekwaneni kulemibhalo kuyafana futhi abanye abangu kwaguqulwa kusuka imibhalo zenkolo asebekhulile.

Izinganekwane likaJesu Kristu kakhulu efana izinganekwane onkulunkulu okuqondene izinkolo omdala okuningi kuka ubuKristu. The Hindu Nkulunkulu, Krishna, isibonelo, wayengumbazi emfuleni owabhapathizwa ezizalelwe of umama intombi. Sabhalwa kuhle Lolu izinganekwane ngaphambi kokufika kukaKristu. In the Book baseGibhithe sabafileyo (nawo ebhaliwe ngaphambi kokufika kukaKristu), noHorus, indodana bakholwa kaNkulunkulu, kwadingeka umama intombi. Okuningi njengoKristu, noHorus kwakuthiwa ukuhamba phezu kwamanzi, ukuphulukisa abagulayo futhi elingwa ehlane. Kungenzeka ukuthi uJesu Kristu waba umuntu ongokoqobo. Kungenzeka okungenani, kodwa umzimba wakhe engakaze kwatholakala, futhi kubonakala sengathi cishe Indaba yakhe namandla angaphezu kwemvelo abangu nje kususelwa imibhalo asebekhulile.

Ingxenye sizathu bekulokhu kukhona udlame kangaka emkhatsini izinkolo Abrahama, (kanye dominations yalezi zinkolo, njenge Shia Islam no US Islam) kuyinto bonke zihilela izinganekwane efanayo, kodwa ukhetha ulichaze ehlukile. Imibhalo zenkolo iningi, (ikakhulukazi Abrahama) nakho ezinobudlova kakhulu emvelweni, separatist kanye ukushalazela zodlame ezimweni ezithile. Baphinde udweba umugqa obucacile phakathi kokuhle nokubi. Abeqisayo bavame ukusebenzisa izingxenye khetha, enobudlova iningi kulemibhalo ukuzithethelela zinyantisa izenzo, enobudlova kuyilapho indiva anonile izincwadi efanayo ekhuthaza ukuthula nokuqonda.

Kuyini kunazo ebuhlungu mayelana yonke zobudlova obungenangqondo kanye nokungqubuzana eliphuma on phakathi kwamaqembu enkolo ukuthi liye konke zithonywe isifiso sethu esingokwemvelo ukunikeza human nenjongo yokuphila by ukuphendula eminye angaziwa zokuphila. Okungenani asisodwa. Inkolo ukhuluma liyini ethambile ngabantu. Yingakho abantu ukuzivikela kangaka futhi okweqile ngokuvikela izinkolelo zabo.

Esinye isizathu khona bekulokhu ingxabano kangaka emkhatsini izinkolo Abrahama ukuthi sonke cabanga efanayo nomuzi ongcwele. Ngokusho mlando, u-Eric H. inganakeki, “iJerusalema ubelokhu izikhathi 23 phama, ahlasela izikhathi 52 ezengeziwe futhi abuye ayithumba izikhathi 44.” [Xiv] It is the kunazo alwa phezu komuzi emhlabeni ngenxa ingqondo yayo yenkolo, futhi ingenye futhi lamadolobha amadala kakhulu emhlabeni. Ngokusho eTestamenteni Elidala, iNkosi yoMbuso ka-Israyeli uDavide wenza iJerusalema enhlokodolobha kazwelonke eminyakeni 3000 edlule. Umlandeli wakhe, uSolomoni, uthume ukwakhiwa kwethempeli likaSolomoni, okwakuyigama ithempeli main eJerusalema wakha phezu Temple Mount ngaphambi kokuba ubhujiswe ngo ukuvinjezelwa kweJerusalema of 587 BCE. Ngokusho iTestamente Elidala, iNtaba Yethempeli wayebuye isayithi lapho Abrahama wanikela umhlatshelo ngendodana yakhe u-Isaka.

IJerusalema waba umuzi ongcwele kumaKristu lapho uJesu Kristu wabethelwa esiphambanweni khona ngo 30 BCE ngokusho eTestamenteni Elisha, futhi iSonto Lethuna lakhiwa eJerusalema phezu kwegquma abagibele amahhashi lapho uJesu kwakuthiwa bangcwatshwe. IJerusalema waba esiyinhloko for umthandazo for Muslims ngo 610 BCE no Mohammad bahamba khona ngesikhathi Night wakhe Journey ngo 621 BCE ukuhola abanye ngomthandazo. Ngokusho Quran, Mohammad wanyukela ezulwini uma efika khona futhi wakhuluma noNkulunkulu. [Xv] Ngesikhathi Muslim Conquest yaseSiriya, iJerusalema owayezinikele Rashidun sompristi Army futhi lapho Temple Mount yanqotshwa kwaba indawo the Al -Aqsa Mosque wakha ngo 705 BCE. The Dome of the Rock lakhiwa emhlabeni Foundation Stone ngo 691 BCE. Lezi zindawo ezimbili abalulekile kakhulu yokukhulekela kubantu abaningi kanti Foundation Stone nakho kubhekwa abanye abantu bamaJuda njengoba idwala uNkulunkulu wasebenzisa ekudaleni Earth.

Ekulweni ukulawula iJerusalema kanye nezinye izindawo zayingabaza like the eGaza Strip kanye West Bank uyaqhubeka yilolu suku phakathi Israyeli kanye Palestinians. 208.000 Palestinians bahlala East Jerusalem, okuyinto Palestina Authority efisa ukushintsha sibe dolobha a State yasePalestina esizayo. Law-Israyeli eziyisisekelo ubiza iJerusalema the ‘capital akunake, “kodwa umphakathi international akusho akubheka ngayo njengoba enjalo. Kunalokho, it iyambona East Jerusalem njengendlela insimu yasePalestina. UN ngeke akuvumele Palestine ukujoyina UN ngenxa, uhulumeni walo esonakele bagomele, kodwana Palestine unikezwe ‘wombuso Ingqapheli’ isimo ngoNovemba ka-2012.

2.5 Imibhalo Abrahama

Kunezinkolo emiphakathini libuswa ohulumeni ngokuvamile kubenza ezibhubhisa kakhulu ngenxa yokuthi izinkolo lizisho ngokwahlukana ngokuqhubekayo futhi anikeze abantu esinye ugqozi ayebhekene izimpi. Lapho izinkolo Kwakuhlangene kuqala asathuthuka, kwakukhona kakade inombolo obuningi izizathu izingxabano, ezifana ukulawula for ezweni, ingcebo nobugovu. Kodwa izinkolo ezenziwe izimpi siqu kakhulu. Uma amaqembu amabili aya empini phezu ukungezwani zenkolo, babengavunyelwe nje belwela izinto zabo ezibonakalayo futhi nezwe; babelwa ngenxa yezinkolelo zabo ezingcwele. Umehluko benkolo baye kwaqina izimpi eziningi kwaqalwa ngezizathu ukuthi kwadingeka ngalutho nenkolo. Izinkolelo zenkolo abangu nakanjani babe ngokwengeziwe ngokwedlulele, ukugomela futhi okubaluleke kubantu, ikakhulukazi njengoba ohulumeni babewasebenzisa sithethelele eqonde ukuxhaphaza iphinde ebulala abantu.

Kunzima ukukholelwa ukuthi abantu namanje ukubulalana wodwa phezu enkolweni kanye Kuhumusha ematheksthi zenkolo ebhaliwe izinkulungwane zeminyaka edlule. The izinganekwane zenkolo abantu abaningi babambelele Yiqiniso, siyenza imibhalo Abrahama. Abantu bamaJuda babe iBhayibheli lesiHeberu. AmaKristu zeBhayibheli wabo sakhiwe the Elidala eTestamente Elisha, kanye nabantu Islamic babe Qur’an. Konke kulemibhalo zigcwele izinganekwane. Ezinye izingxenye iTestamente Elisha kanye Qur’an zibhekwa zomlando, ngoba zikhona izinsalela ngokomzimba (kusuka izakhiwo kanye ezikhumbuzo) ezibonisa akhona. Kodwa imibono weBhayibheli ngendalo ngomlando emkhathini basenganekwaneni.

Izingxenye zalezi Books Holy kakhulu esuswa qiniso ngoba zalotshwa kangaka kudala. Akufanele kubhekwe zomlando. Ngabanye abakholelwa zonke story kulezi zincwadi kuyinto sebesebenzisa izincwadi zokuzisiza babizwa literalists kweBhayibheli. Nokho, abantu abaningi benkolo are literalists hhayi eBhayibheli; bakholelwa kwezinye zalezi izinganekwane futhi enqabe abanye. Kodwa abantu owabhala nabo babekholelwa konke base ngokubhala kuyiqiniso, futhi babefuna wonke umuntu ukuthatha lokho ababekufunda sekubhala njengoba ngokoqobo njengoba enza. Ke, akubonakali enengqondo ukwamukela izingxenye iBhayibheli noma incwadi yenkolo futhi enqabe nezinye izingxenye it. Uma ukholelwa, ukudumisa, lisekela noma ukukhuthaza lonke iBhayibheli, Torah, noma Qur’an, kufanele uqaphele wena ukugqugquzela izimangalo nesayensi, umbhalo enobudlova futhi unenzondo, futhi omuhle, amazwana zokuthula ezimbalwa angqubuzana izingxenye inzondo kakhudlwana. Ngikholwa kungcono ukutadisha futhi uhlaziye lezi zincwadi ngenxa izingxenye zawo ngamanye ngalezi zizathu.

Inganekwane indalo eNcwadini kaGenesise (encwadini yokuqala zeTestamente Elidala) akuyona ngisho nakulezo ozwakalayo uma kuqhathaniswa ubufakazi bokuthi esekela kwemvelo. Kule enganekwaneni, Nkulunkulu kudala umuntu wokuqala, u-Adamu, “ngothuli lomhlabathi waphefumulela emakhaleni akhe umoya wokuphila, futhi le ndoda waba ophilayo.” UGenesise 2: 7. Owesifazane wokuqala, u-Eva, waba “owenziwe kusukela ezimbanjeni ayeyithathile aphume endodeni.” – Genesise 2:22. In the Garden of Edene lapho bahlala, kukhona inyoka ukhuluma futhi umuthi imilingo equkethe ulwazi okuhle nokubi. The Book of kaGenesise futhi uchaza emhlabeni yadalwa ngezinsuku eziyisithupha. (Ngosuku lwesikhombisa uNkulunkulu uthatha usuku off.) Kunobufakazi kangaka ngokwesayensi ngokumelene le akusiyo kuwufanele eyokuthi. Usuku lwesikhombisa (noma ngeSonto) ubizwa nangokuthi kweSabatha futhi iBhayibheli has imithetho enzima kakhulu futhi enobudlova mayelana neSabatha:

“Noma ubani desecrates kumele babulawe; ubani owenza yimuphi msebenzi ngalolo suku kumelwe unqunywe kubantu bakhe. Izinsuku eziyisithupha, umsebenzi okumelwe wenziwe, kodwa ngosuku lwesikhombisa kuyisabatha lokuphumula, lingcwele eNkosini. Noma ubani owenza yimuphi umsebenzi ngosuku lwesabatha kufanele abulawe. Israyeli ukuze agcine iSabatha, begubha it ngoba izizukulwane ezizayo njengoba isivumelwano nanini. Kuyoba yisibonakaliso phakathi kwami ​​Israyeli kuze kube phakade, ngokuba ngezinsuku eziyisithupha uJehova walenza izulu nomhlaba, futhi ngosuku lwesikhombisa akubalekela emsebenzini futhi waphumula “-. Eksodusi 31:14.

Lapho u-Adamu no-Eva badalwa kuGenesise, Nkulunkulu uyakwenqabela ukuba badle emthini equkethe wokwazi okuhle nokubi. (Angazi ukuthi kungani le kwakuzolandela esinqatshelwe, ibona njengoba azi kokulungile nokungalungile kwakuyoba ukubasiza bazi lokho bekungeke kushwelezwe Nkulunkulu.) Kamuva kuGenesise, inyoka itshela u-Eva ukuba adle isithelo futhi njengoba yalokho uNkulunkulu utshela Eva, “I kuzokhuphula kakhulu imihelo zakho ngokuzala abantwana; ngobuhlungu kuwe uyakukhiphela abantwana, nokho isifiso sakho siyakuba umyeni wakho, yena uzokubusa. “- Genesise 3:16.

With usizo lukaNkulunkulu, u-Eva ke unezingane ezimbili okuthiwa uKhayini no-Abela. Ngemuva imihlatshelo kuNkulunkulu, u-Abela uyadunyiswa uNkulunkulu ngenkathi uKhayini is amthethise. UNkulunkulu uthi: “Uma wenza kahle, ngeke yini kube amukela? Futhi uma ungenzi kahle, isono ezicathama emnyango; isifiso salo ngawe, kodwa kumelwe uyifinyelele “- Genesise 4:. 7. UKhayini ke uthi umfowabo u-Abela, “Masiye endle.” UKayini ke ebulala umfowabo engachukuluzwanga futhi kungekho sizathu esibonakalayo. UNkulunkulu scolds uKhayini futhi emtshela uyokwenza siphile ukuphila muncu. Adamu iphila iminyaka engu-930 futhi unezinye izingane. (Izinzalamizi Antediluvian eBhayibhelini bakwazi aphile iminyaka engaphezu kuka-900; kunazo waphila iminyaka lokungenani 200.)

Encwadini kaGenesise ke uyaqhubeka etshela omunye nezinganekwane zeBhayibheli nesayensi kakhulu:. Indaba Umkhumbi KaNowa kaGenesise uchaza ukuthi zonke izidalwa eziphilayo eMhlabeni wake waba okubi, futhi esikhundleni isiqondiso labanika, uNkulunkulu wanquma ukubulala cishe bonke . “Amadodana kaNkulunkulu abona ukuthi babesebunzimeni fair; futhi bathatha abafazi konke ayewakhetha. Khona-ke iNkosi yathi: “Umoya wami ngeke hlalani abafayo phakade, ngoba inyama; izinsuku zabo kuyakuba namashumi amabili iminyaka “The amaNefili babekhona Ezisemhlabeni ngalezo zinsuku – futhi futhi kamuva – lapho amadodana kaNkulunkulu wangena amadodakazi abantu, owazala izingane kubo. Zaziyizinto Amaqhawe ababe asendulo, amaqhawe odumo. INkosi yabona ukuthi ububi isintu wayemkhulu Emhlabeni, nokuthi konke ukuthambekela kwemicabango izinhliziyo zabo okubi nje njalo. Futhi iNkosi wazisola ukuthi wayenze isintu on the Earth, futhi wadabuka enhliziyweni yakhe. Ngakho iNkosi yathi: “Mina ngeke wesule kusukela Earth the abantu engiye ngidalé – Abantu kanye nezilwane nezinto ezinwabuzelayo nezinyoni zezulu, ngokuba ngiyazisola ukuthi ngibenzile.” – Genesise 6: 1- 6: 7.

Ibhuku of kaGenesise alisho ukuthi noma kungani abantu baba ababi noma kungani zonke izilwane kwakufanele bafe kanye. It nje uthi uNkulunkulu wayefuna kuphila ukuqala kabusha, ngakho ubiza on uNowa, owayeyinzalo 600 ngonyaka ubudala-Adamu, ukubeka ezimbili zonke hlobo lwezilwane on umkhumbi omkhulu, ukuze bakwazi bonke basinde isikhukhula global UNkulunkulu belungafica ulethe futhi ekugcineni kuphinde kube nabantu Earth. Kodwa akunakwenzeka ukwenza isikebhe enkulu ngokwanele ukuba wenze lokhu. UNkulunkulu watshela uNowa ukuba enze lo mkhumbi ube izingalo ezingamakhulu amathathu ubude, nezingalo ezingamashumi amahlanu ububanzi nezingalo ezingamashumi amathathu ukuphakama. (Enye buyingalo kuyinto 45,72 ngamasentimitha nobe izinyawo ngomunye nesigamu. Lonke Umphongolo kwakuyoba Ingihlabe metres cubic 675.000 emqulwini, okuyinto bekungeke kuphi noma eduze enkulu ngokwanele.) Abanye abantu Kwadingeka izikebhe ngalesikhathi, kodwa lokhu Indaba kushiya ukuthi out.

Uzamcolo kuGenesise yayithatha izinsuku 150, futhi lokhu kusho ukuthi wonke umuntu esikebheni lizofa kusuka amanzi emzimbeni, ngoba awukwazi uphuze amanzi anosawoti [5] futhi kungaba engenakwenzeka ukuletha amanzi anele ahlanzekile esikebheni kusengaphambili. Izilwane ayeyoba cishe adle nomunye ngaphambi kokuba bafe of amanzi emzimbeni. Ngisho ngabe le story kuyiqiniso futhi zonke izilwane wakwazi ukusinda ngandlela-thile, lokhu kungasho sonke umkhiqizo zokulala nesihlobo. Kukhona izimbobo eziningi kangaka kule endzabeni awayona asizisoli bexoxa.

Emva kukazamcolo, umhlaba nelinabantu. Kamuva uNowa uyadakwa nqunu futhi othuka lapho yakhe nomzukulu wakhe kwesizathu lapho indodana kaNowa uHamu uthola naye nabafowabo uShemi Japeth amboze kuye. “Makaqalekiswe zaseKhanani; aphansi izigqila uyakubuye abe kubafowabo. “- Genesise 9:25. Noah uphila iminyaka eminingana eyikhulu ngaphezulu kweminyaka futhi uyafa at iminyaka 950 ubudala ngokusho le ncwadi.

Kamuva e iVangeli, kuthiwa kukhona oyedwa ngolimi jikelele. Futhi iNkosi yathi: “Bheka, Bayisizwe esisodwa, futhi zonke izilimi eyodwa; futhi le nje kuyisiqalo ngalokho azokwenza; lutho bona ukuthi phakamisa ukukwenza manje lwenzeke ngabo. Wozani, ake sehle, futhi ukudida ngolimi lwabo khona, kangangokuthi ngeke baqonde omunye enkulumweni yomunye “UJohane 11:. 6-11: 8. It is hhayi wachaza ukuthi kungani uNkulunkulu wayefuna ukuba intuthuko zomuntu ngokwenza lokhu.

IBhayibheli linezinye ezinganekwaneni eziningi yinqaba, efana inganekwane kaJona ngubani kudliwa ngumuntu whale athandaze izinsuku ezintathu esiswini yayo ukuba zikhululwe aze has UNkulunkulu okuyingxenye uLwandle Olubomvu, ukuze ahole abantu bakhe ngokusebenzisa. The Old Testament lize lithi Zomhlaba iyithafa futhi kusekelwa nezinsika: “Yena unikina uMhlaba endaweni yalo futhi kwenza izinsika zalo zithuthumele.” – IHubo 9: 6. Liphinde uthi uhla bezidalwa eziyinqaba wasenganekwaneni akhona like uLeviyathani (a monster sasolwandle esiphefumulayo umlilo) i uBehemoti, Isikhonyane (izidalwa enemisila of nawofezela kanye nobuso kwamadoda) Abhadoni, lo Beast yesAmbulo First (isidalwa nge 7 amakhanda futhi 9 izimpondo) kanye nabamahhashi million 200 kusAmbulo. (Torah ukhuluma eziningi zalezi zidalwa, kanye nezinye ezifana Ziz, isidalwa esindizayo elingase sisuse kwelanga.)

The Book of isAmbulo atholakala eTestamenteni Elisha ubikezela Apocalypse (igama layo livela lesiGreki elithi apokalypsis) futhi kuba cishe okungenani ozwakalayo wokuthi zonke izincwadi eBhayibhelini. Kule ndaba, kukhona amachibi zomlilo, ezilwandle igazi futhi ezine nabamahhashi of Apocalypse, amelela ekufeni, impi, indlala nezifo eziwumshayabhuqe. USathane wabuye “udrako” kanti protagonist kuchazwa ngokuthi “iwundlu.”

2.6 Ukuziphatha okubi futhi ukuphikisana Ihhashi

Inkinga nge inkolo emikhulu ukwedlula izinganekwane kulemibhalo. Isayensi kokwenqaba iyingozi, kodwa abaningi balaba mibhalo nazo ezithuthukisa inzondo kanye imibono ehlukahlukene engqubuzanayo. IBhayibheli, naphezu yini iningi bakholelwa, liyincwadi okhuthaza ukuziphatha okubi kanye imibono ephikisayo kakhulu. Ezingxenyeni eziningi, iBhayibheli ikhuthaza ubugqila, udlame obungakhethi (ikakhulukazi kubhekiswe “Israyeli”), kanye ekubusweni kwabesifazane. Ngisho unikeza imithetho Akunangqondo on ebugqilini Eksodusi:

“Uma uthenga inceku ngesiHebheru, nguye ukukukhonza iminyaka eyisithupha. Kodwa ngonyaka wesikhombisa, uyakunikela ahambe free, ngaphandle kokukhokha lutho. Uma efika yedwa, nguye ukuba ahambe yedwa free; kodwa uma unalo umfazi lapho eza, yena ukuba ahambe naye. Uma inkosi yaso isinika umfazi futhi esizalela amadodana noma amadodakazi, lo wesifazane nezingane zakhe ziyakuba bangabanye master yakhe, futhi kuphela muntu abazakuhamba free. “Kodwa uma inceku usho, ‘Ngiyayithanda inkosi yami, nomkami nezingane futhi asifuni uhambe free,’ khona-ke inkosi yaso kumelwe bathathe naye phambi kwabahluleli. Wothabatha naye emnyango noma ensikeni yomnyango bese ibhoboze indlebe yaso nge usungulo. Khona-ke kuyoba inceku yakhe ukuphila “- Eksodusi 21:. 2-5.

IBhayibheli lithi futhi ukuthi kuyinto eyamukelekayo ukushaya izigqila zakho nje abazi bafe: “Uma umuntu beats nceku yakhe owesilisa noma owesifazane ephethe induku inceku eshona ngenxa ngqo, kufanele yena ajeziswe, kodwa akakhulumi ukujeziswa uma nceku uvuka emva kosuku noma ezimbili, kusukela inceku impahla yakhe “(Eksodusi 21: 20-21). IBhayibheli alikhulumi nje liyavumelana ubunikazi izigqila ezingamaJuda, kodwa bonke abantu uLevitikusi:

“Abesilisa Yakho nezigqila nensikazi yilezi zivela ezizweni ezinizungezile; kubo ungase ukuthenga izigqila. Ungase futhi ukuthenga ezinye izakhamuzi zesikhashana ephilayo phakathi kwenu namalungu yazo owazalwa ezweni lakini, futhi bayoba impahla yakho. Ungakwazi intando ukuba abantwana bakho njengoba nempahla ngofuzo futhi kungakwenza kubo izigqila ukuphila, kodwa akumelwe abuse phezu esikanye sakho Ama-Israyeli okwalapha “- Levitikusi 25:. 44-46.

Omunye umbhalo wokuthi lalisa ububi ubunikazi abesifazane kungabuye etholakala Eksodusi:

“Uma umuntu ethengisa indodakazi yakhe njengenceku, yena hhayi uhambe free njengoba izinceku ukukwenza. Uma yena engahlali ukujabulisa inkosi oye akhethiwe wakhe yena, kumelwe sivumele wakhe ahlengwe. Akanalo ilungelo ukudayisa wakhe ukuba bokufika, ngoba uye waphulile nokholo naye. Uma ukhetha kwakhe indodana yakhe, kumelwe isabelo sakhe amalungelo indodakazi. Uma eshada nomunye wesifazane, akumelwe kuncisha owokuqala kwalo ukudla, okokwembatha kanye namalungelo emshadweni. Uma engazizwa ngimnikeze yilezi zinto ezintathu, yena ukuba akhululeke, ngaphandle ukukhokhelwa imali “- Eksodusi 21:. 7-12.

IBhayibheli liqukethe imithetho bakudala kakhulu futhi ezicindezelayo ngokuya esikhathini kuLevitikusi:

“Noma nini lapho owesifazane has period kwakhe kokuya esikhathini, yona iyoba ongcolile izinsuku eziyisikhombisa. Uma umthinte ngaleso sikhathi, uzonikezwa ungcolile kuze kuhlwe. Anything kuyo amanga noma ihlala phakathi naleso sikhathi uzobe ungcolile. Uma uthinte embhedeni wakhe, ungabuyisana ahlanze izingubo zakho ageze ngamanzi, futhi nawe ngeke kuhlale ungcolile kuze kuhlwe. Lokhu kuyasebenza uma uthinte into kuyo uhlezi, kungaba zokulala kwakhe noma yimuphi ifenisha. Uma umuntu ngokocansi ocansini naye ngalesi sikhathi, ukungcola kwakhe kokuya esikhathini iyoba yadluliselwa kuye. yena izohlala ungcolile izinsuku eziyisikhombisa, futhi noma yimuphi umbhede ngalo yena amanga uzobe ungcolile. “”Uma ukugeleza kokuya esikhathini kwegazi uyaqhubeka izinsuku eziningi ngalé kwesikhathi evamile, noma uma yena udlala indzima ngegazi ezingahlobene kokuya esikhathini sakhe, owesifazane siyoba ongcolile inqobo njengoba khulula kuyaqhubeka. Anything kuyo amanga noma ihlala ngaleso sikhathi kuthanda kufanele bangangcoli, njengoba nje kungaba ngesikhatsi kokuya esikhathini nenkathi yakhe evamile. Uma athinte umbhede wakhe noma yini kuyo uhlezi, uzonikezwa ungcolile. kuzodingeka ukugeza izingubo zakho ageze ngamanzi, futhi nawe ngeke bahlale ungcolile kuze kwahlwa. “”Lapho khulula kokuya esikhathini yowesifazane eyeka, kumele ubale off nenkathi izinsuku eziyisikhombisa. Emva kwalokho, izophila ehlanzekile. Ngosuku lwesishiyagalombili, yena kumele alethe amahobhe amabili noma amaphuphu amabili amajuba bethulwe kumpristi emnyango of the itabernakele. umpristi anikele elilodwa ngumnikelo wesono elinye libe ngumnikelo wokushiswa ophelele. ngale ndlela, umpristi uyokwenza ukubuyisana kwakhe phambi kukaJehova ukuze khulula kwakhe kokuya esikhathini. “”Ngale ndlela, nawe kuyogcina abantu bakwa Israyeli behlukanisiwe nezinto ezokwenza ezingcolisa kubo, ngakho ngeke bafe ngenxa yokungcolisa Tabernacle yami ukuthi okulungile khona phakathi kwabo. Lawa iziyalezo for ekubhekaneni indoda ine iye ungcolile ngumuntu khulula zangasese noma kuphume isidoda, ngokuba ekubhekaneni kowesifazane ngesikhathi nyangazonke nenkathi kwakhe kokuya esikhathini, ngokuba sokubhekana nanoma ubani, owesilisa noma owesifazane, owayenenkinga khulula zezitho yiluphi uhlobo; nangenxa zokubhekana ngendoda has walala nowesifazane ngesikhathi sakhe. “- Levitikusi 15: 19-33 Ukopha kusukela ekuchitheni ngenyanga ulwelwesi lesizalo akusona “isono” futhi akusho bangcolisa ubani, njengoba siyazi kusuka isayensi. Kuyinqubo engokwemvelo ukuze abesifazane bakwazi ukuba akhulelwe nezingane.

UJesu wayengomunye abalingiswa abambalwa kakhulu ngokungaguquki zokuziphatha eziseBhayibhelini. Wenza nobly Nokuzidela ngezinye izikhathi futhi wasekela abampofu. Kodwa ngisho noJesu wathatha isinyathelo kabi ngezinye izikhathi kanye. Ezingxenyeni eziningana zeBhayibheli, uyakulahla abantu ukuba esihogweni ngokuba non-amakholwa. Ngokusho iVangeli likaJohane eTestamenteni Elisha, lapho bendawo hlangana ukulalela uJesu, iningi ekuphikiseni nguye indodana kaNkulunkulu, futhi ingxabano ensues. Ngenxa zokungabaza yabo, uJesu wagcina uyachaza, “Ngokuba ngaphandle uma ukholelwa ukuthi mina nginguye ngubani I abathi, niyofela ezonweni zenu.” -. Johane 8:24 [6] UJesu uthi futhi: “Ningacabangi ukuthi mina weza ukuletha ukuthula emhlabeni. Angizanga ukuletha ukuthula kepha inkemba. “- Mathewu 10:34. Extreme nakakhulu amazwi akhe kuLevitikusi: “Uma naphezu yalokhu namanje musa ukungilalela, kodwa siqhubeke nobutha kimi ke ngentukuthelo yami ngizoba nobutha kuwe, futhi mina ngokwami ​​uyakubajezisa kuwe ngezono zakho izikhathi eziyisikhombisa phezu. Ngeke ningayidli inyama yamadodana akho kanye nenyama yamadodakazi akho. “Kukhona eziningana amavesi ezifanayo kulo lonke iBhayibheli uJesu liyabulahla bantfu esihogweni, futhi umqondo wesihogo nokuhlupheka yaphakade ababengabadlali imiqondo adalwe nguJesu ngokweBhayibheli . The Old Testament and Torah musa ingasaphathwa esihogweni, kodwa uJesu enza kaningi.

Lonke iBhayibheli aliyona kakhulu ukubekezela of non-amakholwa noma. 2 Thesalonika 1: 7-1: 8 lifundeka kanje: “Lokhu kuyokwenzeka lapho uJesu iNkosi kwembulwa kusuka ezulwini sokushisa umlilo enezingelosi zakhe ezinamandla. Uyokwethaba ajezise labo abangamazi uNkulunkulu futhi musa nililalele ivangeli leNkosi yethu uJesu. “(New International Version)

EVangelini likaJohane, non-amakholwa abizwa “umphikukristu.” ‘Ngokuba abakhohlisi abaningi baphumele ezweni, labo abangamthandi bavume uJesu Kristu weza enyameni. Lona ngumkhohlisi nomphik ‘ukristu “- 2 Johane 1:. 7. Kamuva e iVangeli, kulotshiwe “Ngubani ongumqambimanga, kodwa lowo ophika ukuthi uJesu unguKristu? Lona umphikukristu, lowo ophika uBaba neNdodana. Noma ubani ophika iNdodana akanaye noBaba “(Johane 2: 22-23). Lokhu akuzange ebhaliwe okwesabisa abantu zibe kokuba zokuziphatha. It is uthi nje uma ningakholwa uJesu indodana ka Nkulunkulu, wena upholavuthondaba sikaKristu futhi uyohlupheka ubuphakade ngenxa it.

Imibhalo zenkolo iningi like the Bible Christian ezihunyushelwe futhi ebukeziwe izikhathi eziningi, futhi ngoba abantu ahumushe lombhalo ehlukile, lokhu kudala okukhulu ukuguquguquka nokudideka. Ukuguquguquka liyatholakala ezinguqulweni ahlukene ngokwazo njengoba engiye kuboniswe. Izindima eziningi eBhayibhelini sola ubungqingili futhi uchaze ukuthi abantu gay kufanele abulawe. IBhayibheli libuye uyala ekukhishweni ubani bophezela nezilwane noma othuka abazali babo. UNkulunkulu utshela uMose “Bonke uqalekise ubaba noma umama kuyakuba babulawe” – (Levitikusi 20: 120a) Nokho, uJohn 3:15 ifundeka kanje: “Yilowo nalowo ozonda umfowabo ungumbulali; futhi niyazi ukuthi akukho mbulali onokuphila okuphakade okuhlezi kuye. “Murder okufanelekelayo izikhathi eziningi eBhayibhelini, nokho omunye weMiyalo Eyishumi kuyinto” Wena ngeke ukubulala. “ukubhujiswa kukaNkulunkulu iSodoma neGomora eBhayibhelini avame kuthethelelwe Abashisekeli abangamaKristu HOMOPHOBIA. Incazelo ongqingili ku amaRoma ubuye inzondo kakhulu:

“UNkulunkulu wabanikela in izinkanuko zezinhliziyo zabo ekungahlanzekini, kuya ezihlazisa imizimba yabo bodwa, ngoba benana iqiniso ngoNkulunkulu for amanga bakhuleka futhi bakhonza isidalwa kunoMdali, otusekayo kuze kube phakade! Amen. Ngenxa yalokhu UNkulunkulu wabanikela izinkanuko okungenalo udumo. Ngokuba abesifazane babo sihweba ubudlelwano yemvelo ngalabo okuphambene nemvelo; namadoda badela ubudlelwane emvelo nabesifazane futhi babengene shí passion ngomunye nomunye, amadoda enza izenzo ngokungenamahloni namadoda bezitholela isigwebo ngenxa ngenxa yesiphambeko sabo. Futhi njengoba akakubonanga ukuvuma uNkulunkulu, uNkulunkulu wabanikela ukuba nengqondo elonakele ukwenza lokho akufanele kwenziwe. Bagcwaliswa zonke izinhlobo ukungalungi, ububi, ukuhaha, nobubi. Bagcwele umona, ukubulala, ukuxabana, inkohliso, ezimbi. Bangabantu Gossips, abanyundeli, abazonda uNkulunkulu, abeyisayo, abazidlayo, aqhoshe abasunguli okubi, abangalaleli abazali, ewubuwula, ongenalukholo, ngonya, ngonya okuqhubekayo. . Nakuba bayazi isinqumo sikaNkulunkulu esilungile ukuthi labo abenza izinto ezinjalo bafanelwe ukufa, abagcinanga nizenze, kodwa anikeze ukuvunyelwa labo abazenzayo “(Roma 1: 24-1: 32)

Kuyinto la izinhlobo amavesi ezinkulu futhi ziyingozi ngokuthi ezigqugquzela amanye amaKristu ukuba bazonde ngisho ezidinga abulawe kwabo namuhla namageyi. Nakuba amaKristu lapho abaningi ukubekezela abakwamukelayo ongqingili, naphezu lokho iBhayibheli elikushoyo, kukhona abashisekeli abaningi abangamaKristu ezenza kube umsebenzi wabo ukwesabisa abantu gay. Abanye ohulumeni kusadingeka imithetho yicala lobugebengu yokuziphatha zobungqingili namageyi isaba kwabulawa nalezi mavesi ngokukhonza njengoba ‘elungile. “Abezombusazwe abasekela nokubhala imithetho emelene emshadweni gay ngokuvamile basebenzisa iBhayibheli njengoba elungile kanye. Kodwa emshadweni kwaba engcwele neze ezikhathini zeBhayibheli. Kwaba lutho nokushada bendabuko namuhla. Indoda wadlwengula owesifazane wayebophekile ukumshada. Isosha ngubani ethumba isiboshwa female sempi futhi babekwazi ashade. Indoda angaze futhi abe nabafazi eziningana, kanjalo le mpendulo ngomshado ekubeni phakathi ‘isibopho engcwele phakathi kowesilisa nowesifazane “is hhayi ngisho kusekelwa iBhayibheli. “Ophelele” umshado eBhayibhelini namanje kakhulu wekucindzetela abesifazane.

Ngokwedlulele, izakhi anti-gay olukhulu ezikhona phakathi American, imiphakathi ezithile zobuKristu. The Westboro Baptist Church in Topeka Kansas uyisibonelo esihle. Lolu esontweni ungomunye lamasonto bigoted kakhulu futhi wagcwalisa inzondo-in America. Website yabo esemthethweni kuyinto http://www.GodHatesFags.com. Laba bantu ngokuvamile bekhalazela imingcwabo amasosha kanye osaziwayo ababesebusweni ingcaca gay ngenkathi ephethe izimpawu funda “amasosha Fag,” “Ngiyabonga god for 911,” “Ngiyabonga god for amasosha abafileyo,” “Nkulunkulu babulala izingane zakho,” futhi (I ‘m hhayi okwenza le up) “Uyakudla izingane zakho.” Lababantu angabizwa ngokuthi iqembu umphetho futhi amaKristu amaningi njengaso, kodwa kunzima zokudeda kubo uma wabelana inkolo yabo. Abashisekeli sabo eBhayibhelini. Okuthiwa abeqisayo bazizwe benza into okulungile ngoba ngokuvamile benze lokho kanye izingxenye abanenzondo kunazo kulemibhalo zenkolo uthi abenzeni.

Lezi izinhlobo eziphikisanayo okukhulunywe ngazo ngenhla (efana onothando sonke lwesintu, kodwa nokuzonda izingxenye it) zitholakala kulo lonke iBhayibheli. Ibinzana IBhayibheli “iso for ubuyiso, a izinyo izinyo” (okusho ukuthi ingozi efanayo kufanele kwenziwe ubani uletha ingozi kwesinye) utholakala kuLevitikusi, uDuteronomi, uMathewu no-Eksodusi, nokho emavesini amaningi eBhayibheli , uJesu utshela abantu never baziphindiselele. Ngokwesibonelo, ngo-KwabaseRoma uJesu uthi, “Ungabuyiseli, abangane bami, kodwa ushiye indawo ulaka lukaNkulunkulu, ngoba kulotshiwe:” Kuyinto okwami ​​ukuziphindiselela; Ngizobuyisela mina, “usho uJehova. Uma isitha sakho silambile, siphe ukudla; uma somile, sinike okokuphuza. Ngokwenza lokhu, uyonqwabelanisa amalahle avuthayo phezu kwekhanda lakhe. Do ngeke sinqotshwe okubi, kodwa ukunqoba okubi ngokuhle ‘- Roma 12:. 19-21. (New American Standard Bible) Lokhu engahambisani kakhulu ‘iso for iso. ”

The Izincazelo zikaNkulunkulu eBhayibhelini nakho kungezwakali kakhulu. UNkulunkulu uchazwa ngokuthi futhi ngiziphatha engathetheleli emavesini amaningi eBhayibheli futhi njengoba nonomusa kakhulu kwabanye. Ngokuvamile, Nokho, uNkulunkulu uchazwa njengomuntu, nenhlalakahle kokuziphatha okubi kakhulu zobugovu, futhi lezi izingxenye zeBhayibheli ziye zasetshenziswa ukuba bathethelele izenzo kakhulu yobudlova, ukuziphatha okubi. Ngokwesibonelo, indaba ka-Abrahama esitholakala encwadini kaGenesise nezinye imibhalo Abrahama ziye yasetshenziswa lezenzo zobudlova, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni. Abrahama (ukusuka Abrama) kwaba abavele bakhethwa njengoNowa nguNkulunkulu ukuba abe umprofethi. IBhayibheli liyachaza naye wayenezimvu izigqila nokuthi elifakwe omunye wabo okuthiwa uHagari. UNkulunkulu uthi Abrahama kuGenesise, “Ngiyokwenza enezithelo nawe kakhulu; ngikwenze izizwe ngawe, futhi amakhosi kuyakufika kuwe. Ngiyakwenza isivumelwano sami phakathi kwami ​​nawe, nenzalo yakho emva kwakho ezizukulwaneni zabo, ngokuba lesivumelwano esiphakade, ukuze ngibe nguNkulunkulu kuwe nasenzalweni yakho ngemva ‘Genesis 17:. 7-17: 10. Abrahama wabe iba inzalamizi owasungula Israyeli.

Lapho uNkulunkulu utshela u-Abrahama ukuba abulale indodana yakhe u-Isaka, ngaphandle noma becela kungani ukulungele ukubulala indodana yakhe. (Ingelosi bagcina eyeka kuye.) Le ndaba ingasetshenziswa ukuze bathethelele isiphi isenzo Abantu lokusangana bakholelwa uNkulunkulu ufuna ukuba bafeze ngoba okuwukuphela line yokuxhumana ngabanye babe noNkulunkulu ku amakhanda abo, kanjalo ababekwazi kucombela lokho abangase likwenza ucabange? Abantu Engqondweni ngingemnandi ziye zabulala izingane zabo ngoba zazithi UNkulunkulu wayetshela ukuba benze kanjalo, njengoba nje uNkulunkulu watshela u-Abrahama. Lokhu kuye noma isetshenzisiwe njengendlela ukuzivikela lobugebengu izikhathi eziningana.

Esinye isibonelo kungatholakala encwadini kaJobe. Kuyona UNkulunkulu siyaphikisana kuSathane (Angiqiniseki kungani kunjalo ngemibandela ukukhuluma) mayelana ubuqotho kukaJobe ochazwa ngokuthi umuntu othembekile kakhulu, zenkolo ulungile. USathane uthi uJobe kuphela kangaka abathembekile kuNkulunkulu ngoba impilo enhle, ukuze a test, uNkulunkulu utshela uSathane ukuba abulale izingane zakhe futhi abhubhise impahla yakhe ukuze sibone ukuthi ngeke ngiqotho. UJobe, njengoba uNkulunkulu kulindeleke, uhlala ethembekile kuNkulunkulu futhi uyaqhubeka ukuthandaza hhayi amqalekise, naphezu ukulahlekelwa zakhe. Ngenxa umvuzo, uNkulunkulu unikeza naye kabili impahla ayenakho (ngoba yilokho okubaluleke ngempela, of course). UNkulunkulu wabuye kumnika amadodakazi amabili amasha ngingubani ngiqiniseke zase nje nice njengoba, izingane zakhe yangaphambilini wabulawa. (Lokhu ukubhuqa ukube kwakungeyona sobala.) Kule ndaba, Nkulunkulu unezingane eziyishumi Kushone nje ukufakazela uSathane okungalungile, okuyinto akaqondi noma ekwenzeni. It ngokuyisisekelo ufaneleke ukubulala futhi kalula ukwenza ngabanye Paranoid kakhulu. Ngokwalo story, ngisho noma ukulalela uNkulunkulu, yena angase namanje lokujezisa nawe. Biblical Scholar Raymund Schwager uye waphawula ukuthi “Kukhona izindinyana ezingamakhulu ayisithupha yobudlova ezicacile eBhayibhelini lesiHeberu, eziyinkulungwane amavesi lapho izenzo zikaNkulunkulu uqobo onobudlova ekujezisweni bachazwa, eziyikhulu izindima lapho Yahweh ngokucacile uyala abanye ukubulala abantu, futhi izindaba eziningana lapho uNkulunkulu izinto ezingenangqondo ebulala noma ozama ukubulala kungekho sizathu esibonakalayo. ”

Lezi izinhlobo tindzaba kanye izindima kungukuthi nje zitholakala futhi Christian lesiHeberu amaBhayibheli. Angiqondile yokugxeka noma ukucasula isiphi ihlelo oyedwa senkolo noma umuntu. I zimane nje ufuna umbonise okubi kulezi izincwadi ikakhulu wazalwa manuals for yokuziphatha. Quran igcwele izinganekwane eziningi futhi aliziphikisi kanye. Liphinde ikhuthaza ubudlova sokuhlushwa ngaphezu iBhayibheli lenza. Kukhona ngaphezu eziyikhulu amavesi in the Quran obiza ukushushiswa noma ukubulawa ngokuqondile non-amakholwa. Nazi ezinye izibonelo:

“Futhi ababulale nomaphi lapho nina ubathola, futhi uzabaxotsha ezindaweni bavelaphi ngemoto ukhathale, ngokuba ushushiso [of amaSulumane] mubi ekuhlatshweni [of non-amakholwa] … kodwa uma benza uyeke ke bheka! Allah uyathethelela futhi unesihe. Futhi silwe nabo kuze ushushiso alusekho, futhi inkolo for Allah “- Quran 2:. 191-193.

“Mina ngeke inkatho terror hliziyo of labo disbelieve. Ngakho-ke ushaye off amakhanda abo futhi ushaye off zonke somunwe kubo “- Quran 8:12.

“Futhi amaJuda athi: Ezra undodana Allah; kanye namaKristu bathi: UMesiya undodana Allah; zizo amazwi emilonyeni yabo; balingisa izwi labo disbelieved ngaphambi; Kungenzeka Allah ababhubhise kubo; indlela basuke waphenduka away “-! Quran 9:30.

Eminye imiqulu eminingi Islamic aqukethe imiyalezo kakhulu enobudlova. Umprofethi islam sika Mohammad wathi, “Yilowo nalowo washintsha ngenkolo yakhe Islamic ke ukumbulala ‘.” – Bukhari: Volume 9, Incwadi 84, Number 57. Embhalweni efanayo, Apostle Allah sika wathi, “Awa ngeke isungulwe uze alwe amaJuda, futhi itshe ngemuva ngalo umJuda kuyoba zokufihla oyothi “O Muslim! Kukhona umJuda icashe kwami​​, kanjalo ukumbulala “- Bukhari: Volume 4, Incwadi 52, Number 177. Nakuba kokunikeza iziyalo iqembu ahlomile lamadoda, Mohammad wabuye wathi,”. Yilwani wonke endleleni Allah abulale nalabo disbelieve e Allah “- Ibn Ishaq:. Sirat Rasul Allah, 992, (The Life of the Messenger Allah).

Njengasekhulwini Torah LobuKristu New Testament, khona amavesi eyakhayo enokuthula abambalwa e-Quran, kodwa kuno by abathandekayo ngaphezulu enobudlova. I kuyohlanganisa ukuba babe naye ngilambatha, kodwa ziphikisa ngokuphelele yibo ngisanda okukhulunywa. Nazi izibonelo ezimbalwa:

“Lo kuthathwe eyodwa yokuphila ongenacala kufana ukuthatha konke Isintu … kanti ukusindiswa eyodwa yokuphila kufana osindisa sonke Isintu” – Quran, 5: 3.

“O nina sakholwa, musa kudla omunye umcebo yomunye ngokungenabulungisa kodwa kuphela [in okusemthethweni] yebhizinisi kokuba kungokuvumelana. Futhi ungambulali ngokwenu [noma omunye nomunye]. Ngempela, Allah iwukuba Wake Abanesihe “-. Quran, 4:29, Sahih International.

“Izinceku the Nomusa yilabo abahamba phezu komhlaba kalula, futhi lapho ikheli abangenalwazi kubo [ngokhahlo], bathi [amazwi] nokuthula.” – Quran, 25:63, Sahih International.

“Allah akakwenqabeli usuka labo abalwi nawe ngenxa yenkolo futhi musa ukuxosha usuka emakhaya zakho – ekubeni balungile ngakubo futhi oyibamba ngobulungisa ngakubo. Ngempela, Allah uthanda labo benze ngobulungisa ‘- Quran 60:. 8, Sahih International.

“Anikholelwa uze bafuna abanye okufunayo for ngokwenu. Uma bafuna ukuthula, ngalesosikhathi afune ukuthula. Nokwethemba kuNkulunkulu ngenxa NguYe lowo kwemizi futhi akwazi zonke izinto. “- Quran 8:61. Lokhu ngesinye ngokuthi uMthetho Wegolide futhi kubonakala emibhalweni iningi Abrahama. Ulayela it eNtshumayelweni YaseNtabeni: “Kodwa kini enilalele ngithi: Thandani izitha zenu, nenze okuhle kulabo abanizondayo, ubusise labo akuthuke, thandazela labo kabi nawe Uma othile ngempama on. eyodwa isihlathi, vula kubo nesinye futhi. Uma umuntu ethatha isembatho sakho, musa bagodle ihembe kwakho kubo. Yipha wonke umuntu ekubuza, futhi uma umuntu othatha ini ungowakho, awafuni emuva. Yenza kwabanye njengoba ubungeke ube nabo bazenze kini. “Luka 6:. 26-31, New International Version Lokhu has kwaqala e-Torah, othi” Nina ngeke bathathe impindiselo noma sithwale igqubu izihlobo zakho Thanda umakhelwane wakho njengoba uzithanda wena.: Mina nginguJehova. “Levitikusi 19:18.

The Quran iqukethe kuwukuphikisana efana Torah Christian Bible ngenxa yokuthi yabhalelwa futhi-ezibhalwe awuvele abantu abaningi kangaka ezihlukene. The Quran ine kakhulu neqhaza kakhulu noma abalobi aphume ezintathu. Quran uvamise esithathwa izingxenye zayo, njengoba kukhona ezinye imibhalo emibili zenkolo. Abanye focus on izici zawo ezinhle kanye ukuziphatha kwabo nezinkolelo sibonakalise ukuthi. AmaSulumane iningi kukhona esinokuthula kakhulu. Islam (ngokungathi izinkolo eziningi) ungaba futhi enze njengendlela oxhumanisa kakhulu ejensi ukuthi kwenza abantu ukuba iqhaza emisebenzini emihle efana imibuthano emikhulu for umbhikisho nobe umhlangano. Kodwa libhekwa lilonke kungekho noyedwa Imibono ongaguquguquki kunoma yalezi zincwadi, ngaphandle ukuzinikela ngokuphelele inhlangano asikwazi ukubona. Abantu njalo uze ndawonye kakhulu bonke ngenxa yokuthi kukhona ukuxhumana esabelana njengoba abantu ukuba uhambe ezijulile kuka izinkolelo zenkolo. Uma kukhona yimbangela sonke sazi kulungile, abantu hlangana ukwenza kwenzeke.

Njengomphostoli Christian Bible and Jewish Torah, Quran futhi ukhuthaza ngokobulili kanye nokuhlukunyezwa kwabesifazane. Imiphakathi islamic babizwa bazilungiselela ekufezeni abesifazane ukulawula namadoda ukujabulisa, (kodwa ngokuvamile akunjalo. Abesifazane ziyaxhashazwa futhi wazinqoba ngaphezulu, kodwa futhi ubulili ujabula kabanzi.) Abanye abashisekeli noma abaphikisa ukufundisa abesifazane, ngoba uma kunjalo abangafundile ngeke angabaze yabo ndawo. Ezinye zalezi lukhuni ziye baze ngamabhomu izikole amantombazane ‘ukuqinisekisa bona abatholi imfundo. “Hlonipha ukudlwengula” futhi Lo mkhuba nakho nemikhuba ezivamile ezindaweni Islamic efana Sierra Leone, okuyizinto kwezijeziso ukuvukela, okuyinto okufanele bungavunyelwe emhlabeni jikelele. Abanazaba.

Like imibhalo iningi zenkolo, Quran futhi ikhuthaza zokucindezelwa ngokocansi. Imams Abaningi yenza abesifazane amboze zonke ingxenye imizimba yabo, ngaphandle amehlo abo kanye nezandla, futhi abesifazane ngezinye izikhathi abulawelwe ocansini ngaphambi komshado. (Ukuze ugweme ukushushiswa, abanye babe ihlo libonakala zabo ngokuhlinzwa reattached, okuyinto abizayo futhi eyingozi kakhulu.) Abesilisa nabesifazane bavame hhayi noma bavumela touch nomunye ngaphambi komshado (indlwabu nalo esasenqatshelwe ezindaweni eziningi Muslim), kanjalo sex eshukumisa abanye Islamic Abantu ukuthatha izenzo ezedlulele.

Touch kuyingxenye kudingekile kakhulu yokuphila futhi akekho okufanele rob ngokwabo of kungenxa imithetho yenkolo yasendulo noma imithetho zalabo abathi ukusondela kuNkulunkulu namuhla. Lezi abashisekeli overvalue ucansi nokuthi yini sizihlanganise msulwa, ikakhulukazi njengoba kulandisa kwabesifazane. Bayehluleka ukubona abesifazane njengabantu abantu nezidingo efanayo namadoda. Bebengeke indlela enjalo izilwane kwabesifazane uma benza. Abanye Amaphekula Islamic, isibonelo, akholelwa bona bayovuzwa nge 72 izintombi (noma “houri”) kwelizayo ukuba zibulala abantu abangenacala abangenazo izinkolelo zabo. Uma ukholo akazange abangele okunjalo ukucindezelwa ngokocansi, kungaba le cishe ngokuthi ubani kwakuyoba abulale ngokwabo ngenxa yimuphi uhlobo umvuzo ngokocansi.

Eminye imiphakathi Islamic abanobudlova ezimbi kakhulu ngaphezu kwezinye imiphakathi engokwenkolo ikakhulu ngoba abaningi babo bangabantu bempofu, futhi bazizwa banayo ezingaphansi ukulahlekelwa. Umlando wabo idlala indima enkulu njengoba ihlanganiswa egazini izimpi ezingokwenkolo icala ukuze ahambe azungeze.

UbuKristu, ubuSulumane nobuJuda kukhona ngokuqinisekile ngeke izinkolo kuphela ukuthi kungaba nemiphumela deleterious emphakathini, kodwa yibo athandwa kakhulu ukukwenza. (UbuJuda empeleni inkolo kunalokho encane nge eyizigidi ezingu 18 abalandeli.) Izinkolo zaseMpumalanga, efana ubuHindu nobuBuddha, ngokuvamile kakhudlwana kungavamile ukuba ingozi ngoba imibhalo yabo nenokuthula. Hinduism inkolo enkulu kunazo wesithathu nobuBuddha kuyinto kwekulu wesine. Izinkolo ne abalandeli iningi abangela udlame ngaphezu izinkolo ezincane, ngokwengxenye, ngenxa yokuthi inani abalandeli kanye nemithombo kungenza abeqisayo banomuzwa wokuthi kuyafaneleka kakhudlwana ukuthatha isinyathelo olukhulu. A Iningi zenkolo liphetheni kakhulu izinkolelo ezifanayo ubuye lula eziqondisa kabi ibangele isinyathelo kunokuba iningi wezwe ukuthi siqukethe, ongqondongqondo abazimele kakhulu esibucayi. Nokho, akubona lokhu kuye wayeka ambalwa khetha ohulumeni ukusebenzisa ezinkolweni zaseMpumalanga ukuzithethelela udlame. UbuBuddha, isibonelo, wasetshenziswa imibuso yezombangazwe ukuzithethelela ubudlova Ukubandlulula non-amaBuddha e Bangladesh nezinye izifunda ezizungezile neningi wamaBuddha iminyaka eminingi.

Izinkolo ezincane ngokuvamile musa ukukhiqiza udlame ecishe okuningi njengoba izinkolo emikhulu ikakhulu ngoba mancane. Uma ngabanye eyodwa kuphela futhi isizwe sakhe bevumelana ezithile nemibono engokwenkolo futhi nendlela yokuphila, basuke ngeke cishe siya azizwe inelungelo ukuqothula esinye isizwe ukuthi uzizwa ngendlela ehlukile. Kodwa uma izwe lonke noma ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu emhlabeni enamathela ezimisweni ezifanayo jikelele kanye nomprofethi (kanye lezi zimiso futhi avulekele nencazelo), abantu abangaphezu ke ngeke sithambekele abe abasebenzise for izindlela ezibhubhisayo, ezifana nokubulala mass. Negazi Ngini eliye lachithwa phezu izinkolo Abrahama kunanoma yimuphi abanye.

UbuSulumane nobuTao, ubuHindu, futhi izinkolo eziningi-Afrika East Asia yizibonelo izinkolo ezincane. Iningi ethile imibono ezinokuthula kakhulu, kodwa isizathu esiyinhloko kunjalo mancane enobudlova kungenxa yokuthi mincane uma eqhathaniswa izinkolo yiningi. Kukhona AmaKristu okungaphezulu futhi Islamists. UbuKristu has the abalandeli kunazo zonke izinkolo (2.2 billion ngo 2010) kanye Islam (1,6 billion) kuyinto yesibili close, kanti lokhu kuyingxenye yesizathu kukhona izingxabano phakathi abalandeli zezinkolo ezimbili. Ezinye abalandeli babo bafuna inkolo yabo ukuze kube inkolo kuphela, kuyilapho izinkolo ezincane wazi akukho kungenzeka ukuguqulela embulungeni, ngisho noma bonke babefuna.

Nakuba amaHindu namaBuddha ngokuvamile kakhudlwana ezinokuthula, abanye baye ngaphezulu ngowakho. UbuBuddha, eqinisweni, ifundisa ukuhlupheka akunakugwenywa. Ukuhlupheka wokuzilimaza kuwumkhuba sasivumela eyamukelekayo kule nkolo. A amaBuddha ambalwa futhi AmaHindu ziye izibani yebo ngokwabo ngomlilo emibhikishweni. (Lokhu kubizwa self-immolation.) Self-indlala iye yasetshenziswa nasezintweni imibhikisho by womabili amaqembu. Hindu and Buddhist imibhalo futhi kokubili aqukethe izinganekwane eziningi angavumelani isayensi. Inkolelo yokuphindukuzalwa, isibonelo, utholakala ematheksthini ehlukahlukene Buddhist futhi Hindu. Inkolelo yimuphi kwangemva kokufa nhlobo kungaba esiduduzayo, kodwana like ephazamisayo, ukunethezeka eziningi lolumalula, kungase futhi enza abantu engaphansi ushukumiseleka ukuba siphile ukuphila okunenjongo manje eMhlabeni. Uma une iphakade ukuze siphile, kuba lula kakhulu ukuba bathethelele ‘ukuchitha’ nesikhathi hhayi bafinyelele ikhono lakho Emhlabeni.

Iningi AmaHindu musa ukukhuthaza ukucindezelwa kwezocansi futhi, eqinisweni, bakholelwa ucansi kungaba nezinzuzo eziningi, kodwa kunamasiko amaningi Hindu baphazamise ebudlelwaneni. Abazali hindu ngokuvamile bahlele imishado izingane zabo, njengoba eminye imindeni Islamic futhi yobuKristu Orthodox ukukwenza, owenqabela nabo ekuphishekeleni budlelwane babo siqu.

Emshadweni kufanele kube nesinye sezinqumo ezibaluleke kunazo zonke ekuphileni komuntu njengoba has nomthelela omkhulu ubunikazi zethu futhi lesi sinqumo kufanele kuphela eyenziwa abathintekayo. Kukhona imithetho esiqine kakhulu kwemvume, kodwa hhayi emshadweni mayelana ngenkani, okuyinto i standard double oyinqaba. Abanye AmaBuddha nawo akholelwa emishadweni bahlela, kanti eminye imibhalo obuBuddha ala isahlukaniso.

Njengabantu abaningi benkolo, amaHindu namaBuddha nawo akholelwa Gods ngubani kungathinta emhlabeni mina kakade wachaza ukuthi kungani lokhu kuyingozi. It kudala ukungaqiniseki ngekusasa engekho. Siyazi kakhulu ngezwe ngenxa kuthuthuka ezingenakubalwa kuyisayensi esesiyenzile kusukela zalotshwa lamatheksthi. Sinekhono lilolonge ikusasa ethu futhi nathi kufanele. Abantu abaningi bangavuma ukungalungi nokuhlupheka Ezisemhlabeni manje kukhona palpable futhi sidinga ushintsho. Kodwa iningi lethu zenkolo bebelokhu isikhathi esithile. Ngakho kungani uNkulunkulu (uma Yena ingabe zikhona) avumele ukuhlupheka okungaka uma kokubili emihle nemibi onke njengoba imibhalo iningi benkolo bathi? Lokhu kwesinye isikhathi ngokuthi “inkinga okubi, ‘futhi kuba yinkinga abalulekile kakhulu.

2.7 I “Inkinga Wobubi”

Izazi zefilosofi eziningi, izazi zenkolo kanye abacusumbuli baye ebhaliwe ngale nkinga ububi. Ngokwesibonelo, isazi sefilosofi esingumGreki zasendulo, esingumGreki, wabhala lokhu nkinga esikhathini esithile phakathi nekhulu lesibili leminyaka BCE. In the “indida Epikhuru,” esingumGreki uthi:

“Ingabe UNkulunkulu uzimisele ukuvimbela ububi, kodwa akakwazanga? Khona akayena onke. Ingabe uyakwazi, kodwa hhayi uzimisele? Wabe kuyinto senzondo. Ingabe yena kokubili akwazi futhi uzimisele? Ke okubi zalotshelwaphi kufika? Ingabe yena kungoni ekwazi noma uzimisele? Ke kungani ambize uNkulunkulu? ”

Lena imibuzo ebalulekile izinkolo abakwazi ukuphendula, futhi kuba ebuhlungu ukuthi inkolo kubangela nokuziphatha engaka elimazayo uma kukholelwa abantu iningi zenkolo ukuthi uNkulunkulu nokunamathela yenkolo ukuvimba okubi ingasabalali.

Ngokubona kwami​​, ngokomzwelo,-musho owodwa bahebeze uMark Twain sika The Stranger Mysterious esenziwe ubuntu, “uSathane,” futhi ibonisa ‘inkinga okubi’ kahle kakhulu:

“UNkulunkulu ababekwazi benze abantwana emihle njengoba kalula njengoba nababi, nokho babekhetha ukwenza abanhliziyo ezimbi; owayengase wenza wonke omunye wabo bajabule, nokho akakaze wenza umuntu ongashadile ajabule; owenza nabo Umklomelo wokuphila kwabo okumunyu, nokho ngokuncishana sinqume short; owanika izingelosi zakhe nenjabulo yaphakade unearned, nokho wawufuna ezinye izingane zakhe ukuze iyithole; owanika izingelosi zakhe izimpilo kobuhlungu, nokho uqalekiswe ezinye izingane zakhe nge kwezinsizi nilumana futhi izifo kwengqondo nomzimba; ngubani imilomo ubulungiswa, futhi yasungulwa esihogweni-imilomo mercy-imilomo Golden Rules nokuthethelela iphindaphindwe ayisikhombisa kasikhombisa, ngubani imilomo isimilo kwabanye abantu, futhi has none ngokwakhe; ngubani frowns phezu ubugebengu, nokho uzinikela kwabo bonke; owadala umuntu ngaphandle simemo ke azame shuffle umthwalo ngezenzo zomuntu phezu yomuntu, esikhundleni ehloniphekile ukusibeka lapho ingeyakho, phezu ngokwakhe; futhi ekugcineni, kanye obtuseness sezizonke yaphezulu, umema nceku yakhe ompofu abahlukunyeziwe bamkhulekele “-! Marku Twain.

Baningi, Ukungalungi elingenakuphikwa Emhlabeni. Zonke izinhlobo zezinto ezesabekayo bayaphila futhi kuhle, kodwa izimbangela lingama abenziwe futhi zingashintshwa (uMhlaba onemali), njengoba nje singenciki kuNkulunkulu ukuze silungise kubo bonke futhi bakholwe ekukhulekeleni impendulo . Abantu abaningi abasontayo bakholelwa okubi iyinto safaka kwabantu uNkulunkulu noma “uSathane.” Kodwa umqondo ububi wangaphakathi Kuwubuwula. Asikho isizathu enengqondo ukwenza abantu ababi ukuze nje abajezise phakade. Ububi is ikakhulu okudalwe esintwini, hhayi lutho ezididayo noma ezingaqondakali. Izindawo zethu kanye nabantu kuzo kuvusa ukuziphatha ezibhekwa okubi noma okungalungile kakhulu. Ngokuvamile, abantu noma zifundiswa amabi noma banquma ukuthatha izenzo “okubi” ngenxa yokucindezeleka kwemvelo, ifanelwe, inzondo noma ubuhlungu zanqwabelana. Intando ukubhujiswa kanye self-ukubhujiswa is ikakhulu adalwe noma izinhlungu noma igunya, (noma izakhi ngezinye izikhathi ngokomzimba like kwezakhi DNA, izifo, nokunye). Lezi zimo zikhona ngoba akukho gunya zokuziphatha ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi abantu ababuzwa. Umkhathi enza ngokuhambisana nomthetho kwesayensi, kungakhathaliseki umthelela womuntu. DNA yethu usitshela ukuba basinde kodwa singakwazi ukuqinisekisa nje oda kanye basinde wonke umuntu ngokusebenzisa ngekubambisana alinganayo nokubambisana.

Abaholi benkolo nezazi ziye washayelwa izimpendulo ezahlukene ukuze inkinga ‘okubi “, kodwa iningi akuzona ezinengqondo kakhulu. The New Testament sibhekelela inkinga ububi ngendlela ingwijikhwebu nse Korinte othi: “Ngokuba umyalezo isiphambano kungubuwula kulabo ababhubhayo, kodwa kulabo kithina esisindiswayo lingamandla kaNkulunkulu. “- 1:18 Korinte. Ithi kamuva abaseKorinte ukuthi labo abakholelwa kuNkulunkulu yibo ababhubhayo. Kodwa lokhu akulona icala. Akekho abuthonywa ukuhlupheka noma ukufa, futhi iningi labantu ngumhlambi abantu ehloniphekile bayakufanelekela none of ukuhlupheka kwabo. I khetha abambalwa abakholelwa basuke ‘basindiswe “noma” Abantu abakhethiwe’ bayajabula futhi unempilo ngoba base nenhlanhla ngokwanele ukuba bakhula izimo sokunene banikezwe izinzuzo zabo kudingekile kuphela. Kodwa yisiphi nhlekelele day kungaba kugadle. Akekho uyavikeleka. Sonke siphila ngokwenyama. Kuyinto elula for the nenhlanhla kakhulu ukubonga kuNkulunkulu ukuze uphumelele wabo siqu, esikhundleni sivuma abantu uqobo nezenzakalo wemfanelo, ezilawulwa ngu imithetho ongashintshi zesayensi. Lapho inhlekelele ingabe woza Abantu ngokuvamile bawe back on izinkolo zabo ukufuna wenduduzo, futhi lokhu kuqhubeka umjikelezo.

Inkolelo of ‘ukusindiswa “kuyinto uyazazisa uma kukhona ezingenacala, abantu abaningi kangaka zokuziphatha abenza kakhulu ngokucacile bavunyelwa ukuhlupheka. Kuyinto uthobekile kakhudlwana ukuze abuke angaziwa ezisezweni futhi bayaqaphela singalokothi ukuyiphendula yonke ngokuqondile. Abantu abakholelwa bona esisindiswayo ngokuvamile bazitshela ukuthi kukhona isizathu abantu abaningi kangaka behlupheka, nokuthi (abakhethiweyo) bafanelwe ingcebo yazo. Kodwa ngokuvamile akunjalo. Kukithi nawabantu ukuvimbela ukuhlupheka, esikhundleni nje ngithandaza ngoba ukuyeka nobe ukwamukela njengento ‘intando kaNkulunkulu. “Thina kufanele sincike thina nabantu esibathandayo ezimpilweni zethu. Sasikwazi kalula senze umhlaba ube indawo engcono ukube siyeka bekholelwa ukuthi izinto njalo ngenxa yezizathu okunenjongo. Bakwenza ngaso sonke isikhathi, ngeshwa. Izwe liyindawo kunezinxushunxushu, kodwa kuyaqondakala futhi kungenziwa ngcono ngokwenza ngcono ukuqonda kwethu ngokusebenzisa isayensi, ukwesekwa, nokubambisana.

Nakanjani lokho kukhona, abantu abaningi enodumo benkolo abenza umsebenzi Amazing yobuntu, kodwa babekwazi namanje ukwenza lo msebenzi ngaphandle kokholo lwabo kuNkulunkulu. Uma uyawazisa ukukhulekelwa kakhulu, kungaba kusize ekukhulekeleni wedwa kanye nemibono ngokokuziphatha umsindo kunazo zonke, ubone imibhalo enkolo Gods. Imfundiso yokuthi bonke abantu bafanelwe amalungelo afanayo ayisisekelo libaluleke ngaphezu imfundiso, ngisho AmaBhayibheli Abrahama basitshela uMthetho Wegolide aphathe abanye ngendlela esifisa ukuphathwa ngayo. Kodwa akudingeki lamatheksthi manje. Uma nje silwela ukuba abantu abahle nsuku yezimpilo zethu, ekugcineni akufanele kunendaba yini noma cha ukhona uNkulunkulu noma ngemva kokufa noma uma kukhona noma yisiphi ngeqiniso kunoma ezinganekwaneni zenkolo.

2.8 Ukuzalwa and Development of Isayensi Nenkolo sika Ithonya Intuthuko yayo

Ngaphambi indlela zesayensi umshini, pheze konke sachazwa by izinganekwane kanye Gods. Kodwa abantu abambalwa benqaba bathi imbangela wonke umcimbi kuya amabutho ezingaqondakali nobe nezidalwa ezinamandla angaphezu kwavamile. Eziningi zalezi ongqondongqondo babehlala eMedithera (ingxenye engezansi eNhlonhlweni Yamazwe AseBalkan) ikakhulukazi yanamuhla Greece naseTurkey emadolobheni yasendulo efana waseAbdera naseMilethu lapho nengcindezelo zenkolo kwezombusazwe ecishe ngingekho, okungenani isikhathi. Kulezi zindawo ezinganekwaneni zenkolo awazange eyamukelwa wonke umuntu noma iphoqelelwe ohulumeni abaningi, nokuhlolwa, ukuhlola nokuqaphelisisa bonke bakhuthazwa. Ifilosofi Independent futhi ikhula kahle lapha.

Ibinzana elithi “Yazi wena” kuthiwa wenziwa omunye Sages of Greece, Thales of eMilethu Seven, (624 BC-546 BC), futhi bekubonakala zigxilile itshe lethuna lakhe. Lona omunye izitatimende yokuqala eyaziwayo ebhaliwe yefilosofi ukuthi bagqugquzela ngokuqondile self-yokuqwashisa. Mhlawumbe yena wayazi self-ukuqwashisa kwakuyindawo kulethe lelilandzelako womuntu kanye ukulawula okukhulu phezu ubunikazi zethu siqu.

Thales of eMilethu yayingase ibizwe ngokuthi uyise yesayensi. Nguyena umuntu wokuqala ukushicilela izimangalo ukuthi izenzakalo awazange okubangelwa amabutho angaphezu kwawemvelo, kodwa kunalokho ngemithetho ezingokomzimba. Thales wayekholelwa umkhathi isenzo ngezindlela engaguquguquki nokuthi ngokwenza nokwazi uhlobo bento ungase anqume ikusasa layo. (Lezi imibono kwaholela ekutholakaleni imithetho yemvelo.) Wabuye wakholwa kwakukhona kumalungu eziyisisekelo daba. Akazange ngokuqondile ukuthi yini babe, kodwa wayebuye umuntu wokuqala ezaziwayo isikisele umqondo. Thales wayebuye owokuqala bathi ukuphila kwaqala kusukela namanzi. Wabuye wayekholelwa ukuthi umhlaba uyisiyingi kuyinto disk ezintantayo emanzini ukuthi selulekele bathathe yonke. Yize lokhu Yiqiniso, akunjalo, inkolelo yakhe ukuthi indawo yonke kumelwe kuqondwe nokuthi izenzakalo babengase wabikezela babekhonza njengoba isisekelo indlela zesayensi. [XVI] ukuvumela Yakhe introspection kanye nokuzihlonipha nokuqwashisa kwaba nakho okuphawulekayo.

Pythagoras of Ionia (owazalwa azungeze 572 BC) kwaba esinye isazi smart, kodwa wayengekho njengoba ivulekele ukuhlolwa ezesayensi noma uphenyo njengoba abanye amandulela. Wadala kaPythagoras Theorem futhi waba ngowokuqala isikisela ukuthi Earth, izinkanyezi, inyanga namaplanethi babengamadoda yonke imikhakha. [Xvii] Pythagoras kwaba enengqondo kakhulu, onemibono okunengqondo. Yena kanye amandulela wakholwa konke space kwenzeka ngesizathu. Igama lesiGreki “cosmos” (noma kosmos, njengoba yayibizwa nesipelite ke) kusho oda. Cosmos izwi sisebenzisa for indawo yonke ngenxa kuyiqiniso ukuthi konke kwenzeka ngesizathu, kodwa hhayi ngokuvamile umuntu okunenjongo, njengoba ngishilo. Indlela engcono ukubuza lokhu ukusho ukuthi yonke sinyathelo ukusabela ulawulwa imithetho zesayensi. Pythagoras akazange achaze noma iyiphi imithetho yemvelo, kodwa wayekholelwa ukuthi zonke izenzakalo kanye ekuxhumaneni of udaba ungachazwa zezibalo abamele.

UPlato, (424-348 BC) a sefilosofi esingumGreki umfundi USocrates (470-499 BCE), wathonywa Pythagoras. Yena udangele kanye observation nokuhlolwa yokuthi imibono engokwenkolo abangu iphoqelelwe okuningi nokulilalela kakhudlwana futhi kanzima ngalesi sikhathi. Lokhu kwenza ingozi enkulu kwezesayensi. Ifilosofi nenkolo ayeyisana phezu isayensi (noma kunalokho indlela zesayensi). Iningi ongqondongqondo abafika emuva Pythagoras kwadingeka bathi umsebenzi wabo kwaba yezinto zefilosofi, kuyaqagela noma umane yesayensi ukube imibono yabo babekhona ngisho nakulezo abalwisana izinkolelo yesiGreki. Babekwazi ukusho lutho kwakuyoba ukuthi wacasulwa amandla enkolo futhi uma benza, babekwazi abulawe. (Kwakumelwe esiqinile ikakhulukazi nge-mbono ezazingaphansi olukholekayo kusekelwa isayensi.)

Isayensi ingaba nomthelela onamandla kakhulu kumafilosofi ngokuphila. Ukuze beveza ifilosofi esikwazi ukumelana novivinyo kwesikhathi, kudingeka ube nesisekelo esiqinile zesayensi (noma okungenani cha ziyaphikisana yimuphi amaqiniso kungase kutholakale ngokwesayensi). Isayensi yamanje kuyinto umcabango wethu best of ngokoqobo le kangaka, futhi elokhu ivela. Eziningi ezitholwe ososayensi nethonya elikhulu ukubona ethu yenjongo yethu kanye nokubaluleka kwabanye abantu, ngakho engenangqondo ukwehlukanisa isayensi kusuka ifilosofi noma inkolo. Uma iqiniso kungase kutholakale iyaphikisana ifilosofi noma imibono yokungabi nandaba yenkolo, wonke umuntu kufanele bavume le qiniso in-mbono zabo uma befuna imibono yabo sibe nesisekelo empeleni.

Akuwona wonke isayensi ihilela zokucwaninga kanye nokuhlolwa. Lena indlela zesayensi, kodwa ezinye ongqondongqondo kunabo besayensi lenza emibonweni yabo elula ngokusebenzisa imaginations zabo futhi yaqale okuncane kakhulu kwesisekelo ezesayensi noma ezibalo ukuze basekele izinkolelo-mbono zabo, (Albert Einstein wayevame wasebenza ngalendlela) futhi eziningi zalezi zinkolelo-mbono kamuva kungase kutholakale ukuthi kuyiqiniso manjalo zibalo ezidingekayo yasuselwa.

Isayensi unomthelela nefilosofi, kodwa ifilosofi nokuqagela nazo athonye isayensi. Ukuze ube usosayensi aphumelele, umuntu kumelwe njalo ukuhlola izimo ezihlukile. Okutholakele iningi lwesayensi zibizwa ngokuthi izinkolelo-mbono ngoba kuyizinto eqinisekile. Kodwa uma zefilosofi leNkathi kaPlato wayekade ukwenza umsebenzi esingaphansi ukufunisela kanye thiyori kakhudlwana, inchubekelembili zezenhlalo nezobuchwepheshe ngabe cishe kwaba ngokushesha. Abanye babo benza, kodwa iningi indiva zonya ezisobala kakhulu futhi izibonelo ukuhlupheka kwabantu emphakathini efana isikhungo yobugqila nokucindezelwa zezombusazwe. It akazange enze mqondo ngabo philosophize ngesimo womuntu kanye nencazelo ejulile ephathelene nokuphila hhayi ukuphatha okunjalo ukuhlupheka palpable.

Zefilosofi akazange Nokho ahlale aphume kahulumeni esewonke,. Eqinisweni, uPlato, Aristotle (student kaPlato) kanye uSocrates bonke kwadingeka izindima kuhulumeni, ngokubhala imithethosisekelo nezinye amaphepha. Kodwa ngemibuzo into njengoba onenzuzo futhi ebalulekile emphakathini njengoba ubugqila wayengase kwaphumela kalula ku abulawe sakho, kungakhathaliseki isikhundla sakho. Ebhala izihloko engqubuzana izinkolelo ezingokwenkolo futhi kungaphumela kokubulawa and uSocrate wabulawa ngenxa yalesi sizathu. Wabuye ababephikisana abanye abaholi kuhulumeni.

Kungenzeka uPlato no-Aristotle kugwenywe nsi zezombusazwe nezenkolo esingathandeki kangangokuthi ngeke amachaphazelo efanayo uSocrates, kodwa abazange amelane kobugqila ngasese noma. Bathi owned izigqila. Aristotle wabhekisela izigqila ngokuthi “amathuluzi aphilayo,” futhi uPlato kwadingeka imibono efanayo, okuyinto ukubenza kubonakale wangaba nozwela. Kodwa ngenxa yokuthi ubugqila kwakuyinsakavukela futhi akekho wenza noma bangabaze it ngaphandle kokuba ajeziswe kwabonakala sengathi ziyingxenye yokuphila. Lokhu neze izaba izenzo zabo Nokho. Lokho siyakwamukela njengoba kuyinsakavukela akuyona ngaso sonke isikhathi ilungelo noma.

Aristarku (310 BCE – 230 BCE) of Samos wayengomunye ngowokuqala bathi isimiso sethu sonozungezilanga sun-kwesakhe nobe heliocentric. Aristarku wabuye Kulinganiselwa amabanga phakathi Amaplanethi azungeza ilanga lethu, kodwa izilinganiso zakhe kwakukhona nesizotha futhi. Wayeneminyaka ngempela brilliant for sakhe isikhathi, kodwa umfuziselo wakhe heliocentric of komthala wayiphikisa yiziphathimandla zenkolo futhi wabandlululwa ngenxa yezinkolelo zakhe. USeleucus of eSelukiya kwakuyiyona sezinkanyezi kuphela bavumelana naye isikhathi eside impela. Akekho owaziyo ukuthi kungani Aristarku wayekholelwa uhlelo sonozungezilanga heliocentric yokuthi iningi umsebenzi wakhe (kanye imisebenzi eminingi abanye brilliant) labhujiswa ngo ukushiswa Library of Aleksandriya. Umsebenzi kuphela wakhe eye yasinda kuyinto encwadini yakhe, On ubukhulu kanye amabanga of the Sun no Moon eyayibhalwe ngaphambi kokuba eze esiphethweni sokuthi uhlelo sonozungezilanga heliocentric.

2.9 Zokholo kanye nesayensi emva Ephakathi

Ngemuva uPtolemy bambalwa kakhulu abantu wanyathelisa imisebenzi zesayensi isikhathi eside. Le nkathi cishe kulingana UKWEHLA kukaKristu kanye Ephakathi. Kwakuyisikhathi lapho yenkolo (ikakhulukazi yobuKristu) Ukubusa kanye nezikole iningi abangu kubuswa imibuso zenkolo. Zokholo nazo olwenziwe Phakathi neNkathi Ephakathi.

Iningi ngentuthuko zesayensi ambalwa ezenziwe ngalesi sikhathi kwafika ezivela eMpumalanga Ephakathi. EMpumalanga Ephakathi, netinombolo lamaRoma indawo esimisweni zamadesimali inani kanye Aljibhra yasungulwa. Okuwukuphela ngcono okukhulu olwalwenziwe kulesi sikhathi lalotshwa eYurophu zazisetshenziselwa ukubhujiswa, ezifana kokusungulwa zifana neziqhumane kanye inganono. Umnqopho wabo kwaba kakhulu ukubhujiswa ngenxa yezimpi zenkolo eziqhubekayo.

Zokholo ayengabantu uchungechunge yezimpi zenkolo ezilwiwa lamaRoma Katolika lonke elaseYurophu ngokuyinhloko ukuze siphinde sithole ukulawula iJerusalema, okwakukhona ngaphansi kokulawula Muslim. Sikhalo The waseByzantium Emperor u-Alexius I awasho uPapa basemadolobheni II ukuba amsize simelane nokuhlasela kwe Muslim phakathi nsimu eByzantium kukhona yini catalyzed Zokholo. Zenzeka phakathi kuka 1095 no 1291. Pope Urban II eyashukumisela amaKristu amaningi ukujoyina impi ngokunikela kwabo ukuthethelelwa izono zabo ngenxa yemizamo yabo empini. [XVIII] Lokhu kwakusho ukuthi babengeke sithethelelwe izono zabo uma befa empini. UPapa futhi wathembisa Enkolo material imivuzo, ezifana ingcebo, amandla kanye nezwe okungokwabo abantu Turkish kanye Arabhu. The Enkolo zibulawa amaSulumane, abhubhisa amathempeli nasemizaneni, futhi wabulala amaJuda amaningi ngisho namaKristu athile ngaphansi kokubusa kwamaSulumane. Abanye ubuzimu yebo izimisele ngo Yenkolo Lokuqala.

Emva Yenkolo Okokuqala, la ezimpi zokholo kwase ephaphama ukulawula emzini Antiyokiya neJerusalema. Nokho, Yenkolo Second kushabalele. Yenkolo wesithathu yaphela ngo ukusilela ukuthi avunyelwe amaKristu ukuvakashela “iZwe Elingcwele.” IConstantinople kwaba aphanga ku eMpi Yenkolo Yesine. Emperor Frederick II wenza isivumelwano sokuthula Al-Kamil, umbusi waseGibhithe, okuyinto avumela amaKristu abuse iningi iJerusalema, kodwa ukuthula kuphela wathatha cishe 10 iminyaka and iJerusalema sieged by amaSulumane ngo 1244 ngubani baphinde ukulawula dolobha. Impi lasakazekela Tunisia ngu Yesishiyagalombili Yenkolo and final Owesishiyagalolunye Yenkolo, kokubili zazo kushabalele.

Around ukuphela Middle Ages, uCopernicus (1473 -1543), a sezinkanyezi wasePoland, udla model Aristarku sika heliocentric kohlelo elanga futhi wanyathelisa it ngokuyimfihlo kusukela izimangalo enjalo zazibhekwa lokuhlubuka by iSonto LamaKatolika. Umfuziselo wakhe wasebenzisa nokujikeleza yindilinga, kodwa senqaba iminyaka 200 kuze kwesibonakude yasungulwa uGalileo Galilei, (1564 -1642) .With kwesibonakude esanda kuklanywa, isiJalimane owazalelwa Johannes Kepler (1571 -1630) waphawula uJupiter ngaqaphela khona kwadingeka Imikhosi eminingi. Lokhu kwaba ngqo, ebonakalayo, futhi nobufakazi obungenakuphikiswa ukuthi yonke into yasezulwini akuzange uzungeze Earth.

Ukusetshenziswa kwesibonakude wabuye wenza izinkanyezi ezingaphezu abaningi ebonakalayo elalenza Kepler bayaqaphela ukuthi kwakungekho okuningi indawo yonke kwesisodwa bacabanga. Wayeqaphela nokuthi izinkanyezi zase phambili okuningi away kunalokho base okukholakala ukuthi, okwenza Parallax lezinkanyezi unobservable kusuka Earth ngaphandle kosizo.

Parallax lezinkanyezi yisona isiphakamiso sobala ukuthi izinkanyezi okubangelwa emzileni eMhlabeni futhi ukungakwazi kwethu ukubona ngamehlo ethu kwasenza phendukezela isimiso sethu sikanozungezilanga okwesikhathi eside. Aristarku waba ngowokuqala isikisela ukuthi ibanga olukhulu izinkanyezi yilona obhekene ukungakwazi kwethu ukugcina Parallax lezinkanyezi ngaphandle kosizo. Kepler akakwazanga agcine Parallax, kodwana kungenzeka waqaphela kuyoba kungenzeka nge isibonakude esinamandla kakhudlwana. [7]

Once Kepler modified model uCopernicus sika athe ngokushintsha nokujikeleza eziyiziyingelezi kwabangcwele okweqanda, umfuziselo wakhe kuhambisane ezindleleni yaphawula of amaplanethi izinyanga zabo ngokuphelele. (Iningi yalesi idatha orbit abuthelwa evela UTYCHO Brae eyayinawo a ‘naked-iso Observatory “ngaphambi kwesibonakude yasungulwa.) Kepler okokuqala bathola ukuthi iplanethi kungaba i emzileni okweqanda ngesikhathi ezama ukudweba ijamo owawuyolisiza ukufanisa Mars idatha emzileni.

Abantu abaningi abakwazanga ukwamukela ukuthi komthala kwakungeyona Jomethri nokuthi amaplanethi azungeza emzileni kwadingeka okusaqanda, nakuba kwakungekho Ubufakazi besayensi bubonisa ukuthi lena engokoqobo iminyaka engaba ngu-2000. Sasifuna ukuba kube izinhlangano ebaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni ebonakalayo, ngakho njengokulindelekile bacabanga sasingaqiniseki maphakathi nalo nokuthi kwakungekho lutho kunezinxushunxushu mayelana nendawo yonke. Ukusikisela nje ukuthi nokujikeleza kwamaplanethi zase okusaqanda nokuthi komthala kwaba heliocentric baphazamisa kakhulu abantu abaningi besikhathi Kepler sika (ngisho nakakhulu kubantu ngaphambi kwesikhathi sakhe). Ushushiso yenkolo njalo zazikuphazamisa inqubekelaphambili kanye nokwamukelwa kwalezi mibono.

Galileo walethwa ngaphambi nokuzuza esontweni eRoma futhi yayala ukuba basho ilanga ujikeleza Earth. Ukube wala, yena ngabe abulawa. Ngenxa yezinkolelo zakhe waphoqeleka ukuba uchithe minyaka eyisishiyagalombili iminyaka yokuphila kwakhe eboshelwe endlini. Ngisho Kepler kwadingeka nobunzima ukwamukela ukuthi amaplanethi azungeza emzileni zase okweqanda, nakuba ayazi kuyiqiniso futhi walahlekelwa bophezela isayensi. Lapho imibono engokwenkolo agxile ezingqondweni zabantu, baba nzima ukulahla.

Kepler lenza imithetho yokuqala okunembile motion kwamaplanethi, kodwa akakwazanga ukubona amandla wokuthi kwaba obhekene motion kwamaplanethi. Kepler wayeqinisile mayelana yonke imithetho yakhe. Isimiso sethu sonozungezilanga heliocentric, amaplanethi azungeza emzileni okweqanda; Amaplanethi do ashanele out amabanga alinganayo ezikhathini elinganayo. Nokho, wayekholelwa amaplanethi kufanele uzungeze ilanga ngenxa amabutho elanga kazibuthe, umqondo ekuqaleni lalotshwa William Gilbert. Kwakungekhona kuze Isaac Newton (1642 -1726) wethula umthetho jikelele adonsela phansi ukuthi nokujikeleza kwamaplanethi aqondakale ngokuphelele futhi kwakungenwa wabikezela. Newton ayethi adonsela phansi kwenza yonke into yasezulwini ukhangwa lezinto ezizungezile, nokuthi amandla izifele kuncike ibanga emkhatsini wetintfo kanye uquqaba lwabo. Elikhulu izinhloso kanye yasondelana kukhona maqondana nomunye, ukukhangana adonsela phansi kakhudlwana banayo ekufezeni nomunye. Nomthetho Newton sika adonsela phansi uthi: “izidumbu ezimbili ahehe nomunye nebutho okuwukuthi wakhona umkhiqizo uquqaba lwabo futhi inhlukanozigaba kuze esigcawini yebanga phakathi kwabo.” Newton lenza eqondile zezibalo yayingase zibikezela motion of izidumbu (netintfo) esekelwe ukuthatheka yabo ekufezeni nomunye. Wabuye ayenemithetho amathathu motion (njengoba kwenza Kepler) ezingaholela zibikezela imiphumela gravity in space kanye eMhlabeni.

Newton, uGalileo no Kepler sekubuyele amazulu ukuba uMhlaba ngomqondo ehilela. Bavula ukuthi amandla efanayo okusho obangela nokujikeleza kwamaplanethi nakho kusenza off Zomhlaba ezintantayo. Benza yonke siphile ngokuvumelana ncazelo yayo ngomqondo. Bavula kukhona ukungaguquguquki nokuhleleka.

Njengoba ukuqonda kwethu isayensi indawo yonke yaba eziyinkimbinkimbi ngokwengeziwe futhi elikhudlwana. UNkulunkulu waba amancane. Isayensi akusho Nokho bathathe uNkulunkulu ngokuphelele aphume yendaba,. Newton kwaba abashisekela inkolo njengaye amaningi amandulela kanye ababephila, futhi wayekholelwa ukuthi ngesikhathi uNkulunkulu ngeke bephakamise amaplanethi, kumelwe ukuba wazibeka motion ekuqaleni (uma kukhona ungomunye). Something noma umuntu kwadingeka aqale indawo yonke, futhi uNkulunkulu waklama umkhathi kanye nengqondo, imithetho kubalwa kwaba aduduzayo ngaphezu kukaNkulunkulu owayengakwenza whatever he wajabulisa, ngisho nakulabo babeyithanda kakhulu inkolo. Abanye abantu babondliwa up ne izindlela hierarchal of the Church ngisho nabantu kakhulu zenkolo abanye bamukela umcabango Newton sika kaNkulunkulu, kuhlanganise abashumayeli Orthodox futhi Latitudinarians. [Xix]

Iningi zefilosofi yamaGreki Ancient babekholelwa ukuthi indawo yonke babengenalo nesiqalo futhi ngeke kuphele. Kuyaduduza ukukholelwa indawo yonke kanye nokuphila Kuyoba phakade. Kodwa ukuphila ingabe njengamanje babe kuphele ongenakugwenywa, futhi siyazi Manje kwakukhona isiqalo noma ukuzalwa kwalo yonke, kodwana asazi okwamanje ukwazi lokho, uma kukhona, andulela i Big Bang. Cosmogony okwamanje ngaphandle kombuso wesayensi.

The Big Bang singularity kwadingeka ukuba bube khona isikhathi esithile, futhi kwadingeka ivela endaweni ethile ngaphandle uma wazalwa kokuhlela kusengaphambili aphume lutho kanye nesikhathi. Kubonakala okungenangqondo ukukholelwa wawathola lutho. “Yize” ubuye kunzima ukuchaza. Zikhona athomu yonke indawo, ngisho nasezindaweni lwelula black ezingenalutho space, ngakho uma yize ingabe zikhona noma akwenza, ngeke cishe awulalele noma bakwazi bakuchaza.

Eyeza baqagela esinye umkhathi parallel noma umkhathi in isici ezahlukene unomthwalo ukuba khona kwale ndawo yonke nje adale more imibuzo ngalabo universes kanye emithonjeni yazo. Kodwa siyazi yonke yaba nesiqalo ngokucwaninga of cosmic emisebeni microwave sendlalelo, futhi ngokuqinisekile ngeke kungenzeka thola olulodwa usuku umsuka the singularity.

Edwin Hubble waba ngowokuqala ukufakazela umkhathi uyanda ngokuhlaziya nomkhakha ukukhanya izinkanyezi [8]. Njengoba umthombo kukhanya uyasuka nathi kanye yamaza zokukhanya athole eside, zivela ebomvu. (Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi Effect Doppler.) Futhi Hubble waphawula ukuthi zonke izinkanyezi ukuthi kukhona kude nathi avele abomvu ngoba kokuba sebesuka nathi.

Lapho Hubble ezikhishwe akutholile, babembalwa kakhulu nabantu ababezimisele ukwamukela umkhathi kwakungeyona static. Abantu abaningi namanje bakhethe esiduduzayo, imibono ongashintshi phezu ones zesayensi. Wonke umuntu izinkolelo zabo siqu ezingokomoya nefilosofi mayelana nendlela indawo yonke isebenza nokubaluleka yokuphila, ngisho noma kungukuthi abasemaqenjini yimuphi nenkolo. Abantu bavame noma indoctrinated nge izimpendulo noma bavele bahlanganise izimpendulo zabo siqu, ngazo bakuthola eziduduzayo. Ngisho usosayensi brilliant like Albert Einstein wayengeyena umuntu kakhulu inkolo, kodwa akazange akholelwe kuNkulunkulu. Wabuye Kwadingeka izinkolelo engalungile ukuba zazishukunyiswa yilokho lalinethezeke ngaye. Wazizwa ophilayo okuntofontofo endaweni static lapho kwakukhona nobufakazi okuningi ngokuthi nokukuphikisa umqondo. Njengoba isixazululo, weza ekhuphuka nge-mbono ezibizwa ngokuthi i-njalo cosmological ukuze banezele inkolelo-mbono yakhe Ukuhlobana. Lokhu theory uchaza ukuthi indawo yonke evelelwa kuthambekela ukuzuza ifa ukwandisa, kodwa ukuthi ibutho ebizwa anti-amandla adonsela phansi akusikhululi out le kuthambekela, kuphumele universe static. Kodwa le theory kwase kungase kutholakale ukuthi ayilungile. Lapho Hubble ezikhishwe akutholile Einstein senqaba njalo sakhe cosmological ngokushesha, beyibiza ngokuthi ukuphaphalaza enkulu yokuphila kwakhe futhi ezibonisa kuyisayensi neqiniso nokuzinikezela kwakhe phezu inkolelo yakhe esiduduzayo.

Gods ayengabantu nenduduzo kubantu okwesikhathi eside, kodwa isayensi kufanele ibe ngaphezulu a induduzo manje ngoba engasitshela okuningi kangaka mayelana indawo yethu yonke. Esikhundleni sokukholelwa konke kwenzeka ngenxa intando esithile elite, azi konke nenhlalakahle nobe abaningi kubo abangakwazi ngemibuzo, singakwazi bebonke ukulawula isiphetho kwezwe kanye nokuphila kwethu siqu ngokuqaphela kukhona ukungaguquguquki nemithetho ukuthi indawo yonke uyalalela . Thina anganika thina back control. Singaphila ezweni kuwo okulungile nokungalungile livulekele incazelo. Singayiqonda umnyombo ukuziphatha okubhubhisa esikhundleni ukwahlulela futhi mindlessly ukujezisa abantu esikholelwa ukuthi ububi. Singaphila in an universe eqondakalayo kanye nkomoni.

2.10 Ithonya lenkolo emlandweni wamuva phambi kolwazi lwesayensi           `

By engxenyeni yokugcina yekhulu lama-20, isintu wayesefikile ibanga elide kusukela theory Aristotelian ngokuthi Earth kwaba uphumule maphakathi yonke. Asigcinanga bafunde ukuthi Earth osebenzisa ezisekelweni zawo futhi ujikeleza ilanga, sasazi ukuthi ihamba lonke Milky Way Galaxy kanye kude nezinye izinhlelo elanga emthaleni wethu njengoba space ayakhukhumala. Siphinde wathola ukuthi ayikho into okuthiwa nesikhathi ngokuphelele nobe sikhala kanye theory of Ukuhlobana wasitshela ukuthi isikhathi nendawo axhunyiwe futhi kwasonta amandla adonsela phansi nesivinini. Kuqhathaniswa nakho sasitshela ukuthi izinto zibonakala ukunciphisa uma kuhamba maqondana obukele, nokuthi izenzakalo kanyekanye ngeke bhekani kanyekanye kumuntu ezihambayo. Naphezu ingakanani kwatholakala, eziyisisekelo, ulwazi lwesayensi namanje awatholakali yonke indawo, futhi lokhu kwenza kube ukuntuleka okukhulu lwesayensi, njengoba enza wona ugcwele yenkolo. Nososayensi ugqozi Carl Sagan wachaza le nkinga kamnandi encwadini yakhe, idemoni Haunted World: Science njengendlela Candle in the Dark:

“Esinye sezifundo yaba buhlungu emlandweni yilesi: Uma senza kuyilokho bamboozled eside ngokwanele, sivame ukuba wenqabe noma iyiphi ubufakazi bamboozle. We uku ayisekho nesithakazelo ekutholeni iqiniso. I bamboozle uye ethumba us. Kumane nje kubuhlungu kakhulu ukuba bavume – ngisho ngokwethu – ukuthi thina Ingihlabe credulous kangaka.

Kusukela ngeMpi Yezwe II, Japan uye eyaqanjwa izinombolo ezinkulukazi izinkolo ezintsha enesihloko angaphezu kwemvelo …. E Thailand, izifo ziphathwa nge amaphilisi ekhiqizwa kusuka ziyacolwa UmBhalo engcwele. Abathakathi namuhla ngokuba ushiswe eNingizimu Afrika …. The emhlabeni wonke TM [transcendental Ukuzindla] ibandla ine yokulinganisa kulinganiselwa of $ 3 billion. Ngokuba imali, benza athembisa ukwenza kuwe engabonakali, kuwe sikwazi ukundiza.

Lapho ebuzwa zimane nje uma benza ukwamukela kwemvelo, amaphesenti 45 of baseMelika bathi yebo. Bangamaphesenti angu-70 e-China. Lapho le movie Jurassic Park yabukiswa e-Israyeli, khona salahlwa abanye Orabi Orthodox ngoba amukela kwemvelo futhi ngoba wafundisa ukuthi izibankwakazi waphila eyikhulu namashumi million eminyakeni edlule-nini, njengoba zisobala at njalo Rosh Hashanah futhi wonke lomshado emcimbini Jewish, the Universe uneminyaka engaphansi kuka 6,000 ubudala. “[xx]

Lezi nje ezinye zezinkinga eziningi ezibangelwa izinkolo namuhla. Naphezu abaningi groundbreaking, zesayensi eyenziwe ekhulwini lama-20, inani labantu enkolo sakhula kakhulu phezu leminyaka ikakhulukazi ngenxa proselytization okusakazekile. (The leminyaka lama-21 Nokho, ibona ukwehla elincane labantu.

Ngisho nalapho abantu ukufinyelela lezinkanyezi, ukucindezela-sibuyekezwe ukwaziswa kwesayensi, abaningi abafuni ukwenza ukuhlobana phakathi kwesayensi nenkolo yabo, Isayensi akuzange asitshele kukhona kwangemva kokufa, futhi lokhu kungase kube isizathu esiyinhloko abantu abaningi baye igcinwe yabo izinkolo. Ukwesaba ukufa ungokoqobo impela futhi ushukumisa abantu ukuba bakholwe lutho abacabanga bangasiza. Kodwa isayensi engazange nokukuphikisa khona ngemva kokufa. Ososayensi baye babonisa ukuthi kuyinto kunalokho obungasiliqiniso. Imizimba ukubola, kanti ukwazi nje ukhona eside kangaka njengoba esiyikho siphapheme futhi uyaphila. Abefundisi benkolo ngokuvamile bayazi esingaphansi le mayelana ngokoqobo, ukuphila nokufa ukwedlula ososayensi bengabahlakaniphe kunabo ngoba isayensi lusekelwe ebufakazini ihlanganiswe nokuhlolwa nenkolo akuyona. (Ososayensi futhi ngokuvamile kakhudlwana zokuziphatha.)

Akunangqondo ukuba singaphethi isiphetho esisodwa laphakade inqunywa ngokuthi ukunamathela enkolweni eyodwa noma nomunye. Lonke Umqondo wezulu isihogo zakudala engenangqondo vele. Life akuyona test. Abanye abantu nje bathathe izenzo amoral ngoba Basunduzelwé kakhulu. Abazi kubafanele ukujeziswa phakade lapho kakade bajeziswa ekuphileni kwabo. Abantu kumele enze okuhle emhlabeni hhayi ngoba bakholelwa bona uyovuzwa ekuphileni kwakamuva, kodwa ngoba kuyinto efanele ukwenza manje, futhi kungcono kakhulu ukuvele ukugwema ecabanga ngokufa futhi sigxile niphila. Nsuku zonke kungasetshenziswa okuthile okunenjongo futhi ejabulisayo.

Kakhulu ezweni namanje ikholelwa izinganekwane creationist. In a CBS wezindaba Inhlolo-vo eyenziwa ngo 2005, 51% of the baseMelika ababuzwa bathi bakholwa uNkulunkulu wadala abantu ngesimo sabo okwamanje, 30% bakholwa abantu savela kodwa ukuthi uNkulunkulu “waqondisa” inqubo, kanti a-15% abantu bakholwa nje savela ngaphandle ukusizwa kaNkulunkulu. [xxi] iningi emhlabeni namanje ophika khona kwemvelo futhi amanye aze bakholelwa emhlabeni yadalwa eminyakeni embalwa edlule eyizinkulungwane, njengoba enza izizwe benkolo abaningi abangamaJuda, Muslim kanye nezinye. Amanye amaKristu akholelwa lokhu ngoba izazi zeBhayibheli wanezela up ubudala wonke okukuGenesise ukubala nesikhathi ‘indalo. “Literalists Iningi kweBhayibheli bakholelwa indawo yonke esiphakathi 4000 no 10,000 ubudala. (The Ukulinganisela ezivame kakhulu eminyakeni 6000.) Lezi izilinganiso benziwe imibhalo zenkolo ezihlukahlukene. Nokho, zikhona izindlela eziningi kangaka ngokwesayensi ukufakazela uMhlaba zezigidi zeminyaka ubudala. Carbon ukuphola stone, imivubukulo nokunye usinike izilinganiso of engu wangempela wendawo yonke, Zomhlaba nokuphila.

Kwesinye Ucwaningo olwenziwa ngo-1999 ngumuntu ejensi ongumKristu Fundamentalist ebizwa Gxila Family, eyodwa kuphela amaphesenti amaKristu ababuzwa bathi bakholelwa ukuphila kwazivelela ngokwayo, futhi 43% bakholwa UNkulunkulu wadala indawo yonke iminyaka embalwa eyizinkulungwane edlule. 46% yabantu ababuzwa kwakungewona isiqiniseko lapho uNkulunkulu edala indawo yonke. Njengoba kushiwo, isayensi asikwenqabeli kungenzeka ukuthi indawo yonke kwadalwa umdali, futhi kungase ungalokothi wenze kanjalo. Kodwa uma uNkulunkulu akwenza ukuklama indawo yonke ke okungenani sazi ukuthi kungenxa konke uNkulunkulu akwenza.

Ubufakazi kwemvelo kuyinto engase ongenamkhawulo, futhi kungaba yingozi kakhulu enqabe isayensi lapho cishe konke emhlabeni nje imisebenzi ngenxa ukuqonda kwethu isayensi. Ulwazi kwesokudla kungaba ngokuvamile kungasho umehluko phakathi kokufa nokuphila. Iyingozi ukukholelwa kuNkulunkulu kungathinta izwe lethu nganoma iyiphi indlela Yena ejabulisa. Maqiniso esayensi kuthinta wonke umuntu, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi izinkolelo zethu siqu. Siphinde kakhulu ehlaselwe izinkolelo zethu ezingokwenkolo kungakhathaliseki ukuthi zilungile noma azilungile.

Isizathu sekube ukwehla esincane, kodwa fast esinjalo kuleli labantu engokwenkolo eminyakeni yamuva yingoba ososayensi babengakaze bakwazi ukuchaza kangaka ngaphambi kwekhulu lama-20 Kwakukhona nobufakazi thiyori ukuthi wasekela heliocentrism kanye ukuba khona okweqanda, nokujikeleza kwamaplanethi mayelana 2000 iminyaka ngaphambi iningi Ekugcineni amukela la imibono eminyakeni engaba ngu-300 edlule ngokuyinhloko ngenxa amandla Amasonto nababusi ezazisekela la mibono. I wokuziphilisa (ekutheni uNkulunkulu akaziwa akhangwe, uNkulunkulu akekho, unaffiliated, njll) labantu uzothola emikhulu njengoba sisakaza nemfundo enhle ngokukhululekile futhi ngaphandle ukucwaninga.

2.11 Inkolo, Sex, kanye Kabi

Enye inkinga nge izinkolo ukuthi ngokuvamile ukuthelela ohulumeni efana amagciwane. Ngenxa yokuthi umphakathi yenkolo, osombusazwe kukhona futhi, futhi size senze ushintsho, ngeke noma. Kukhona imithetho le abaningi kakhulu e-America bese lonke izwe kwadalwa ngezizathu zenkolo ezephula lesishayamthetho komthethosisekelo esidinga zokwehlukanisa inkolo nomthetho. Imithetho isisu ungomunye izibonelo eyaqhutshwa kunazo. Ukukhipha isisu ngokungemthetho ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba ngoba abaholi bezombusazwe benkolo abaningi bakholelwa it is a enesono. Bakholelwa aborting umbungu noma umbungu kufana ngokubulala ingane. Kodwa kukhona ezinye, ukuhlukanisa ezibalulekile zesayensi ukwenza. A fetus akusho ukuthuthukisa kuze ngesonto 11 of yobudala sokukhulelwa. A fetus futhi akubi ‘iphila “(okuyinto ikhono aphile ngaphandle kwesibeletho) kuze okungenani izinyanga ezinhlanu emva kokukhulelwa. Liphinde akakwazi ubuhlungu kuze senyanga yesithathu.

Kunzima ukunquma lapho kuqala ukuphila komuntu, kodwa akubonakali kunengqondo ukunquma ukuthi ukuphila kuqala lapho umuntu isidoda kungena i oocyte nobe iqanda bese liba ZYGOTE. A esitokisini angeke babe namalungelo zomthetho, ngoba awukwazi ufake ZYGOTE noma isidoda icala futhi ubuze imibuzo khona. (The efanayo kusebenza fetus, of course.) Zygotes akuzona ngitjho eduze ekubeni anekhono-thile, kufanele ukuba ngomunye izidingo eziyisisekelo kunazo ngokuthi ubuntu. Uma isidoda amangqamuzana kwadingeka amalungelo kwezomthetho, bonke abesilisa owake masturbated zazizosetshenziswa ejele ngenxa lokubulala mass. Ngakho-ke, impikiswano isisu kufanele wasondela pragmatically futhi ngozwelo. Le course phambili kumele babe imithelela emihle ongachazeka kunazo kwezenhlalo, futhi kufanele ekugcineni ube izinqumo.

Lapho owesifazane ekhulelwe iba, kuyilungelo wakhe ilungelo yedwa ukunquma ikusasa. Yena kufanele athuthukise umbungu, ukusekela it, ukondla it, uhambe ngokusebenzisa izinhlungu. Kuyinto enobubele okungaphezulu nokucabangela kwamalungelo esintu ukusekela izinqumo-babecabanga kuhle out of abesifazane kunalokho ukusekela izinqumo ohulumeni noma ezinye izinhlangano uninvolved ngekusasa imizimba yabesifazane. Ukukhipha isisu udaba esehla lenkululeko siqu, kodwa nalabo uphikisane ngokuvamile fihla njengento into enye. Uma intombazane noma owesifazane akanawo izinsiza ezifanele ukukhulisa ingane enempilo futhi akafuni munye, asikho isizathu yena okufanele aphoqwe ukuba babe nomntwana. Uma lokhu kwenzeka, ingane yakhe kuyoba cishe babe anginampilo engajabule futhi izimpilo umzali (s) ngubani zinamalungelo elingenakuphikwa ungabhujiswa kule nqubo.

Uma embungwini kuphela ngokuya ukuzalelwa ukuhlupheka, ukulamba futhi sifa, kungani kungaba nesihawu kakhudlwana ukuvumela it aphile lokho khona iDemo? Ngokuvamile nabantu abakholelwa ukuphila kuqala lapho owesifazane ebamba Awunandaba izimo, (ngisho noma ukudlwengulwa noma ukulalana kwezihlobo babehileleke) kodwa cishe njalo abalutho kwabesifazane abaye baxhashazwa futhi elifakwe. Abaningi ukuthatha ‘pro-ukuphila “Ukuma hhayi ngoba banakekele abantwana engakazalwa, kodwa ngoba ekhathalela ijeziswa phakade noma bengasabeli. Lena ubugovu, hhayi uzwela.

Ukwanda ibuye eba inkinga engathi sína. Abantu abangaphezu zidinga izinsiza ngaphezulu. Ngenxa yokuthi kukhona nezingane eziningi kangaka ngaphandle abazali, nokucabanga izingane zethu siqu babengase babhekwe athe sobugovu okwamanje ngesikhathi. Ukuze asize silawule le nkinga, wonke umuntu kufanele abe kalula amakhondomu, ukulawula sokuzalwa kanye kwezempilo zokuzala, ikakhulukazi intsha. Ukushumayela nokuzila pheze never usebenza yokuthi intsha iningi bafuna ocansini ngenxa emvelo, hormone zabo ekuphumeni, ngakho kungcono kakhulu ukuvumela kubo babe it ngenkathi ekuvimbeleni ukukhulelwa okungafunwa kanye nobulili. Sex ubuye omunye izici ezibaluleke kakhulu ekuphileni, futhi akulungile ukuphuca intsha kwalo nje yokuthi abanye abantu bakholelwa intsha akufanele babe it.

Imithetho emelene yocwaningo lwama-stem cell nazo zikhona ngoba osopolitiki zenkolo bashukunyiswa ukwesaba okufanayo. Abantu abaningi benkolo baye bathi ngokwenza ucwaningo stem cell, ososayensi ebulala izingane. Kodwa stem cells zimane eziphilayo ezincane, futhi yini ngempela ubulala abantu abaphila is hhayi ukucwaninga on stem cells ngoba lesi nocwaningo kuye kwaholela ekutholakaleni ukuphilisa for izifo ukuphela.

Abashisekeli benkolo abakuhulumeni ubuye obangela sodomy khona nemithetho isithembu. Sodomy kuchazwa ngokuthi isono eBhayibhelini, futhi kungakho kwaba emthethweni up kwaze 2003 ngo-15 uthi. Abanye uthi yebo wanikela ngokuphila ejele ngenxa sodomy. Iningi la ithi mahluko emkhatsini sodomy kwabobulili nobe zobungqingili, definicja kwabo esidluliselwa ngobulili bomlomo kanye. Blowjobs Eqinisweni, ngokungemthetho.

Ngisho yobudala lapho ungakwazi ngokomthetho ocansini buchazwa ohulumeni, futhi ikakhulu abantu zenkolo kuhulumeni. (In America yobudala yokuvuma kuyinto 18, kodwa emazweni amaningi kuba ngokufanele aphansi.) With emuva zethu imithetho, a nesishiyagalolunye kungenziwa enecala lokudlwengula sokuba ocansini ngokuvumelana engu-seventeen ubudala. Abanye intsha ngisho ukuba babhalise njengoba sex ezasuswa for ukuthumela imibhalo ngokocansi noma izithombe komunye nomunye, okuyinto udidekile ngokomqondo. Abantu at nje mayelana yonke yobudala anganquma ngabe bafuna ocansini. Umbono wokuthi leli khono eza kuwe on lwakho lokuzalwa nesishiyagalombili akukhona okunengqondo. Njengoba nje ucansi kuyinto emkhatsini kwemacembu amabili kokuvuma, akufanele kube amabhizinisi ubani omunye sika.

Abaningi abaholi benkolo bendabuko futhi ngecala sex pre-emshadweni, isisu, ukushaya indlwabu kanye inzalo ngokocansi. Lokhu kunemiphumela eziningi ezingezinhle. Ngamabomu repressing womuntu ubulili siqu ungomunye ngowakho iningi okungenziwa, hhayi lokuvimbela inzalo kwandisa ingozi yokudlulisela izifo zocansi. Ngo-2009 uPapa Benedict XVI walahla inzalo futhi utshele Afrika, kakhulu AIDS izwekazi wagibela Emhlabeni, abakwazanga ukusebenzisa amakhondomu nokuthi ‘owenza nkinga sibi kakhulu. “Kungenzeka Abaningi bakholwa nguye labulawa.

Amakhulu ezinkulungwane zabapristi bamaKatolika ngaphesheya emhlabeni nabo osolwa ngokudlwengula izingane. Lokhu kungaba ngenxa yenkolelo lwabo oluqinile zokucindezelwa ngokocansi. Ngenxa yokuthi abapristi abavunyelwe ocansini, bashade, noma ngisho ukushaya indlwabu, ubulili babo avaleleke up bangaba nolaka nesiphambeneyo, futhi akhanga ezinganeni ukukhulula ezinye lokhu ukungezwani ngoba bayazi izingane le cishe okungenani ukukhuluma ngakho, futhi abapristi sijeziso lokudlwengula ngaphezu yimuphi omunye group. Abafana bayadlwengulwa kaningi ngaphezu amantombazane cishe ngoba iningi abapristi abenza ukudlwengula abangongqingili, futhi bangase ukuphishekela ubupristi ngoba kuyizinto namahloni ubungqingili yabo futhi sazizwa cindezela it. Ongqingili becindezela engamaKristu sola ubungqingili zivamile [9], ngakho kungenzeka. Sodomy kuyinto “isono ultimate” kwabaningi balaba bantu futhi lokhu uthola kubo uya.

Wonke umuntu udinga ukukhululwa wonke umuntu udinga uthando. Akunakwenzeka ukuba siphile ngendlela laba bapristi ukukwenza futhi evamile futhi unempilo, kanjalo laba ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi kuzoqhubeka isikhathi eside kangaka njengoba abapristi ahlale ngokocansi becindezela kanye neSonto indiva lezi zinkinga. Naphezu lokho bangase bakholwe, repressing kwakho kobulili akukwenzi ube yimuphi kakhudlwana ’emsulwa. “Kwenza awunalo ucezu lwesintu sakho, futhi kungaholela ezenzweni esidabukisayo like ekunukubezweni, (ikakhulukazi uma kwenzeke abe besilisa ngenxa amazinga aphezulu testosterone).

Ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi eSontweni LamaKatolika akuyona inkinga encane, futhi ngokuqinisekile akugcini amaSonto eMelika. Liye ezibikiwe emhlabeni wonke, futhi nje kulinganiselwa 3% of abefundisi bamaKatolika osolwa uye wakhonza ejele isikhathi. [Xxii] izimo of kabi ngokobulili angabikwa kakhulu ngenxa ngendlela kusingathwa esontweni. Ezinye izingane bayesaba kakhulu ukuba ubike ukuhlukunyezwa, ikakhulukazi lapho zisongelwa nge ahlulelwa esihogweni abapristi. Nokho, Amasonto aye yayala ukuba akhokhe inhlawulo esindayo for lokhu kuhlukunyezwa. Dioceses american iyodwa ziye wakhokha kuka $ 2.6 billion isinxephezelo ngenxa ukuhlukunyezwa amahlazo kusukela ngo-1950 [xxiii] La Amasonto Catholic yicala nje imali engaka ngoba abantu pha it, futhi abapristi abaningi abasontayo ucindezela ukuba bengazi ukukhokhela imali yabo yokudlwengulwa.

Naphezu izinhlawulo, abapristi bambalwa kakhulu ngabaxhaphazayo ngokocansi abaye bakhonza noma nini ejele ngoba iSonto has system ayo ngomthetho: iVatican, isimo lokuzibusa. Izingane ezikoleni yamaKatolika nazo ngokuvamile kwakudingeka basayine amaphepha waive amalungelo abo ukuze ucindezele amacala nabo noma kuhulumeni, futhi ngezinye izikhathi izikole zamaKatolika zicele zobumfihlo ukweqa lapho abezindaba noma ohulumeni uzame ahileleke noma ucele imibuzo. Ohulumeni kuyaqabukela musa balwe noma. Ngokuvamile lapho abapristi basolwa okubi ngokobulili, basuke bamane abayiswe kwesinye wendawo lapho abakwazi ngokocansi kabi izingane. Ngaphambi basuke kuthuthela kwenye indawo ngokuvamile alandele “therapy” lapho ‘welapha “ngobungqingili yabo, ngoba inkinga yangempela kuya esontweni kuyinto ubungqingili sabo hhayi isifiso sabo ukuba ukudlwengula izingane. Babuye bona ubungqingili kanye ekunukubezweni njengoba ngandlela-thile equatable.

Abapristi kumelwe abe seduze kuNkulunkulu ngaphezu kwanoma ubani omunye kanye zokuziphatha kunazo bonke abantu, nokho kangaka abaningi babo baye basolwa lokhu. Kuyinto angenakuqhathaniswa ngokuthi lokhu kuye kwadingeka encane nomphumela obonakalayo on abalandeli zamaKatolika. Zazizokwenzenjani abapristi ukuyenzela Catholic Church-goers ukuba kabusha enkolweni yabo noma okungenani kakhulu ukwesekwa kwabo weSonto nenkohlakalo yayo? Ingabe okwandile child ekunukubezweni emaSontweni yethu engcwele kunazo akwanele?

Ngisho uPapa, ngubani okufanele abe esondelene kuNkulunkulu, uyazi konke ngalokhu kabi ngokobulili futhi uye indiva ngokuphelele udaba. Yena futhi ushumayela siphile ngokuzithoba, nokho yena clan wakhe bahlala isigodlo okusho ngokoqobo siyisimo. (The abathobekile ngokuqinisekile nokho ifa Earth.) In the Book of uJohane, uJesu Ithukuthele igane unwabu lapho ethola abantu abathengisa izinkomo zabo ethempelini, nokho iVatican uye wenza eyabo Gold Izinhlamvu zemali eziqoshwe ngomfanekiso kobuso Pope . UJesu wabuye wathi: “Babusisiwe abampofu for eyabo umbuso wezulu” – Mathewu 5: 3, bese “Thengisa izimpahla zakho bese epha sa; zenzeni ngemali amabhande ngazo azigugi, i gugu elingonakali ezulwini, lapho kungekho isela osondela noma inundu ibulala “-. Luka 12:13.

UJesu wabuye walahla abacebile, futhi waze wathi nabantu ezicebile ngeke anikezwe ukufinyelela ezulwini encwadini kaMathewu: “Nginitshela iqiniso; kunzima ngesicebi ukungena embusweni wezulu. Again ngiyanitshela, kuba lula ikamela ukudabula yenaliti kunokuba isicebi singene embusweni kaNkulunkulu “- Mathewu 19:. 23-24. Ngakho-ke, uma izulu ingabe zikhona, uPapa kuyoba isimanga lapho ufa. Kungani kungafanele uPapa cha balandele uJesu futhi iziyalezo zakhe? Kunganjani ngithengise Vatican sondle emhlabeni? Uma empeleni wayekholelwa izimiso uJesu wafundisa, wayeyoba ezithile le asisindise umphefumulo wakhe.

Inkolo Kuyohlala bugcwale njengoba kuyinto eside kangaka njengoba izingane indoctrinated abazali babo. Inkolo isuka ezizukulwaneni ngezizukulwane, futhi le kungani kwamukelwa. Kodwa abadala izifundiswa abangafundiswanga indoctrinated nge yenkolo lingama irreligious, futhi nakho ngobuchule ngokwesilinganiso.

Ngikusho konke lokhu ukuze kungabi akajabulanga ubani. Yiqiniso, amanye amaqiniso kukhona engicasulayo, kodwa mina ukusekela ngokuphelele futhi bavume nenkululeko Abantu babe ukukholelwa yinoma yini abafuna ukukukholelwa, kodwa lokhu akusho ukuthi kufanele abonise le nkululeko ngokukholelwa ezintweni okungenzeka siyiqaphele kukhona engenangqondo. Kufanele sibe kokuba enengqondo, izingxoxo ezolile ngalezi zimpikiswano hhayi sokunamathela imfundiso noma ubudlova nje yokuthi yezinkolelo zethu ezijulile ezikhokhwayo inselele. Izinkolo ezihleliwe angaba ezinobuthi emphakathini futhi nathi kungaba ngcono kakhulu ukube off secularism kwakuyinto evame ngaphezu izinkolo. Ngenkathi kwezesayensi (efana technology izikhali) ziye kwadingeka imithelela omubi kakhulu emphakathini, isayensi esenze ngekubambisana esingaphansi ukwahlulela. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi abantu abaningi baye banquma ukuba ayekethise ngezinye izikhathi separatist, izinkolelo zabo ezingokwenkolo nesayensi, okuyinto eye wenza abanye bethu siqonde impande zesayensi of ukungafani zethu ukuba singenciki ukulawula. Umthelela omuhle Science mayelana nomphakathi, ngaphandle kokungabaza, kwakuwedlula omunye walo ezingezinhle. Ifanelwe nemizwa ukuphakama phezu kwabanye ezidalwa ikakhulu kusukela nesayensi inkolelo systems. Isayensi futhi akusho ukuphoqelela noma yimuphi imibono on ubani. (Thina kusele ukuba ahumushe incazelo kanye okushiwo zesayensi), ngakho akanawo uhlobo olufanayo wokulawula umphumela ungubani ukuba izinkolo ukukwenza.

Kufanele baqonde indlela yokuphatha kanye ekugcineni obhubhisayo izinkolo zethu ihlelwe futhi sihlanganyele eminakweni okuzuzisa ngokwengeziwe. We othandwa ukulawula okukhulu phezu singobani ukube sonke baba zezwe futhi saqhubeka ukuziphatha kwethu nezindinganiso ngisho wabenza enengqondo kakhudlwana futhi sekufakwe. Ezweni esiphila kwakuyoba ngcono kakhulu ngenxa yalokho. Abantu bahlobanise izinto eziningi kangaka emihle ngokholo nenkolo, kanjalo le kungaba kubonakale counterintuitive kuya ngabanye kakhulu inkolo. Bengingekutshele ubani akufanele ukholelwe kuNkulunkulu, ngoba uNkulunkulu angasho lukhulu kwabaningi. Kwabanye abantu kuNkulunkulu kusho konke lwesintu, futhi abaningi bahlobanisa nenkolo yabo noNkulunkulu kanye izimbangela neyobuntu futhi benze umsebenzi wosizo ngenxa it. Nje Abanye abantu benze lo msebenzi ukuze kushwelezwe kuNkulunkulu. I am hhayi sesimweni ukusho ukusho noma cha le ezenzé zaba okubi angeza nalokhu, (ie ukuthembela kuNkulunkulu, ukudumala, imfundiso, ukucabanga imilingo njalonjalo). Ngokuqinisekile kuxhomeke. Kuyinto sobugovu ukwenza umsebenzi wosizo ngoba nje okulindele umvuzo. Kodwa yimuphi umsebenzi wosizo, kungakhathaliseki ngesisusa, ungcono akekho nhlobo.

2.12 lwati lwesayensi futhi umphumela wawo ukusabalala kwamandla

Ngokuqinisekile Intuthuko yethu Amazing ulwazi lwesayensi emlandweni wamuva ziye wasihlanganisa okuningi okuhle. Kodwa kukhona embi ngalo ukuba nolwazi, okuyinto lokhu ngokuvamile ohahelwayo futhi equkethwe yi-abacebile ukuze abacebile. Ulwazi ngamandla futhi lapho imininingwane kanye nemfundo kuphela avunyelwe ukufinyelela izingqondo izakhamuzi eliphezulu-class, le kudala ngozi enkulu, ngoba abangakwenza futhi ngokuvamile basebenzisa lolu lwazi ukuze sizuze emandleni xaxa futhi hlanganisa ndawonye it ngokuqhubekayo phakathi ocebile. Nolwazi kungaba nje yingozi njengoba ezinganekwaneni engokwenkolo ngenxa yalokhu.

Indlela eyodwa okuningi uyazi ngokuvamile kuyinto reflection of Kunezici ezimbili: kangakanani ukufinyelela lo muntu uye kwadingeka ulwazi kanye ingakanani isifiso ukuba umuntu kwadingeka ukuba siqonde futhi baqonde ukuthi imininingwane. Kungase kudingeke uhlaziye definition kwethu yezobunhloli ngenxa yalokhu. Ngeshwa, abantu abaningi ngolwazi eliphakeme azizwe ebalulekile ngaphezu kwalabo bazi engaphansi. Kodwa abantu abangafundile iningi bamane abanakho ukufinyelela ulwazi kanye nemfundo, ngisho nakuba intando omkhulu ukuze ufunde. Bagogoda akuzona ezikhethekile noma ebaluleke njalo. Ayemaningi nje nenhlanhla ngokwanele ukuba ukufinyelela olwazini olukhulu, kodwa lokho esikwenzayo ngalolu lwazi kuyinto ebaluleke kunazo.

Ababusi autocratic kunazo ifa ulwazi, futhi ukwazi lokhu kubanika ikhono ukulawula kokubili ngokwengqondo nangokomzimba nabantu. Abantu esicebe bavame sabangela ezikoleni best ukuze bakwazi babe nosopolitiki cabangela ezinye izindima ezinamandla ukuba agade ESIKHONA isimo. Geniuses awuzimisele bavame ilawulwe ohulumeni ukusebenzisa ulwazi lwabo ukudala ngabodwa. Albert Einstein wabhala incwadi ekhuthazayo uhulumeni ukwenza ucwaningo xaxa on fission yenuzi njengoba umthombo wamandla, kodwa umphumela engadingeki kwaba intuthuko kanye ayanda kabanzi kwezikhali zenuzi.

Nolwazi uvame esetshenziswa amabutho ngamandla ukuze athole ukulawula kwezenhlalo nezomnotho. Ezithile, ukulawula imininingwane, kanye nokwaziswa ligodliwe kukhona konke ezikwaziyo asize ukugcina ohulumeni nasezindaweni zokusebenza undemocratic. Izinhlobo ngekwesimonhlalo ewusizo kolwazi efana yesayensi yezokwelapha, isayensi plant, biochemistry, isayensi uMhlaba, futhi zonke izinhlobo nolwazi ukuba asize sekela Earth nokuphila ziye ukufihlelwa emiphakathini lula ukuba ahlupheke ngaphandle kwabo ukuzuza zababusi. Benza “sesimanje” mayelana okulawula yabo siqu kwezomnotho namasiko.

A lizwe akudingeki ukuba ube isizwe isicebi noma ngisho neqhaza emnothweni wezwe sibe izinhlobo eziyisisekelo wolwazi esekela ukuphila khona. Amasiko izifundiswa kumele amane nje anikeze amasiko silula nolwazi okusekela ngokwabo ngokukhululekile ngaphandle ukulindela ukuthi bazothola bangibuyisele, futhi lezi amasiko lula ngeke ngokukhululekile babuyisele lokho bekwazi. Kumele babe ukuzimela okuphelele kanye nekhono ukunquma ikusasa yabo siqu, kanye nelungelo chaza bangobani yabo siqu kanye namasiko. Bonke abantu bafanelwe la malungelo.

Kusuka konke emlandweni usitshela, Angikholelwa kukhona bufakazi bakhombise ohulumeni athuthukiswe ngenxa yesidingo. Ohlelekile, ngonya, ohulumeni ngobushiqela ithuthukiswe nje lapho abantu athola indlela ukuqalisa imithombo yemvelo ukwenza izinsimbi ephumelelayo kakhulu ukukhiqiza, ukubhujiswa kanye kwezokuthutha nalapho izinkolo ezinkulu ehleliwe yasungulwa cishe kanyekanye. Amasiko iningi abangahambanga waphishekela nobuchwepheshe obuphambili, ikakhulukazi uhlobo esibhubhisayo, akudingeki ohulumeni ngonya noma izinkolo enobudlova ukuthi basuke ngaphakathi eyayifunwa. Iningi ambalwa ashiyiwe wedwa by amandla Imperial ngokuvamile le zokuziphatha xaxa futhi (ngokuvamile tribal) izinkolo zabo banamathuba kakhudlwana kungavamile ukuba ingozi.

Eyodwa, ohulumeni onegunya okuthiwa nje kwadingeka lapho ubuchwepheshe “ulwazi” zaziyiminyaka kunabo. Kodwa osopolitiki obekufanele ukuvikela ngokumelene usongo izinhlobo ezithile zolwazi nje wenza le songo xaxa ngokwakha izikhali futhi ukuphishekela technology obhubhisayo hhayi ekusakazeni ukwaziswa okuwusizo kakhulu ngokukhululekile, okuphumela ezimweni okuhambisana nezenhlalo alulingani kakhulu impela.

Imibuso okugqugquzelwa inkolo nokuhaha ngemoto yezimpi eziningi. UmGibhithe Empire, uMbuso Ongcwele WamaRoma, uMbuso Spanish, uMbuso Wase-Asiriya, uMbuso waseBhabhiloni, uMbuso waseRoma, uMbuso WaseBrithani, futhi uMbuso WaseTurkey nabanye iningi azalelwa ngokuyinhloko aphume Abashisekeli benkolo nokuhaha. Wona kanye umqondo lokudala i mbuso misanthropic ngoba ucabanga ukuthi abantu abambalwa kufanele abe anamandla kakhudlwana futhi acebile ukwedlula bonke abanye emhlabeni. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi ezinye izakhiwo umxhwele kakhulu abantu baye bakha emlandweni kwadalwa kubangelwe ikhono abaholi ukuhlela nokulawula nabantu, kodwa lokhu Yiqiniso, akusho babeqinisile ngokwenza kanjalo. Sasikwazi akhiqize izakhiwo efanayo ngaphandle abaholi ngobushiqela ngokusebenzisa ngekubambisana esinokuthula. Imibhoshongo ecijile aseGibithe kukhona umxhwele, kodwa nje kushe zamatshe, futhi ukuhlupheka abakhi okhuthazele kufanele kubhekwe ephawulekayo ngaphezu imibhoshongo ngokwabo.

Ukusabalala kwamandla ngokuvamile ebizwa ngokuthi ingcindezelo. Leli gama ngezikhathi asetshenziswa ngomqondo ofanayo nababusi balo, kodwa la mazwi amabili asuka ezihlukene kakhulu futhi ingabe asho izinto ezahlukene. Ngizochaza kahle hle umehluko phakathi kwabo esigabeni esilandelayo. Ke, mina sizoxoxa ngomlando wabo futhi kanjani ukusungulwa bezinkampani kanye zobuchwepheshe nomthelela ekusakazekeni imperialism yesimanje.

2.13 kwabamhlophe ukuzobusa zasendulo futhi eya imperialism yanamuhla

Ingcindezelo iyona ukusungulwa, ukugcinwa kanye ukunwetshwa amakoloni (ohulumeni) e khulukhulu ungoverned, amasimu engaphansi athuthukile. Le ingcindezelo elithi livela egameni lesiLatini Colonus, okusho umlimi, futhi iningi amakoloni zokuqala yamiswa ukulima ezweni engasebenzanga. Lapho impucuko yasendulo ababengaphansi kwemibuso yakwamanye amazwe insimu ungoverned nobe wavuma ngokwesaba olulawulwa babevame ixazululwe khona. Babengeke ukusungula ukubusa phezu kwendawo ngokuvamile ukuze sizuze ensimini ukuthi bavelaphi, kodwa babengeke godu bahlala ensimini entsha. Lona omunye umehluko oyisisekelo phakathi kwemibuso futhi imperialism. Ingcindezelo angaba izisulu abangaphansi kuka imperialism lapho ukwati kuhlanganisa imiphakathi. Imperialism sivela Latin elithi imperium, elisho “umyalo,” futhi le uyayala uvame kwenziwa kude noma amadoda ophakathi. Amandla Imperialist ngokuvamile musa misa ezindaweni zifuna ukulawula kanye nzuzo kusuka. Bathi nje amise ohulumeni proxy noma ngezigxobo yezohwebo ukuhlangabezana nalezi emikhawulweni.

Ngaphambi izinkampane besimanje kwazivelela, ezohwebo kwaba ikakhulu ohulumeni futhi, abathengisi ezinamandla ocebile. Imiphakathi eminingi Roman kwadingeka corporations, kodwa babengakwazi sifana bezinkampani zesimanje. Babenganelisekile ecishe njengoba usabalale nobe oholelayo ngaleso sikhathi. Nokho, imisebenzi yabo ezibalulekile zazifana.

Amazwe iningi Emhlabeni abangu ababengaphansi kwemibuso yakwamanye amazwe by omunye Imibuso European nobe America kanye izinkampani zabo, futhi abaningi namanje ilawulwa ngalezi imibuso ngezindlela eziningana. Ukusabalala kwemibuso ngokuvamile ngaphakathi walungisiswa ethi ezombangazwe zenkampani namandla izakhiwo emazweni anezimboni iphakeme amasiko lula ukuba babheke ehlukile. Futhi bakholelwa anelungelo izinsizakusebenza okuqondene namasiko lula ngenxa yalokhu.

Ngaphambi kwenzeka kwamakoloni, iningi izwe uhlalwe abantu lula bomdabu ababesebusweni ikakhulu okuqukethwe baphile nje ekuphileni kwabo. Bambalwa kakhulu amasiko zendabuko bunjalo. Abaningi kwaboMdabu Australia, izizwe e-Afrika, kanti inani bomdabu baseMelika ukuthi baphila off bezwe babulawa ‘yokunqoba’ kombuso kanye nokusungulwa wababusi.

AmaGibhithe, abaseFenike, amaRoma namaGreki babengamadodana kuqala ukusungula amakoloni. Ancient wamaGreki lizisho esungulwe amakoloni eMedithera. Uhulumeni ukuthi nsimu ungoverned wathatha phezu wayebizwa ngokuthi “idolobhakazi” lalezi, okuyinto eza emazwini amabili lesiGreki likamasipala kanye polis, esho “umama” kanye “muzi,” ngokulandelana.

Ekuqaleni, ohulumeni eGrisi ayeluleke futhi angahlelekile. Lizisho abangu elilawulwa ababusi ehlukene futhi akekho lalimelela konke eGreece, kanjalo lizisho basakaza namandla abo ngamunye. Ohulumeni wamaGreki kwakungezona ngendlela emangalisayo ongumashiqela ekuqaleni, kodwa njengoba Brazil obakhiwa city ithi, ohulumeni baba ehleliwe kakhudlwana, umama-amadolobha baba ezinkudlwana, namandla baba kanzulu kakhudlwana. UMbuso waseRoma wangihlaba bagxila ngamandla futhi ukubusa kwawo sasakazekela wamaGreki lizisho.

Imibuso yaba enobudlova okuningi ngesikhathi ‘Age of Discovery. “Intuthuko kwezobuchwepheshe Huge ngokuvamile yenza ngabanye azizwe ebalulekile okuningi ngaphezu kwalabo kithi abangenaso technology efanayo. Ababusi zaseYurophu yazizwa unelungelo lonke emhlabeni ngoba asethuthukile izindlela ngokushesha, baphumelele kakhudlwana zokuhamba, ukukhiqiza kanye ukubhujiswa. Lezi njalo kwaholela ngengcebo namandla. Zazithi uma amasiko “bakudala” base ukweba kusukela babenengqondo “advanced,” kwakuzomelwe izindlela lokuzivikela. Nokho, lokhu logic kungasetshenziswa kulungile ukweba kusukela ubani.

Abantu abangamaPutukezi ayengabantu abantu bokuqala anezimboni ukuhlola Northern ugu-Afrika ngo 1418, futhi ngokushesha bakha imizana kanye yezohwebo izikhala lapho kutsengisa nge Afrika. Lokhu kwaba ngo ekuqaleni ‘Age of Discovery. “Ngo-1492 Amakhosi baseSpain uxhaso uChristopher Columbus ngomkhumbi entshonalanga ukuze ukuthola indlela wezohwebo nge Asia, kodwa kunalokho wafika phesheya Americas, i nsimu nekhampasi. Ohulumeni baseSpain futhi isiPutukezi ngokushesha bacabanga ubunikazi insimu (naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi abomdabu kakade abahlala khona izinkulungwane zeminyaka) kanye le mibuso emibili wahlukanisa insimu phakathi kwabo ukuvimbela ingxabano.

Columbus okokuqala wahlangabezana eBahamas ngo-1492 The bomdabu kwakukhona basamukela nokuphana, kodwa uColumbus weba kubo babulala amaningi ukuba ziphazamise ngenxa self-ukulunga kwakhe ezingokwenkolo. Lapho uChristopher Columbus kwagcina ukufinyelela Americas, naye zibulawa imiphakathi Indian endawo futhi kuntshontshwa izwe labo. AmaJuda iSpanishi namaSulumane baphoqwa ukuguqukela ebuKristwini noma ubuso ekudingisweni noma libulawe. Columbus waboshwa ngo-1500 kanye nabafowabo for Izinsolo of ababusi ukungafaneleki. Ngemuva uColumbus waboshwa wathumela incwadi eya kumngane enkantolo ukuthi wabonisa wayezizwa elingenacala ngokuphelele ngoba wazizwa kwaba ‘intando kaNkulunkulu’ ukunqoba laba bantu. (Angiqiniseki ngempela kungani “Columbus Day” lisekhona.)

Ukuhlasela kwe yaseYurophu ikoloni-Afrika wabiza belwela for Africa kwaba mhlawumbe ngisho nangokokuziphatha ezingaphezu kuka ezinyanyekayo uColumbus kohlanga wakhe. It futhi wayeshukunyiswa uhlobo olufanayo ukuhaha futhi ifanelwe uColumbus kwadingeka, futhi iningi ohulumeni Afrika namanje ongumashiqela futhi ukuxhashazwa nanamuhla. Awukho omunye izwekazi Emhlabeni eye wabhekana enjalo isikhathi eside zokuhlupheka njengoba Afrika emakhulwini amuva ikakhulu ngenxa ukungenelela kwemibuso.

Le belwela for Afrika okwenzeka phakathi 1881 no 1914 Iningi Afrika zase esikuyi by abahloli bamazwe baseYurophu Maphakathi nekhulu le-19. Bamazwe bathola izingxenye Afrika ayecebile kakhulu kwemithombo yemvelo ikakhulu untapped efana negolide, idayimane, ezinye izinsimbi eziyigugu, namafutha. Ke, izwe ngokushesha wafuna ozotholwa futhi ilawulwe. (Afrika abalinganiselwa 24 trillion izinsimbi un-Earthed eyigugu. [Xxiv] Uma Afrika evame owned imboni yezimayini khona, lokhu kungakha uguqule izimo okuhambisana nezenhlalo lapho.) Ngo-1870% 10 kuphela Afrika kwaba ngaphansi kokulawula European. Nokho, by 1914 Ethiopia no Liberia babengabantu amazwe kuphela zwekazi wonke ukuthi kwakungewona ngaphansi kokulawula European. Iningi Afrika nawo akazange abe amabutho ezinkulu okuzivikela kusuka eziqothulayo sobukhosi.

Ngo 1869 Henry Morton Stanley, a wamazwe yaseYurophu, wathunyelwa uLeopold II of Belgium esifundeni Congo ukwenza izivumelwano kanye nezinduna eziningana African ukuze silawule esifundeni Congo, futhi zakha “Congo Free State.” ULeopold II wabe wathatha ukulawula esifundeni ngo 1885 futhi waqala imithombo emnqumweni kuwo, ezifana lendlovu zenjoloba. Amazipho ULeopold phezu esifundeni wandisa eKatanga lapho umbusi wangaphambili, Msiri, kwaba anqunywe ikhanda by ibutho ULeopold, futhi ULeopold wamisa umbuso amaphekula khona, okuyinto zibulawa nabagqilazwe izigidi Afrika. Phakathi nokubusa ULeopold sika okwaphela ngo-1908, abangaphezu kwesigamu bomdabu of the Congo Free State (abantu abangaba izigidi ezingu-8) wafa ngenxa kohlanga nendlala. [Xxv] Mayelana kwesigamu bomdabu of the Congo French naye wafa ngesikhathi ngesikhathi esifanayo ngenxa imikhuba ngesihluku izinkampani ukuthi ekhishwe imithombo kusukela ndawo. South Africa kwaba kwafunwa yi-UK igolide yayo kanye diamonds nezimpi ezimbili base elwela ukulawula walo. Ukulwa for ukulawula Afrika emkhatsini kwamandla Imperial eYurophu ekugcineni zaholela kweMpi Yezwe First. By 1914 30% labantu Afrika kwaba ngaphansi kokulawula waseBrithani, 15% ibuswa French, 9% ngaphansi kokubusa isiJalimane 7% ngaphansi kokulawula Belgium sika.

Zoo Human nabo semizini ezinkulu efana Barcelona, London naseNew York ukuthi tikhombise abantu bomdabu base-Afrika emakhejini. Bathi ukhangwa ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane minyaka yonke izivakashi, naphezu kokuba ukwephula elibi, amalungelo esintu. The Afrika bomdabu ngezinye izikhathi ayengakwazi khona ukuphuma endlini nge nezinkawu, ukuba ‘afakazele “ukuthi Afrika zazingaphucukile kakhudlwana futhi eduze wezinkawu, futhi ngaleyo ndlela’ bathethelele” ukuqothulwa kohlanga imperialist-Afrika.

Iningi bomashiqela esinonya nabangomashiqela kunazo emlandweni sokuba izizwe kakade athuthukile, ikakhulu ngenxa yokuthi ukuthuthukiswa umphakathi wabo wabenza azizwe ebalulekile ngaphezu kwezizwe non-industrial. Isayensi, uwoyela njengoba emthonjeni energy, futhi abanye ezitholakele eziphawuleka kakhulu zazenziwe by imibuso of Europe no eMesophothamiya futhi kuba ngokwengxenye ngenxa yalesi sizathu lowo babezizwa sengathi wayenelungelo ‘ilungelo’ ukunqoba zonke ezinye amasiko. Le belwela for Afrika ngezinye izikhathi ngokuthi “umthwalo yabelungu,” njengokungathi ocebile bengathandisisi, abelungu kwadingeka ukugqilaza Afrika “kube kuhle yabo siqu.” Abashisekeli benkolo ibhebhezelwa le self-ukulunga kanye.

Umgomo eGibhithe, eMesophothamiya futhi zaseYurophu ababusi abaningi kwaba ukukhiqiza, ukulawula kanye buthelela capital ngangokunokwenzeka futhi abhubhise noma ubani wema endleleni. Imibuso iningi waphishekela ulwazi, isayensi, ezolimo kanye isayensi ukwandisa umcebo wabo siqu namandla, kanti ezinye amasiko lula ukuthi wasala Afrika nobe echezuka Australia kanye aseMelika babekhona begxile kakhulu emsebenzini imiphakathi yabo kanye nobudlelwano.

Proselytization ngokuvamile iza imperialism. Abantu abaningi bomdabu base-Afrika, e-Australia, kanye Americas sisaligcina izinkolo ezihlukahlukene tribal, kodwa kunezinkolo ehleliwe kukhona ususondelene kakhulu. Izinkolo ezinkulu ziye basakaza ikakhulu ngenxa ezithile, inkulumo-ze, futhi ukuguqulwa ngenkani. Ngo-1910 Africa kwadingeka 1.6% kuphela labantu Christian emhlabeni, kodwa ngo-2010 Sub-Saharan Africa yedwa equkethwe 23,6% labantu yobuKristu emhlabeni (abantu abangaba 520,000) naseNyakatho Afrika kwaba ekhaya amaSulumane mayelana 400.000 ngo-2009, elalingaba amabili amaphesenti amathathu abantu emhlabeni Muslim. [xxvi] Ngo-2010 i-East Middle naseNyakatho Afrika equkethwe 91,2% wabantu Muslim. Ngo-2011-Asia Pacific kwadingeka abalandeli ngomunye billion Islamic nobe 62,1% of abasemhlabeni amaSulumane. [Xxvii]

Esikhundleni abhubhise noma ukuguqulela abampofu, abantu bomdabu zezwe, kungaba ngcono kakhulu esingakufunda kuzo. Engcono njalo ukuthi kuhlanganiswe capital ayenzi ukuphila kube nenjongo kakhudlwana. Abantu abaluleke ngaphezu yimuphi ithoyizi kwezobuchwepheshe noma iyiphi imali, namasiko amaningi elula uqaphele ukuthi, yingakho banayo cha ‘eziphambili’ ngomqondo yendabuko.

Intuthuko kwezobuchwepheshe nesayensi ibalulekile ngoba abakwazi ukwelapha izifo, ngcono izimpilo, futhi udale imiphakathi functional kakhudlwana, ithele, esebenza kahle futhi esimeme. Bangabuye asisize baluqonde xaxa injongo yethu lapha. Nokho, angase futhi abhubhise umhlaba uma kabi futhi elawulwa nabantu zobugovu. Le “yezwe yokuqala” kufanele kuqinisekiswe asele nabantu bomdabu okungakaze babulawa agcinwa liphila ngokubanika izindlela ukuba ukhule nokudla esimeme, izindlela ukuze bazifundise, energy ahlanzekile, imithombo yamanzi ahlanzekile, ukuqeqeshwa yezokwelapha, uphulukisa for eziwumshayabhuqe ukuthi basuke akhukhula imiphakathi yabo, futhi odokotela ezinamakhono abangakwazi aphathe lilimele kakhulu kakhudlwana. Kufanele futhi senze konke esingakwenza ukuze ukulondoloza amasiko abo ngoba uma amasiko lula bengafuni neqhaza emnothweni wezwe anesizathu ilungelo hhayi, futhi yini imibuso akwenzile kula bantu kuyinto nelincane ibhaxa.

Capitalism, injini ebalulekile imperialism inkinga elibalulekile ngoba andisa nokungalingani kwezomnotho. Kunabantu abaningi kakhulu emhlabeni nge kangako kungekho enhlokodolobha, okubenza babe uzimisele ukusebenza for pennies kanye izinkampane ezicebile nokuqinisekisa ukuthi bakwenze. Amazwe iningi nge Ububha kanye kwezempilo izinkinga indiva uma benza bantula imboni ukuthekelisa onamandla noma imithombo ngenxa amandla Imperial musa ukubona isidingo ungisize. Bayoba nje ungisize ngentambo (noma iketango) nganamathisela. Akukho umholi yimuphi uhulumeni ezicebile uzothumela i ikhambi amanetha umalaleveva omiyane noma ukudla okwanele kanye namanzi ukuba imiphakathi noma amasosha befa ukuvikela nabakhileyo ezivela ontamolukhuni ezinobudlova ngaphandle ukulindela bazothola kakhudlwana nokubuya. Kudingeka ucindezele abaholi bethu ukuba benze lokhu noma ukuba bakhishwe.

Iningi nababusi bethu bafuna la amasiko lula ukuba neqhaza emnothweni wezwe futhi babe anezimboni like lonke ‘yezwe yokuqala. “It njalo quid pro ESIKHONA. Kodwa le nqubo wonakalise amasiko abo, zokuphila kanye imibono nokuqhubekisa uhlelo akazuzi wonke umuntu.

Tinhlangano efana World Bank kanye International Monetary Fund, (IMF) usize imibuso in izinguquko yabo isicebi of amazwe third-emhlabeni. World Bank okwamanje umelela amazwe 188, kodwa kubuswa abambalwa nje abacebile, ezinqunyelwe ajenda yayo. Ukuze abe ilungu World Bank, amazwe kufanele kuqala ujoyine IMF kanye International Bank for Zokwakha Kabusha Development, (IBRD). Kokubili Bank World kanye IMF ezithi Umgomo wabo ukunciphisa ubuphofu bese adale iqhaza kwezomnotho, kodwa nje xhasa izinkampani ukuxhashazwa nabaqashi ngubani bayazi zizonikeza nesilinganiso lelisetulu ukubuya. Izinsiza ezibalulekile nazo privatized futhi deregulated emazweni abampofu ukuqeda kuhulumeni ukwengamela kanye nalabo emandleni yenzuzo ngenxa kuyilapho izimpilo zabantu iningi kwansuku sizoqhubeka nokonakala.

Ngo 1989 Economist, uJohn Williamson, wabhala izimiso eyishumi kwezomnotho ukuthi wayekholelwa kwakungamadodana IMF kanye ‘standard izinguquko iphakethe “World Bank for asathuthuka futhi ongakasetshenzwa amazwe, ikakhulukazi eLatin America. Inqubomgomo yesibili nguye yedwa wangempela lesichubekako, okuyinto kudinga Ukuqondisa kabusha of ukusetshenziswa kwemali yomphakathi (uxhaso) lemfundo kanye lwezempilo. Bonke abanye izinqubomgomo eziyishumi ngokuyisisekelo abize for kunganakiwe, free-market capitalism ukuthi kudala sikweletu abampofu imali abacebile. Yena wayeqinisile ukuthi lezi zinqubomgomo Washington esiyinhloko, (ngaphandle lowo lesibili) nalaba zinqubomgomo ziye ikakhulu ubuhlungu abampofu yeNingizimu Melika emazweni lapho seyenziwe. Inkinga Argentina kwezomnotho 1999, isibonelo, kwabangelwa isicelo kwalezi izinhlobo nezinqubomgomo.

Abantu abampofu ngeke utshele njani ukudala iminotho esimeme, kanjalo Lokhu kuphoqa ukuba basebenze ngokuzikhandla futhi nzima ngokuvamile in ngaphezulu imisebenzi zezimboni. Uma bengasabeli, bayoba akunakwenzeka ukuqhudelana emakethe global, futhi kuyoba phakade ezikweletini. Amazwe amaningi abampofu bakweleta la izinhlangano efana IMF and World Bank izigidi yalokho. Lezi zinhlangano babizwa ukuphoqa ‘yezwe yesithathu’ singene ’emhlabeni wokuqala “ngenqubo ephuze besizwe, izikweletu ephakade, ezemisebenzi kanye nemithombo nabaningi abafile endleleni. Abaningi yezenzo baye kuthathwe kukhona ubugebengu kanye nalabo abanomthwalo kumele wazama amacala abo. UJim Yong Kim, umengameli World Bank eyathatha isikhundla ngoJulayi ka-2012 awuzange wenziwe esiningi lutho ukushintsha izinqubomgomo abolekise World Bank noma imigomo.

Incenye ezintathu: Ukuzalwa bezinkampani zesimanje futhi Ukukhula ukungalingani kwezomnotho

3.1: Izinkampani and imperialism

Le namuhla emhlabeni usenayo eziningi izinkinga ezifanayo njengoba kwakunjalo eminyakeni 3000 edlule. Sisalokhu ilawulwa abacebile, namakilasi elibusayo. Izinkampani namuhla ngokuvamile iveza ngokwabo ohlukile ababengaphambi abo ngesihluku. Kodwa ezinye izinkampani kakhulu esifanayo owasiza qhubeka ohulumeni bamazwe unindustrialized amakhulu eminyakeni edlule namanje akhona nanamuhla, futhi izinkampane abuse imibuso yezombangazwe ngokuthi nakakhulu ke benza njalo ngaphambi. Le belwela for Afrika nezinye phezu ezweni yokunqoba eminingi zase kungenzeka kuphela ngosizo izinkampani isekhona.

Izinkampani bakwazi ukubeka ubuso nobungane on imperialism. Imibuso baqaphela ayengenakukwazi nje begqilaza emhlabeni ngaphandle ukumelana abalulekile, kanjalo izinkampane babedalelwe ukwenza le nqubo kubonakale hhayi nje engenangozi, kodwa “ezithuthukayo.” Le izinkampane zokuqala lwanamuhla badalwa ngekhulu le-16. Izinkampani anikezwe amalungelo ecishe njengabantu abaningi njengoba abantu ohulumeni lamaRoma bona kuqala lapho base. Izinkampani base bayabona izinhlangano ezingokomthetho ahlukane kubanikazi yabo ukunciphisa ukuziphendulela ngabanye.

Izinkampani zasendulo waseRoma kwadingeka amandla ekubopheni nomunye, futhi abanikazi ngokuvamile kwakungafanele ngamunye onesibopho nezikweletu bona wazibangela. Lezi abanikazi ayekwazi ilawule izinkampani zabo kunoma iyiphi indlela abona kufanelekile, njengoba nje kulokho ababekwenza babengamelene komthetho wamaRoma. Okuningi kamuva, Churches in ngenkathi ephakathi eYurophu futhi waba efakwe, njengoba kwenza uPapa.

Omunye lokuqala zanamuhla izinkampani ngamandla ezinkulu engikhulume esethulweni kwaba LaseBrithani East India Company. It wayengomunye izinkampani ngesihluku kakhulu futhi enobudlova khona, futhi ngokuyisisekelo wabeka isisekelo izenzo nje mayelana zonke esizayo corporation ezinkulu.

Ezinkulungwaneni zeminyaka edlule, izinkampani akakwazanga abe cishe inani lemali kwamandla ohulumeni kwadingeka. Imodi eyinhloko lokulawula omphakathi kwaba force kanye ohulumeni kwadingeka amabutho ngobukhulu futhi kwadingeka control iningi phezu capital. Kodwa izikhathi sezishintshile. Izinkampani ezinkulu ziye kwadingeka amabutho abo, kodwa manje bayakwazi balolonge imicabango yabantu nezinkolelo lutho khona zonke izinhlobo yabezindaba. Ngenxa yalokhu, bebonakala hhayi njengoba izitha zethu kodwa njengoba abangane bethu. Abezombusazwe kakhulu ukwenza lokhu.

Izinkampani ezinkulu aguquka ikakhulu kusukela ohulumeni. Bathi branched off kusuka ohulumeni ukudala lingaphazamiseki siqu eyinkimbinkimbi nokuphoqwa. Izinkampani kwamiswa ngokuyinhloko ntu ngofuzo ngengcebo futhi wazizwa banelungelo ngaphezulu, kodwa ababengebona sesimweni ukweba kusukela emazweni ngoba ayizange okokuqala babe amabutho. Base ikakhulukazi kuhlaziywa nabantu ngokushikashikeka okukhulu kwemithombo kanye ezimbalwa scruples owayazi indlela ukuxhaphaza ebe kusuka emazweni ngezindlela ohulumeni babo abazange.

Ohulumeni babekuthola kunzima more aluhlaza nje eqonde ukuxhaphaza abantu Ngekhulu le-16 ngenxa yokuthi izizwe eziningi babebe ehleliwe futhi nenamandla. Kwakukhona ingxabano phakathi kwabo phezu ‘angafunwanga “Insimu efana Afrika, okuyinto kwadingeka ambalwa ohulumeni okusemthethweni. Ngenxa lenyuke lokuxhumana international, (ngokwengxenye ngenxa ezokuxhumana izinkampani) kwakukhona ekhula yokuqwashisa global mayelana nezindaba zezwe. Zonya kwadingeka Manje kufanele walungisiswa ezingxenyeni zomhlaba ukuba wezwa ngazo.

The British East India Company ngesinye isikhathi baba onamandla acishe ngaphezu uMbuso WaseBrithani. It naye ukuba amabutho (njengoba izinkampani eminingi), futhi bagcina bahlasela amazwe amaningana angomakhelwane futhi wamisa proxy ohulumeni khona ukuthi Namanje emandleni nanamuhla. Ukubusa kwenkampani wadluliselwa Queen Victoria ngubani kusungulwa uhulumeni esemthethweni waseBrithani ngo 1858. ukubusa Its yilo sikhathi kwase basakaze emazweni amaningana aseduze, kuhlanganise ePakistan, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Somalia, iBurma, Singapore, i United Arab Emirates and Yemen . Uhulumeni yaseNdiya kwaba ngaphansi kokulawula waseBrithani for engaphezu kweyikhulu kuze 1947 lapho ekugcineni azuza uzibuse. Ayikho kulezi amazwe ezizimele noma yanquma ngentando yeningi futhi basuke namanje bopha yabo “umama yezwe ‘futhi ababusi corporate. Izinkampani zase nje akwazi ngoba sengathi bangabangane bethu futhi zisiqinisekise of yesidingo kwabo ukuze athole ukulawula kangaka, futhi sifundiswa ukukholelwa ukulahleka komuntu oyedwa kufanele abe inzuzo yomunye umuntu.

3.2 Ukuvelela abaphathi ezinkampani kanye bebhange eMelika

Izinkampani zaseMelika athola okuningi kwamandla abo kusuka lokwemukelwa yabo njengoba izinhlangano ezingokomthetho ahlukane nalabo ingeyakho. Umthetho izinkampani ezibonwayo njengabantu, futhi lokhu kusho abanikazi bezinkampani hhayi ngokuvamile zibhekwa balandise ngalokho izinkampani zabo benze. Umthwalo wemfanelo wezomthetho of abathile ngumnikazi izinkampani avame ahlanganisiwe zibe munye pheze nobulelesi omzimba, corporate “umuntu.” Lokhu kuvumela abaphathi zenkampani ukweba, nokungcolisa, axhaphaze izisebenzi zabo, ngisho abulale nabantu (lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi “nokubulala corporate,” hhayi corporate ukubulala [10]) ngaphandle njalo ekhonza ejele isikhathi. Bamane bakhokhele zokuhlala ukuze uthole ukushisa off okwesikhashana. Kungokufanayo kusebenza abanikazi amabhange ezizimele kusukela izindwani kukhona izinkampani kanye.

A corporation angeke abeke ejele. It kuphela wahlawuliswa, futhi abaphathi ezinkampani ngokunenzuzo le. Ngokuvamile, kuba ezazizobazuzisa ngabo ukuba baphule umthetho bese ukukhokha inhlawulo kunalokho kuba ukulalela umthetho. Izinkampani emhlabeni wonke nazo zijabulela amalungelo efanayo nabantu. IGOs like the UN, uthi EnguMbusi, ngisho ezinye namathempeli nazo kubhekwe “abantu.” Zomthetho

Lapho kwakhiwa uhulumeni waseMelika, izinkampani kanye namabhange abazange ekuqaleni namandla okuningi njengoba zazincane futhi namanje asathuthuka. Oyise kokudala baqaphela izingozi kokunikeza noma isikhungo power omningi ngenxa yokuthi izinkampani eBrithani like the East India Company lapho babevela saba amazipho phezu emnothweni kanye nohulumeni khona. Lapho uMbuso WaseBrithani anda intela for on ukungeniswa (efana itiye) eMelika ukwandisa kuyinto engemukelekile, America predictably waphindisela.

Isisekelo uhulumeni American empeleni kwadingeka okuncane ukuba enzeni amagugu sivezwa Declaration of Independence noma uMthethosisekelo. Mibhalo iqukethe emibonweni zenkululeko kwabanye, kodwa wabuye kuvumelekile ubugqila ukuqhubeka. Oyise eyinsika ayefuna America ukuba abe free zona nemindeni yazo, kodwa ngaleso izindleko inkululeko yabanye. Abaningi obaba abaqamba like Jakobe Madison noThomas Jefferson owaloba le mibhalo zase senceku-abanikazi. Abanye futhi wazala abantwana izigqila zabo. Mibhalo babengavunyelwe yakhelwe basekele oda zokuziphatha. Bathi baqinisekisa America kwakuyoba, ukuxhashazwa, futhi ekugcineni umbuso onamandla kunayo socwaningo.

Ekuqaleni, kwakukhona deal ezinhle sakhamuti ukulawula bezinkampani kanye namabhange. Kodwa wagcina izinkampani aqala kabi nemigomo yazo futhi babe ezinamandla kakhudlwana futhi amabhizinisi amancane balahlekelwa imali yalokho. Emadolobheni yenkampani bazalelwa, futhi izinkampane waqasha amabutho angasese abasebenzi babo ukugcina emgqeni. Izinkampani nawo waqala ukuthenga amaphephandaba, ukuze bakwazi ukulawula lokho okwashiwo ngabo.

Abaphathi Corporate kanye bebhange baba acebile okuningi futhi unamandla kakhulu ngesikhathi seMpi Yombango, ngoba basiza Finance futhi ahlinzeke izimpahla for impi. Izinkampani babesebenzisa “isidingo ‘kahulumeni wezinkampane. Banxenxa panics eziningana zezimali kuleli 1800s nasezitaladini 1886 iNkantolo Ephakeme icala Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, a stenographer enkantolo wabhala ukuthi izinkampani kukhona “abantu zemvelo.” Lesi sitatimende kwaba ekhonjiwe by abameli eziningi ezinkampani owayephikisa ngokuthi izinkampani hola amalungelo afanayo njengoba abantu, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi isitatimende esibhalwe kwakungelona isinqumo wezomthetho noma ngisho imfundo. Abaningi izinkampani ezinkulu nabameli babo baye wagomela ngokuthi izinkampani zabo bafanelwe amalungelo inikwa okuqinisekisiwe ngu ukuchitshiyelwa-14, othi: “. Akukho landa kungaba sokuphuca yimuphi umuntu okuphila, inkululeko noma impahla ngaphandle inqubo efanele yomthetho” labhalwa Le sichibiyelo ngokuyinhloko ukunikeza la malungelo ukuze izigqila abasanda free, kodwa ingxabano lwemukelwa kungakhathaliseki futhi kwasebenza.

Izinkampani nazo ziye wagomela ukuthi banelungelo ukunikeza capital angenamkhawulo osopolitiki ngoba ichaze ngeminikelo njengendlela uhlobo “inkulumo” wezinkampane nabo ngokomthetho “abantu.” (Uma lokhu akwenzi mqondo, lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ongaphilile engqondweni wenu Izinkampani yayinjalo.) kakade basebenzisa nje cishe njalo abezindaba Fried okukhona ukuveza imibono yabo. Kusobala ukuthi ukukhuluma kakhulu kunabantu abaningi, ngakho ukuvumela ukuba enze iminikelo angenamkhawulo ukuze osopolitiki akulutho iDemo of lobugebengu. [11]

Izinkampani bakwazi ukunikeza capital unlimited kuze 2002 lapho Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act waphasiswa, okuyinto criminalized iminikelo angenamkhawulo ezinkampani kuya osopolitiki. Nokho, le UMthethosivivinywa amankeyane iNkantolo Ephakeme e-January 2010 cishe ngenxa ingcindezi ezinkampani kanye ukufumbathisa.

Around isikhathi ukuthi izinkampani base ukuthola ‘ngabantu’ yabo ngesikhathi kwekhulu lama, amabhange waseMelika nawo centralizing namandla abo. Ngo 1913, JP Morgan, uJohn D. Rockefeller, futhi uPawulu Warburg bribed senators ukudlula Federal Reserve Act, okuyinto wanika amabhange ezizimele ukulawula imali. Ukwenza Federal Reserve abonakale kudingekile, bebhange ezicebile eyayenziwe kwavusa The Ngenxa yokwethuka of 1907. (. Lokhu wafika emva eziningana abanye panics in the 1800s) Ngemva kokusayina Federal Reserve Act, uMongameli Woodrow Wilson wanyathelisa incwadi ebizwa The New Freedom: A Call for the kukhululwa of the amandla Ngesandla Esivulekile a People. Kuyo wabhala:

“Kuyinto ngeqiniso nje ukusho ukuthi izikhungo zezimali zezwe akuzona at umyalo labo cha sizithobe esiqondisweni kanye nokubuswa yamaqembu amancane of kunosomabhizinisi abafisa ukugcina ukuthuthukiswa komnotho zezwe ngaphansi iso yabo siqu kanye isiqondiso. The monopoly elikhulu kuleli lizwe nguye monopoly of credits big. Ngakho nje ukuthi ukhona, ezihlukahlukene yethu endala kanye nenkululeko namandla ngamanye yentuthuko kukhona aphume mbuzo. Isizwe esikhulu industrial ilawulwa uhlelo lwaso credit. Uhlelo lwethu of credit is ngasese bagxila. Ukukhula kwesizwe, ke, futhi yonke imisebenzi yethu kukhona ezandleni amadoda ambalwa, okwathi ngisho noma isenzo sabo athembeke futhi ezihloselwe umphakathi, zimane bagxila phezu wemisebenzi omkhulu kuzo imali yabo siqu kuhileleke futhi ngubani ngempela, ngenxa ukulinganiselwa kwabo siqu kakhulu, obandayo uhlole futhi ababhubhise nenkululeko yezomnotho kwangempela “-.. uMengameli Woodrow Wilson [xxviii]

Federal Reserve kuyinkinga ngenxa yendima yayo ezingabazisayo njengoba esikhungweni esinikwa okucatshangwa ukukhonza izithakazelo zomphakathi kanye nezizimele. Amabhodi asebhange Ezifunda akhiwa eziyisishiyagalolunye amalungu kanye “amakilasi” amathathu lamalunga: A, B no-C amalungu Class A bamele izimfuno emabhange ‘. Amalungu Class B kufanele bamele izimfuno omphakathi, kodwa akhethwa yilungu amabhange, okuyinto ugijime for-nzuzo. Amalungu Class C nazo okuhloswe ukumela umphakathi, kodwa akhethwa ibhodi of Governors. Bakhuthazwe ukuba inzuzo ngangokunokwenzeka nganoma iyiphi indlela. Okuningi it Uya Treasury ($ 77 billion ngo-2012), okuyinto unomthwalo US izikweletu, kodwa abantu zansuku zonke ukubona okungenani wako. Njengoba of July 2014, America has ezingaphezu kuka $ 17.5 trillion ezikweletini.

By the Ukucindezeleka Okukhulu, amabhange ezizimele kanye izinkampane kwadingeka ukulawula pheze okuphelele phezu emnothweni futhi yayivuma izimali eyingozi futhi singathandeki. Base nawo uhlanganyela abolekise ezidla inyama. Amabhange kwadingeka kuyimfuneko ohlangothini 10%, okwakusho babeyoba ukubolekisa amakhasimende abo ngabanye $ 9 yonke dollar ababenakho. Kwakukhona futhi ukwenyuka nikhathalele amanani ngaphambi Ukucindezeleka kanye namabhange central base imali engaphezu ngenxa konke lokhu.

UMengameli wangaphambilini Franklin Delano Roosevelt wadala yena “Deal Elisha” IzEnzo eziphendula Ukucindezeleka Omkhulu, okuyinto abeke imingcele kulokho izinkampani kanye namabhange ongawenza. Lophambili kakhulu izenzo, Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA) wanikela  $500 million for isobho emakhishini futhi ngqo izinkokhelo ukheshi ngayo kubantu abaswele. Iphinde wabeka abantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingu-20 abangasebenzi ukusebenza, ukwakha amapayipi izinhlelo, izikole kanye zilungisa namabhuloho. Eminingi yale misebenzi kwadalwa yi-Civil Works Administration. Ngo-1935 le labe indawo Works Athuthuke Administration (WPA) kanye Administration Social Security. I WPA kusetshenziswa izigidi futhi walo Federal Art Project ngo-1936 abaqashiwe 2200 ezobuciko ubuchwepheshe. Ngo 1933 20.6% sabantu abangasebenzi kwaba, kodwa ngo-1945% 1.9 kuphela ezakhamuzi kwaba abangasebenzi kubangelwe izinyathelo FDR umnotho. Izinkampane ezinkulu zase predictably engajabule ngalo msebenzi kahulumeni (yize New Deal kwaba elinganiselayo ngokucabangela izimo), ngakho ugobe umengameli.

Ngo-1934 abantu abaningana abamele JP Morgan, Good Year Tire, Remington Steel, Dupont nabanye ngempela waphuma nesu ukugumbuqela FDR futhi asondela Smedley Darlington Butler ezokhipha khona. Butler kwaba jikelele ehlotshiswe zasolwandle ababemlandela oda kanye namazwe ahlasela kute ukukhonza izithakazelo bezinhlangano American like the United Fruit Company, ngakho wabheka njengehhashi ukhetho omuhle. Hugh Samuel Johnson, a US sebutho futhi close ongumeluleki kanye inkhulumo umlobi a for FDR, utshele Butler babengenamduduzi ibutho lamadoda 500,000 kanye amaRandi ayizigidi ezintathu kuya lula Icebo lika. Babefuna Butler lizothola White House nabo futhi ukuphoqa FDR zabatshela ukuthi wayegula kangangokuthi Johnson ikwazi yezwe njengendlela de empeleni waba umholi. [Xxix] Uma FDR enqaba, bacela Butler ukumbulala. Nokho, Butler kwaba fed up sisebenza ngenxa izinkampani kanye wenqaba. Wabuye wenza amacebo abo okwaziwayo amaMelika endaweni yokusakaza yomphakathi, futhi kamuva wabhala incwadi mayelana zezinkampani kusuka impi ebizwa Impi Nebhizinisi. Ukube Butler babamukele amacebo abo, omunye nje lokho America kanye nokuphumula yomhlaba ngabe unjani namuhla.

3.3 kuthathwa kombuso Corporate kanye nokubhujiswa esigaba sabasebenzi eMelika

America uye waba nomlando omude izinguquko zentela amanani ayo. Inani intela engenayo kubakaki liye lashintshwa khona emlandweni waseMelika futhi incazelo ka the ‘phezulu bracket abahola “lishintshiwe izikhathi eziningi. Ngo-1917 kwakukhona sithatha uhambo enkulu intela engenayo ngenxa bracket top-abahola kusuka 7% kuya 67%. Lokhu rate tax nakulabo abenza amaRandi ayizigidi ezingaphezu kuka ezimbili ngonyaka. (Amaningi babekwazi Nokho thola izintuba nezindlela hhayi ukukhokha,.) Lesi ukwanda sentela yayisetshenziselwa ukuxhasa WWI. Kwakukhona ukuncipha 1925 emva kwempi, kodwa ngo-1932 phezulu rate sentela senyuselwa 63%. Kuphela isicelo kulabo abenza yisigidi noma ngaphezulu zamaRandi. I top kwesilinganiso sentela rose uphinda 91%, isilinganiso salo ephakeme kunazo njalo nge ukudlula the Individual Income Tax Act of 1944 It isicelo abantu ekwenzeni $ 200,000 noma ngaphezulu.

Kwakukhona ukuncishiswa sentela kuya 77% ngo-1964 phakathi neMpi eVietnam ngaphansi LBJ. Reagan usike top rate tax 38,5%. By 1988 the top rate sentela kwaba% 28 kuphela, kanti bracket ubhedu wazihlaziya ukuba zihlanganisa labo abenziwe nje $ 29.750 noma ngaphezulu. Kwakukhona ababili kuphela ingeniso kubakaki. Le bracket engezansi wakhokha 15%. George Bush Senior yemukele ekunciphiseni phezulu kwesilinganiso sentela kuya 31%. Lokhu kwaphumela high omsebenzi rates futhi i kusilela okwandayo. Clinton kwakhulisa phezulu rate tax 39,6% noGeorge Bush Jr sancipha it 35%. President Obama lenyuka it emuva rate Clinton sika.

Uma ziqondiso FDR sezimali kanye entela namanje isicelo, besingeke sibe okunjalo nokungalingani kwezomnotho eMelika. Reagan wenza okungaphezu cishe kuncishiswe top kwesilinganiso sentela. Lapho eba uMengameli, wenza Don Regan, usihlalo Merrill Lynch, (ezicebe nokudayisa Brokerage niqinile America ngesikhathi) yengcebo yakhe unobhala, ukuze akwazi ukusebenza ngoba izinkampani bese okumisa kwentela ukusikeka for ocebile. Kamuva waba White House Chief of Abasebenzi. Reagan wabuye waqinisekisa amaholo kubantu abasebenza wahlala mayelana efanayo, njengoba umkhiqizo wabo yanda. Bankruptcies lenyuke ngamaphesenti 610% ngenxa izinqubomgomo zakhe. [XXX] Lo waba nemiphumela eminingi elimazayo on engenayo ephakathi nendawo baseMelika kanti abampofu.

Nabaphathi zakhokhelwa izikhathi 35 kakhulu ngendlela abasebenzi babo ngokwesilinganiso ngesikhatsi term Reagan, kodwa namuhla basuke bakhokhelwa izikhathi 380 esiningi ngokwesilinganiso [xxxi], kanti abacebe 1% wamakhaya eMelika manje ngaphezu ngezansi 95% bebonke [xxxii] The abacebe ziye kangaka ukudlula bonke abanye kithi ngoba bezinkampani babé egxilile noma ngaphezulu in ohulumeni. Ezombusazwe kuyibhizinisi of umdlalo kanye ngenkohliso. The Federal Reserve kanye namabhange zangasese namanje ukulawula US lwemali, futhi abaphathi ezinkampani ziye zasebenza ngendlela yabo ibe uhulumeni ngokwenza ukukhankasela isikhundla futhi wathonya abantu kakade emandleni.

Henry Paulson, uMongameli wangaphambilini woMnyango Wezimali, wayebuye CEO of Goldman Sachs, elinye amabhange ngobukhulu utshalomali kuleli lizwe. (Goldman Sachs kwadingeka $ 850 billion dollars ku amafa ngo-2010) uHenry Ongumthombo isiphakamiso imithetho ebizwa ngokuthi “wakhathazeka Asset Relief Program” (TARP) ngaphansi “Emergency kuqiniswa Act of 2008 ‘ngo October ka 2008 ukunikeza amabhange le $ 700 billion dollar Ukuhlengwa. Lokhu siphakamiso waived yonke imithetho wathi ngokucacile “it angeze kubuyekezwe nganoma iyiphi inkantolo.” George W. Bush elivunyelwe it.

President Obama wasekela lesi ibheyili-out. Wabuye oqokiwe Stuart A. Levey wabe Tim Geithner ukuba abe nguNobhala Treasury Geithner kwaba uMengameli we-New York Federal Reserve kusuka 2003 kuya 2009 futhi ngo-January 2012 Levey senziwa Chief Legal Officer of HSBC, omunye amabhange enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni. It kwadingeka $ 2,556 trillion nempahla 2011 The asebhange ubuye intamo-ejulile in izidakamizwa Cartel ngemali. Geithner akazange phakamisa imithetho eyayiyowenza ilawule emabhange. Inegunya phezu $ 350 billion imali TARP futhi wanikeza izigidigidi ukwehluleka abaphathi ezinkulu ezinkampani at izinkampani efana American International Group, (AIG). Lezi zinhlangano babengavunyelwe adingekayo ukusho lokho ababekwenza nale mali kanye abaphathi ayezinikela izigidigidi amabhonasi. Amanye amazwe ecebile like the United Kingdom yalandela. The 2008 UK Bank khulula iphakheji bakhonza ngezinjongo ezifanayo kanye nohulumeni yaseGrisi ikakhulukazi wahlushwa yabo siqu izinyathelo ezifanayo. Le “ibheyili-out” model iyasetshenziswa emazweni ampofu kanye. Kwelinye izwe eliye walisebenzisa ngale oyisibonelo futhi babafaka bebhange zalo obugebengu Iceland, futhi nomnotho wabo likhuphuke ngenxa yalokho. Jack Lew, uNobhala Wezimali lamanje on November 18 2010, kwaba COO khulu kahle ikhokhwe at Citigroup kusukela 2006 kuya 2008.

Henry Paulson akulona CEO yangaphambili okuwukuphela ebhodini yengcebo. Empeleni, i-Bush kanye Clinton yengcebo iminyango kwadingeka 11 owayekade Goldman Sachs abaphathi. Lezi abaphathi wenza career abo noma enenzuzo kakhudlwana njengoba amalungu ebhodi ngokuqeda umthetho imithethonqubo zezimali nekwenyusa capital for amabhange kanye Wall Street.

TARP wadlula yize kwakukhona yiningi yentando yeningi weCongress ngesikhathi eyayithi kwathiwa abamelene crony capitalism. In America osopolitiki Republican ngokukhululekile futhi boastfully ukusebenzela izinkampane. Abaholi Democratic ngokuvamile ngecala corporatism futhi baveze ukukhathazeka mayelana ukungalingani kwezomnotho, kodwa iningi basekele izinkampani ezingaphezu ngobuhlakani ngalokho ukhetho zabo eyotholakala yibo futhi. Bambalwa kakhulu osopolitiki awekho ngasohlangothini ebhizinisini elikhulu iyodwa, naphezu mpendulo yazo. Nokho, kukhona a ezehlukile ambalwa. Dennis Kucinich, isibonelo, bavotela akukho on the ibheyili-phandle wacela ngesikhathi mpikiswano:

“Kungani kungukuthi thina sibuza Wall Street ukuze ahlanze lokudlela zalo siqu? Kunganjani Thina nibekezelelana izakhiwo zokulawula ezintsha ukuvikela abatshalizimali? … Kunganjani sikhuthazwa kuncishiswe ezikweletini for Main Street esikhundleni Wall Street? Akusona isikhathi sokuba ushintsho olukhulu ohlelweni ngezimali zethu nezikweletu esekelwe, kanjalo sikwazi sizivikela ukuphululwa Federal Reserve kanye namabhange? Ingabe le-United States Congress noma lebhodi labaqondisi Goldman Sachs? ”

Lawa kwakungamadoda amazwi anamandla ngokuthi bambalwa abantu balapho ayefuna ukukuzwa. I Obama ukuphathwa is ecishe njengoba wonakalisa yithonya ezinkampani njengoba Kuphatsa odlule. Goldman Sachs nesandla pheze esigidini dollars kuya Obama nokuphathwa, ngaphezu yimuphi sandla yangasese. (UBS, Morgan Stanley no Citigroup wabuye wenza iminikelo.) Nakuba Obama nokuphatha wenza ovivinyweni Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Protection Act Consumer ngoJulayi 2010 ukuthi abeke ezinye imingcele izenzo emabhange kanye corporations, it neze ngilunge Wall Street. It wadala a likasihlalo kweso ukwengamela Federal Reserve kanye nokuqinisekisa it ikhonza izithakazelo zomphakathi, kodwa wonke ebhodi yabaqondisi kwakuzodingeka zishintshwe ukuze umphakathi ukukhonzwa.

Inkinga yezimali eMelika kusukela 2006 kuya 2010 waba nemiphumela elimazayo on baseMelika amaningi abalahlekelwa amakhaya abo kanye imisebenzi yabo. Kuvuka komnotho okuye kwenzeka kusukela uye ikakhulu kwakuzuzisa esiza abantu abahola phezulu. Ngo-November 2008 kuphela, kwakunabamemezeli 597,000 ukulahlekelwa umsebenzi. Abanye balaba bantu walahlekelwa umsebenzi ngoba abaqashi babo bahamba ayinamali, kodwa abaningi nje wabeka off nje ukuze kwandiswe inzuzo. (GM and General Electric bakaKoresi imisebenzi engaphezu kuka 200,000 ngekubambisana.) Wabeka isisekelo off izinzuzo abasebenzi abaphathi ezinkampani esikhathini esifushane-term, (ngoba abantu esingaphansi ukukhokha), kodwa ekugcineni libuhlungu nabo eside-run uma nokudilizwa kukhona engadingekile. Izisebenzi ezinekhono nazo yashiya namsebenzi ngenxa kanye lonke umnotho ngokuvamile uyahlabeka.

Izigebengu zangempela yekhulu lama-20 futhi lama-21 kuyizinto nabaphathi, osopolitiki, abaphathi bebhange, le lobbyists for izithakazelo ezinkampani, kanti abadlali abahahayo okuphethe. The nabaphathi bezinkampani ezinkulu ukwenza imali okungaphezulu kuka izigebengu avareji angaphanga oludakayo izitolo noma bedayisa Dime izikhwama emakhoneni emigwaqo, ngoba abaphathi babe umthetho nhlangothi yabo kanye osopolitiki emaphaketheni abo. Abaphathi Corporate bahlale kude abasebenzi zisebenzisa kanye ingozi bakwenza, futhi uma nje ekwazi umbono womphakathi, bambalwa bheka nemithelela yabo yomhlaba wonke.

Izinkampane ezinkulu ukhulume igunya ezinkampani ukwandisa yokuthengisa nokwethembela zomphakathi, futhi abantu bavame bawe ngoba. Ngokwesibonelo, ngo-2010, Toyota sikuhlomele izigidi izimoto zabo kanye accelerators okunephutha. Abanye bagibele, okubangela mayelana abambalwa abashayeli ukuba bafe kusuka ukushayisana. [12] Ngemva nehlazo, benza commercial Ukubonga baseMelika ibhizinisi labo. Yayihloselwe ukuthuthukisa ubudlelwano zomphakathi. Kodwa ukwazisa kwabo zomgunyathi wawungazweli futhi engafanele usheshile ukukwenza. They akakaze wavuma amaphutha abo obala.

Ngenxa umthetho enciphisa inani izinkampani mali moto kungenziwa wahlawuliswa ngokukhiqiza izimoto okuyiphutha, Toyota kuphela wahlawuliswa $ 16,4 million dollars. Naphezu zonke izimoto wayekhumbula, Toyota namanje kwadingeka inzuzo ka $ 2.3 billion ngo-2010 emihle Lwabo kwaba engaphansi ayisithupha inzuzo yazo ukuba nyaka. GM uye wakhumbula izigidi ngezimoto eminyakeni yamuva ngenxa yezizathu zokuphepha kanye.

3.4 Kwembulunga Yonke kanye Indima izinkampani

A ngokumandla sína noma ngaphezulu inkinga izinkampani nabezombusazwe iqhaza kuyinto ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke. Izinkampani kanye ngabanye yonkana emhlabeni bathembele ombiwa futhi ingenye imithombo enenzuzo kakhulu emhlabeni. Abathengi abaningi bayaphoqeleka ukuba akhethe izimoto gas ngoba kakhulu kalula ongafinyeleleka futhi okungabizi. Electric entsha, Hydro-kagesi, kanye nezimoto lelanga ayabiza futhi hhayi njengoba kabanzi etholakalayo. Iziteshi kagesi kungukuthi eyenziwayo kabanzi eMelika noma. Izimboni Sustainable in America kuwubala uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo emazweni efana China neJalimane, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi America has ngaphezu kokwanele imithombo ukuba abe lizwe esimeme kunazo Emhlabeni.

Ubuchwepheshe Sustainable kungukuthi isekelwa ngokwanele eMelika ngenxa izinkampane American nzuzo kusuka nokungasebenzi ngendlela nokukhiqizwa yize futhi ukusetshenziswa. Uphethiloli kuyisitha izimoto kaphethiloli nophethiloli-powered zinokungaqeqesheki zidinga uhambo njalo emuva garaji (noma umakhenikha) ngoba amandla omlilo of uphethiloli ubeka okukhulu ubunzima injini izingxenye. Ngini ogulayo cars kusho imali eningi ukuze moto dealerships, bezobunjiniyela, kanye nezinkampani namafutha. Ukuklama onobuhle ezithuthukisiwe kudinga umsebenzi kanye ngezimali kokuqala more kanye. Uma wonke umuntu kwaba self-anele kanye nezimoto zethu baphila nje senza, izinkampani kanye nohulumeni angeke inzuzo. Njengoba Izimpahla uwoyela anciphe, ukwanda amanani kanye nezinkampani uwoyela bafuna ukufinyelela “uwoyela isiqongo” ngentengo, okuyinto lo esiphezulu amanani igesi iyoke afinyelele. Kuze kube yilolu kwenzeka, kuyoba nabaningi ngabanye ngokwezimali ilungelo lokufuna ngubani bafuna ukuqhubeka besebenzisa uphethiloli nje ngokwenyama kungenzeka.

Abezombusazwe bavame ukukhuluma imisebenzi ebalulekile siyobe silahlekelwe uma senza ukuqeda ezinkampani uwoyela negesi. Nokho, lokhu kuvame disingenuous futhi deflective yenkinga wangempela ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke. Sonke abazokwazi ukwenza zonke izinhlobo zemisebenzi. Amakhono ethu kukhona transferrable futhi Sasifika bajabule kakhudlwana nomsebenzi ozuzisa wonke umuntu, esikhundleni kungenzeka ngokuletha esinye yobudala ice.

Major izinkampani car American ngokuvamile ukukhangisa onobuhle zabo ezintsha ukuba bathole gas mileage ngcono kancane kuka onobuhle wangaphambili, futhi hydrogen kanye nomqondo electric zabo izimoto, futhi benza sengathi baye axazulula obumbi energy. Exxon Imfono nezinye izinkampani uwoyela noma bathi iyahola zamandla esimeme. Lena bonke ukuba baqhubeke odala ezingenayo ngenkathi indiva inkinga.

General Motors kwaveza izimoto zikagesi ebizwa EV1s ukuthi basebenza ngaphandle izinkinga, kodwa ngenxa ingcindezi zezombusazwe, GM ezisuke zidliwe zonke EV1s babacela kugaywa yasogwadule. Lokhu kwaxoxwa Ekugcineni ngo-documentary, ababulala Electric Car? Lokhu kwakungeyona ubuchwepheshe ephumelelayo iye ngokoqobo ochotshoziwe okuwukuphela kwesikhathi.

Uhulumeni America kanye izinkampane ezinkulu bamane abafuni engozini imali engaphansi, yebo isikhathi esifushane. Ubuchwepheshe buye eside utholakale ukwakha izimoto nge ukusebenza ngekhono fuel okuningi ephakeme, kanye izimoto ezisebenzisa igesi akukho nesisodwa. Empeleni, imoto yokuqala electric kwakhiwa esikhathini esithile phakathi kuka-1832 no-1839 ngu Robert Anderson.

Ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke akufanele kube yinkinga nzima ukuzixazulula kodwa ohulumeni izinkampane baye benza kube nzima ngenxa yemali zenziwe on gas. Izinkampani ngobukhulu uwoyela basuke exhaswe ohulumeni. Amanye eziphethwe uhulumeni bese engabe ukugijima ukuze umphakathi kodwa eziningi ungapheli. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ohulumeni ngokuvamile yenza noma okwengeziwe izintela uphethiloli nezimboni ukuba bathembele gas, kunokuba izinkampani uwoyela do on ukuthengiswa igesi. Lokhu kubanikeza ugqozi ngisho nangokwengeziwe ukugcina amanani igesi eliphezulu kanye nekusebenta izimoto aphansi. Ohulumeni abaningi futhi ungumnikazi amasimu ezinkulu amafutha bengafuni ukulahlekelwa inzuzo ngaphansi kwezinyawo zawo, ngisho noma lokho kusho ukubhujiswa Earth wethu.

Abanye abadlali bamabhayisikobho ezombusazwe corporate abaphika kwesimo sezulu bathi isayensi kuyinto ‘hhayi’ on ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke, kodwa lokhu akunangqondo. Okushisa Global ivukile phezu kwekhulu lama-20 futhi kukhona amarekhodi okukhulu walowo. Qopha lokushisa ukweqisa nawo Ziyanda. I-carbon anda emkhathini bese nokuncipha kwamanzi eMhlabeni esiqinile nazo ulinganiseke futhi kungaba sibona imiphumela kokubili. I CAPS ice ziya encibilika futhi ebohla ngokwengeziwe futhi minyaka yonke, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi labo abenqabayo ukwamukela lokhu. Khetha abambalwa abazama ukushintsha le bavame kwakhinyabezwa inhlangano nobe bemidlalo abamelela ezizimele.

Ukwehluleka UN kanye Izingqungquthela nazo ezibangele yokuntuleka inqubekelaphambili. Ngo-2007 i-UN European yavuma ukwehlisa nje kwekhabhoni zayo by 20% by 2020. America ibilokhu noma esingaphansi izimisele. Obama lenyuka imishini kwezilwandle ngamaphesenti 75%, fracking e-US, futhi ngokungathandi yagunyaza ukwakhiwa iphayiphi Keystone XL (ukusuka athuthukile njengoba ubudlelwano phakathi TransCanada no ConocoPhillips), okuyinto okuhloswe ukugijima uwoyela wehla eCanada refiners in the igebe region and Texas.

Uma izinhlangano ababecebe zomhlaba ingangeni wama, babekwazi ayinamali us sonke futhi ngempela ngokoqobo ukubhubhisa Earth in the nqubo. Ke, kumelwe baqaphe. Ukufudumala Global kanye zonke lezi zinkinga engiye okuxoxwe kukhona inkinga solvable. Uma singakwazi ahlele futhi Yokulwa ezinkulu ngamandla izakhiwo ukuthi akudingeki usikhathalela engqondweni, singama futhi ukuhlanekezela la ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke neminye imiphumela yabo emibi.

3.5 The abacebe of the ocebile

Ngiye kuxoxwa engenayo ukwehlukana lukhulu kule ncwadi, kodwa angizange okuxoxwe kahle indlela acebile ambalwa esicebe kukhona futhi kanjani abampofu uquqaba abampofu, futhi izinombolo kukhona okumangalisayo. Abantu abacebe kakhulu emhlabeni lingama baseMelika abasezikhundleni emandleni ezinkampani nobe nezombusazwe noma kokubili. Izinkampani ekhokhelayo kakhulu emhlabeni cishe yonke izinkampani zaseMelika. Bahlanganiswe bakhazimulisa njengoba ‘Fortune 500 “e Fortune Magazine kanye emakethe yamasheya. I corporation oholelayo kunazo Emhlabeni ngo-2009 kwaba Wal-Mart (bheka ishadi ngezansi) okuyinto ebeligciniwe $ 421 billion ngo 2010 no $ 466.1 billion dollars ngo-2012 [xxxiii] Benza kakhulu imali yabo by ukukhiphela lemisebenzi. Nje ngakho konke edayiswa Walmart yenziwa engaphandle America. 70% of imikhiqizo yazo zivela China kanye ukungeniswa Walmart kusukela China ziye nesandla eMelika ukuhweba kusilela ne lizwe.

Umholo Walmart sika-2010 kwaba ngu-ulingana GDP ahlangene ka 41 of amazwe Afrika 53. Uma engenayo Walmart sika kwasakazwa ngokulinganayo phakathi abasebenzi bayo, ngamunye isisebenzi wayeyothola $ 204,285.71, nokho iningi zikhokhwa umholo federal okungenani $ 7,25 ngehora. (Abasebenzi Undocumented America aphesheya waqasha ngu Walmart avame zikhokhwe noma esingaphansi.) A hora amane Umsebenzi ngesonto ngaleso umholo baziqhathanise $ 290 ngesonto futhi i iholo yonyaka (ngaphandle zeholidi) of $ 15.080.

Christy Walton, umfelokazi John T. Walton, indodana ka umsunguli Walmart (Sam Walton) kwaba owesifazane ababecebe kakhulu emhlabeni ngo-2011 nge engabiza inetha of $ 26,5 billion. Jim Walton, indodana ka Sam Walton kubiza $ 21,3 billion ukuthi nyaka. Alice Walton, indodakazi ka Sam Walton, kubiza $ 21.2 billion. (Uphindze yabulala umuntu nemoto yakhe futhi akalokothi wakhonza ejele ngesikhathi ngoba imali sinikeza nkululeko.) S. Robson Walton, indodana endala ka Sam Walton kanye usihlalo Walmart kubiza $ 21 billion. Bebonke, i Walton sika abe ngaphezu kwemali eyanele ukuqeda indlala emhlabeni.

Top 10 Grossing Corporations ngo 2009:

1 Walmart $ 421.000.000.000

2 Exxon Imfono $ 383.000.000.000

3 Chevron $ 205.000.000.000

4 ConocoPhillips $ 198.000.000.000

5 Fannie Mae $ 154.000.000.000 + $ 800.000.000 in amafa

6 General Electric $ 150.000.000.000

7 Berkshire Hathaway $ 136.000.000.000

8 General Motors $ 135.000.000.000

9 Bank of America $ 134.000.000.000

10 Ford Motor $ 128.000.000.000

Kuhlanganiswe Total $ 1.924.000.000.000.000

Source: Fortune Magazine 2009.

The Fortune “Global 500” lifaka izinhlangano zamazwe ngamazwe enenzuzo kakhulu. Iningi izinkampani on ohlwini 2009 awazange Akumangazi izinze eMelika, kodwa kwakukhona abangaphezu ngekubambisana Europe.The European Union futhi saba GDP of $ 16,228 trillion ngo-2010, okwakukhona mkhulu kunalokho America sokuthi nyaka, kodwa America uhlala okungaphezulu okudlangile kwezomnotho nakwezempi power.In 2012 iningi fortune global izinkampani 500 nabo ikomkhulu America.Exxon Hambayo (America) kanye Royal Dutch Shell (Netherlands) okwamanje izinkampani enenzuzo kakhulu Emhlabeni ngokulandela izimali. Shell has abasebenzi 90,000 futhi sihlela on Drilling for kawoyela Artic (ngoba encibilika kwaba nje akwanele ngokusobala) .They balindele Artic ukuba abe umthombo elikhulu uwoyela ongahluziwe for the emashumini ambalwa ezayo, futhi bangase ngaphandle uma ayeke them.They kwadingeka ezingenayo of $ 484,489 billion ngo-2012, futhi ezingenayo Exxon Hambayo kwakungu $ 452,926 billion. [xxxiv] Gas okwamanje lemboni enenzuzo kakhulu emhlabeni. Nokho, esimeme, imithombo evuselelekako of energy, ingenziwa emhlabeni wonke. Uma ohulumeni bethu wabeka ingxenye njengoba imali zibe ocwaningweni nokusimama, design, ukuthuthukiswa, uxhaso emapulazini organic, nokuvikelwa kanye nokulondolozwa komhlaba kanye okunhlobonhlobo kunabo benze ezinhlelweni zabo ezempi, siyobe sibone izinto ziyashintsha cishe ubusuku. Ubuchwepheshe Solar iye ngcono kakhulu eminyakeni eyishumi edlule futhi akuseyona kuyabiza ngaphezu embiwa phansi. It nje okumele exhaswe futhi wasekela ukuba zikhule ngokushesha njengoba zidinga it nathi, kanye nezinye evuselelwako imithombo energy.

Ngo-2012 i-US kwadingeka 132 of the izinkampani Global Fortune 500. China kwadingeka 73 naseJapane kwadingeka 68. Ezinye izinkampane e China naseJapane udlulele ngalé eziningi eMelika ngo-2012 Toyota (corporation yaseJapane enenzuzo kakhulu) wayenamandla semali yeshumi lelisetulu emhlabeni. Sinopec Group, inkampani kawoyela Chinese kahulumeni wayenamandla semali wesihlanu esiphezulu $ 375,338 million, futhi China Natural Petroleum kwadingeka kweliphezulu yesithupha. Out of the izinkampani eziyishumi ezisezweni ne izimali esiphezulu ngo-2012, eziyisithupha zase izinkampani kawoyela. Walmart kwaba kuphela corporation akahlobene energy, yize Walmart isebenzisa owawudinga amandla futhi carbon yayo lokungcolisa

Bonke abanye global Fortune 500 behlakazeka ikakhulu kulo lonke elaseYurophu. IRussia kwadingeka a eziyisikhombisa. Its enenzuzo kakhulu kwakungu Gazprom, zazo uhulumeni waseRussia owns 50,01%. Ningizimu Melika kwadingeka eziningana, kodwa alo enenzuzo kakhulu kwaba Petrobras, enye inkampani kawoyela ikomkhulu Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, okuyinto kwadingeka esinakho imikhiqizo igesi amashumi eminyaka. Australia kwadingeka eziyisishiyagalolunye of the fortune global izinkampani 500 ngo-2012 BHP Billton, a ongahluziwe kanye nezimayini corporation, kwakuyiyona enenzuzo kakhulu nge ezingenayo ka 71,139 billion. Ihhovisi Ukuphathwa enkulu waso eLondon futhi lwamasheya luzokwenziwa the London Stock Exchange. Africa kwadingeka akekho fortune izinkampani 500.

The semali angumfelandawonye fortune global 500 ngo-2010 kwaba $ 22,5 trillion, okuyinto kwaba ngaphezu eyodwa yesithathu 62 trillion dollar GDP sika zwe nyaka. Kwaba njalo ngaphezu kabili GDP ahlangene-Afrika, South East Asia naseNingizimu Melika. Ngaphezu kwalokho, Afrika izwekazi emaningi lesibili ngobukhulu futhi kwesibili eMhlabeni, nokho GDP walo kwaba% 2.3 kuphela GDP kwezwe ngo-2010.

3.6 The exchange stock: ikhasino rigged

Le exchange stock kakhulu kunomthelela ingcebo nabantu abacebe, futhi liphinde iyisibonelo Imibono yabo ngemali. Abacebe ambalwa siphathe imali like a ithoyizi, kanti exchange stock nje ikhasino yabo. Kodwa bona zidonsa izintambo umnotho wezwe, abaningi kangaka nje abonakale ukuba ukubheja. Ezingongolweni, izibopho, ukubolekisa kanye liens empeleni izindlela ukugembula on angaphatheki kanye nempahla noma nhlobo ezimweni ezithile.

Endabeni nemalimboleko futhi liens, amabhange ukugembula ngokuthi umuntu ethatha sokubolekwa kwemali noma zayo wayithathela nezakhiwo uzokwazi ukukhokha it back. Loans kungasiza kodwa ngokuvamile amabhange inzuzo okwengeziwe uma loan abanazo abakwazi ukukhokha kubo emuva ngenxa yokuthi izikweletu zabo ziyoba qongelela nesithakazelo nempahla yabo (efana emakhaya abo) kungenziwa ashaqe ababemzungezile, abenze nakhaya futhi ngezinye izikhathi ubuphofu impilo. Lokhu kungaba inqubo oholelayo kakhulu uma kwenziwa ngezinga elikhulu. Lapho abadlali bamabhayisikobho ukuthi ufuna ukusizakala izikhungo ukuthi ukunikeza umshuwalense, lezi zinkampani kanye nezinye lunakekela kwezomnotho ukuthi kufanele ukuvimba kokuwa komnotho kungase futhi hamba ayinamali futhi kuthinte nezinye izimboni eziningi.

Ukuthenga share a stock sifana ekwenzeni ukubheja ekhasino. Kuyinto ukubheja noma ukulinganisa ebalwe sezinqumo esizayo yezinye Izıhlabane. Ngabanye ukutshala imali stock uma bekholwa enkampani kuyoba ngokwezimali yimpumelelo futhi amasheya ngaphezulu izobe athengwe kunalokho ithengiswe. Kodwa abatshalizimali kwansuku bavame behlukumezeka kusukela abazi konke nabaphathi siyayazi mayelana izinkampani zabo nor benze benza izinqumo zezimali ngabo. Nabaphathi ongabikezela izitayela kwezomnotho umhlabeleli ngoba neziyingi yabo abangane ocebile ezithinta la mikhuba kakhulu nezinqumo zabo siqu zezimali.

A stock kuyisitha esigxotsheni equity of a corporation. Stock A yenkampani sehlukaniswe amasheya kanye stock ngalinye limelela ucezu ubunikazi leso nkampani. Nokho, abanikazi bamasheya ezivamile azinamandla izinqumo yenkampani. Kuphela bamasheya Iningi ukwenza izinqumo futhi yizona ngokuvamile abanikazi bezinkampani. Lapho a amafayela nkampani for ucabanga (isahluko 11), imfuyo yabo iyoba kuwufanele konke esele uma corporation ukhokha kwezitshalo abakweletwayo zayo kanye zonke izikweletu zalo zokubuyiselwa zikhokhelwa. Iningi imali langempela ageleza kuya bamasheya ngobukhulu futhi uma befaka ucabanga abakweletwayo “zikhokhwa ngokulandelana of ubudala babo.” Abaninimasheya kukhona owokugcina zikhokhwe emva abakweletwayo engavikelekile nemicengezi of “stock elithandayo.” [Xxxv] Abaninimasheya zithola lutho uma ababolekisi kungukuthi ikhokhwe ngokugcwele.

Ngaphandle ngamasheya ejwayelekile, kunezindlela eziningi nezinye izinsimbi eziyinkimbinkimbi zemali ikakhulu bayazuza bamasheya ezinkulu futhi abacebile kakade like amagama ahlobene. Kukhona izinhlobo eziningi zokukhokhelwa esuselwe efana izinketho, okhololo, iphansi, amakepisi, ikusasa, nezibopho izikweletu kanye lenzalo amagama ahlobene. (Ngo June 2009, iBhange for International Settlements walinganisela ukuthi value sekufundza of bonke OTC interest rate izinkontileka kwaba $ 437 trillion kanye kuhlangene value sekufundza of bonke swaps interest rate $ 342 trillion. Zombili zibalo ngalé yonke GDP wonke emhlabeni.) Benza kukhona zonke izinkontileka nje. Value abo kunqunywa ukusebenza esiyisisekelo emakethe zezici efana zezimali, izikweletu, kanye emakethe izibambiso.

“Izinketho” kukhona izinkontileka ukuba anikeze abathintekayo ikhono ukuthenga noma ukuthengisa bulusizo noma ithuluzi financial at ngentengo esibekiwe noma phambi date ecacisiwe. Ngokuvamile, le akuyona isibopho, kodwa ekhethelo etholakalayo. Inketho esinika omunye ikhono ukuthenga i fa ubizwa ngokuthi ‘abize “futhi okuphambene ibizwa ngokuthi” beka. “Abanye balaba ukuthengiselana zenziwa” OTC “noma” off-exchange, “okusho kunjalo Ukuhwebelana ezizimele ukuthi musa kwenzeke at exchange zokuhweba izakhiwo. Njengo OTC umuthi, OTC ukuhweba akuyona kuncike igunya. Lezi zingxoxo zenza musa esingalethi imali efanayo kanye nezintela ukuthi exchange wendabuko ukuhweba akwenzayo, futhi bangakwazi uvumele nenkululeko xaxa kanye ekuxhashazweni.

Wall Street uthanda ukusebenzisa ijagoni secret ukuze kufihlwe lokho exchange stock ekwenzayo nokubaluleka kwalo. Kodwa athembeka abagembuli nje abahahayo. Bathi ukugembula ngemali kokuba adayiswa, hhayi kokuba adayiswa, ukubolekisa iphutha, amanani esizayo kanye ukubhejela kubhejwa kubhejwa ukuthi baba abstract ngakho balahlekelwe incazelo yangempela. Umgomo oyinhloko kuba ukudida futhi akhohlise. Lapho ukulahleka man oyedwa kuyinzuzo yomunye (zero-sum ezothando) njengoba ezimakethe zamasheya, lokhu kungenzeka kwenzeke.

Ngisho nakho konke lokhu umcebo virtual ezintantayo nxazonke, wonke amazwe ngokomthetho kuleli zwe ezikweletini ngenxa amabhange ezinkulu, izinkampani kanye izikhungo zezimali ukuba banyathelisa imali anqume ingakanani imali futhi nezikweletu kumele sikhona. America European Union kukhona abaholi njengoba ka 2013 ezikweletini, kodwa Kuyindida zingabantu nazo amazwe emhlabeni esicebe. Kokubili mayelana $ 16 trillion ezikweletini. GDP yabo imayelana efanayo. China no India kokubili babe ezingaphezu kweyodwa trillion ezikweletini yomphakathi ngokusho Economist Intelligence Unit idatha kusuka 2012.

Imibuso yomhlaba kunawo futhi proxy yabo ohulumeni kanye zenekwe elawulwa izindawo “kakhudlwana” nge force kuyizinto kunawo ezikweletini. Ngo-2011 Australia wayesezothatha $ 395 billion ezikweletini and Austria kwaba $ 300 billion ezikweletini. Lowo nyaka isikweletu emhlabeni wayesezothatha $ 50 trillion, okulingana-sevenths amahlanu 2011 global $ 70 trillion dollar GDP. [Xxxvi]

Imibuso abaningi abafuni ukuba baphishekele bugebengu ngobukhulu zezimali wafaka abantu abacebe kakhulu emhlabeni ejele ngoba bavame ngokwezimali uboshelwe kubo. Njengoba kushiwo, abanikazi izuzisa kakhulu kusuka kweminotho zamanje emhlabeni wonke. Ababusi kunayo corporation, ohulumeni ngisho izinkolo kanye zabezindaba babe nomthelela kakhulu kokwenzeka ezinkulu emhlabeni, izinguquko iminotho global, nokuhamba kwezenhlalo. Ngakho-ke, ngokuvamile babe nekhono umhlabeleli ukubikezela kubo, okuyinto kubanika inzuzo okuphawulekayo exchange stock nangawo ukuhweba zonke izinhlobo. Nokho, lesi simiso ingasetshenziswa ngokumelene nabo. Uma abathile babe capital oluncane noma amandla ongabikezela ikusasa elingcono kunale babusi can ke bangakwazi ayinamali ezimakethe zamasheya bese besakaza nengcebo. Lokhu kungenziwa ngu ukuhlela futhi aqukethe ulwazi mayelana esitokisini kanye umninimasheya izinhlelo phakathi kwabantu abavamile. Kodwa thina kufanele aqaphele ngalokho esifuna ukugembula on. Foreclosures, izikweletu ngefa, bankruptcies ngisho lokufa kaningi bayazuza abatshalizimali ezithile ngoba kunabantu abazimisele ukwenza ukubhejela kwabo. Abatshalizimali bangaba nakho ukugembula ngokuthi ukubaluleka imali a wezwe uzokwehla uma kukawoyela kwenzeka noma ingxenye enkulu yabantu eshona kusuka izifo. In uhlelo is ngenxa nje-nzuzo, isiphi isiphetho kungenziwa ethola inzuzo, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi negative. Lezi bavame wazibona ngokuthi “externalities ayinakugwenywa” yokukhathalela okuncane kubabusi yalezi zikhungo.

Ngisho nalapho imali a wezwe uba usizo kakhulu impela fast, le kungaba ngenxa externalities engemihle. Yiqiniso, ukukhula komnotho kungaba umkhiqizo emikhubeni yokuziphatha yebhizinisi, kugcineke, nokusebenza kahle, ngokubambisana, imibono emisha, kanye ukuqashwa kwabantu abakhokhelwa iholo elincane noma abangasebenzi, kodwa ngeshwa kuba ngokuvamile akunjalo. Growth iningi kufezwa ngokusebenzisa izinqubomgomo nomholo aphansi, amahora amade, izimo zokusebenza abampofu, ejele labour nokugqilazwa. Imizamo nazo kwenziwa ukwandisa labantu yokusebenza (kungakhathaliseki ubudala noma ukukhubazeka) kanye ukugcizelela ukubaluleka ‘okuhle ezikhandla nasemsebenzini “ukuze kwandiswe inzuzo for abacebile at izindleko nenhlalakahle yethu. Konke lokhu kunciphisa izindleko imisebenzi wezinkampane futhi kwandisa ifuneka ukuhwebelena yabo, okwandisa ukubaluleka lwemali yabo esigcawini global. (Ukuthengiselana Iningi phakathi kwamazwe zihilela ngemali, hhayi hweba.) A ukutholakala enkulu namafutha noma izinsimbi eziyigugu kungaba njalo sizoqinisa ukwandisa ukubaluleka imali wezwe. Amazwe iningi cishe ukuzwa i boom kwezomnotho ezayo engu-10 like eNingizimu Afrika, eJapane, China, Brazil, India kanye nabanye luyokhula ngezithukuthuku izakhamuzi zabo class yokusebenza kanye nemithombo yabo. Abacebile uyozuza kakhulu.

The US yokuhweba system zibanika ambalwa nengcebo khetha enkulu kuphela ngoba isebenta on zokukhokhelwa alulingani. Eziningi imikhiqizo sisebenzisa nsuku abenziwe izigqila, abantwana, iziboshwa, nezinceku amatoho. Abasebenzi kulula ukuxhaphaza lapho kukhona nokungalingani kwezomnotho okukhulu, futhi abantu babe abanokuncane ukuze bazivikele futhi akukho ukwengamela. America iyikhaya kubantu abacebe eMhlabeni nje ngoba wonke (futhi ezivamile kanzima-zokusebenza baseMelika) bampofu kangaka. I-United States sekuba amazwe wangaphandle emikhulu njengoba imboni yezabasebenzi ejele ayakhukhumala. Kodwa ukuhweba izimali zalo (umthelela kanye izinto kwamanye amazwe nezintela) sihlale ongaphakeme, okusho ilizwe namanje ukwenza ukuthenga kaningi ukuze resale nge ezisindayo mark-up kunalokho is asathuthuka imikhiqizo ukudayiswa.

Iningi imali zingxoxo zenza zihilela noma euro nobe US izikweletu. Zezimali iningi nibaluleke ekude esingaphansi. Ngokwesibonelo, omunye uFranc central Afrika (“dollar” eyodwa Africa) kuwufanele amabili eshumini ze eyodwa cent waseMelika nobe $ 0,0022. [Xxxvii] Enye dollar Afghani kuwufanele mayelana amasenti ezimbili American. A flight kusukela Kabul Afghanistan eNew York City imayelana $ 1300-2500. [Xxxviii] A indiza esuka eCongo eFrance kubiza mayelana $ 5,000 nobe franc angu eyizigidi ezingu 2.2 Central African, ngakho akuyona sengathi kokushiya kuyinto nakuyicabanga elula kubantu ezivamile kula mazwe nokusiza fix wabo enzima nakakhulu inqubo. Kuleli athe ocebile kakhudlwana yaseNingizimu Afrika, ithikithi indiza kusale kusukela Johannesburg ukuya eFrance kubiza mayelana $ 1,200 nobe 8182 African Emarandi [xxxix]

Ngikholwa kuyadingeka wokuqeda bezwe zezimali. Kuphela umusa abacebile kakade, futhi labo mpofu manje abaphumeleli eziphawulekayo. Wena ngokuvamile badinga imali ukwenza imali (ngaphandle uma usuke panhandling), bengenamakhaya kangaka, abantu abampofu ngokuvamile abakwazi ukuthola indlela yokuphuma. Kodwa imithombo kungenziwa adayiswa. A lwemali social kungabuye lwenteke. Asidingi mali.

3.7 The abampofu futhi impilo yabo

Yini engicasulayo kakhulu kimi mayelana izinkampani acebile kanye ntu hoard ngengcebo yabo wukuthi kuyilapho ukuchitha izigidi ngezinto akudingeki, iningi kwezwe akanayo imali eyanele ukuba adle. Abantu abangaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezintathu (cishe isigamu zomhlaba) baphila on ezinganeni engaphansi kuka $ 2.50 (US dollars) ngosuku, futhi cishe ingxenye singamadoda. [XL] angu-80 emhlabeni iphila ngemali engaphansi kwama-$ 10 ngosuku. Amaphesenti angu-40 emhlabeni uthola amaphesenti amahlanu emali emhlabeni kuyilapho abacebe 20% enze eliyizingxenye ezintathu engenayo kwezwe ingqikithi.

Ubumpofu iyona yimbangela evamile yokufa, izifo, futhi jikelele izinga abampofu lokuphila. Iningi labantu abahlala emazweni ampofu baphile izimpilo sizoqinisa esifushane ukwedlula bonke abanye kithi. Ngokusho World Health Organization ngo-2011 imibiko eyodwa kuphela amaphesenti abantu abashone emazweni high ingeniso zaziyiminyaka engamakhulu 0-14 ubudala. 28% yaba yiminyaka 15-69 ubudala kanye omkhulu 71% ayengamele 70 ubudala. Nokho, emazweni engenayo ephakathi nendawo, 15% sabantu abashone zaziyiminyaka engamashumi 0-14 ubudala, 45% yaba yiminyaka 15-69 ubudala futhi% 40 kuphela ayengamele 70 ubudala. Izibalo ezivela emazweni engenayo ephansi-ngisho nakakhulu. 40% wabantu owafa emazweni engenayo ongaphakeme yaba yiminyaka 0-14 ubudala, 43% zase 15-69, futhi nje 17% ayengamele engu 70. [Xli]

Iningi yokufa ukuthi iyokwenzeka emazweni umtimba engenayo ephansi kalula siyavikeleka, futhi abaningi zibangelwa nendlala, ukuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni nezifo ososayensi bathola amakhambi azo kudala. Izimbangela ezinkulu zalezi zinkinga nokudla engahlanzekile, okungenampilo obanele namanzi nemibandela aphilayo. Zikahulumeni bakhuthazwa kagwayi kanye nokusetshenziswa kotshwala kanye ukuntuleka omkhulu zemithi kanye ukwelashwa nazo qhaza ezinkulu. Ngokwesilinganiso abantwana ngu-22.000 abancane kuka ezinhlanu bafa nsuku ka 2010 ekubulaweni yindlala nezifo kalula ezigwemekayo. [Xlii] Mayelana 27-28 amaphesenti of zonke izingane emazweni asathuthuka efanele noma ezacile. [Xliii]

Yize lokhu akusona sihloko emnandi ukufunda mayelana, it esibalulekile ngenxa yokuthi ekuqondeni izimbangela evamile yokufa kungasisiza ukuvimbela kubo futhi nokusindisa izimpilo. I WHO ibike imbangela ehamba phambili yokufa emazweni engenayo ephansi-ngo-2008 kwaba nezifo zokuphefumula aphansi efana pneumonia, ukucinana kwemigudu yokuphefumula, iphaphu ithumba. Million 1,05 babulawa ukutheleleka zokuphefumula aphansi ngo-2008 760,000 babulawa isifo sohudo kanye ne-HIV / AIDS wabulala million 0,72. Izifo sohudo anesizotha ezibangelwa ukuphuza amanzi angcolile. Kodwa zingabuye futhi kubangelwa ukudla ukudla angcolile, ukususwa engahlanzekile of indle futhi abampofu kwenhlanzeko siqu. Indlela evame kakhulu bantfu ukuthuthukisa lezi zifo iwukuba amanzi ingcoliswe indle ukuphuza. Abampofu kakhulu, izifunda eziningi abaningi abanalo umthungi izinhlelo, izitshalo ukwelashwa kwamanzi, noma ngisho egijima, namanzi ahlanzekile, yingakho lezi zifo zivamile khona. Uhudo kungadalwa amagciwane ehlukene kuka 100, lenyama kanye virus, kanti abanye abakhona in imfucuza. I ezibulalayo kakhulu izifo zohudo kukhona ikholera, uhudo amagciwane typhoid. Ngabanye emazweni engenayo ephansi-Kuphela bafe yalezi zifo sibaningi ngenxa emazweni acebile usuhlanzekile futhi iningi imiphakathi yabo ukufinyelela kwamanzi ahlanzekile kanye nokudla.

Uhudo bangambulala us ngoba depletes umzimba ngamanzi bese electrolyte efana sodium, okungase kubangele ukuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni esinzima. Uma umzimba ulahlekelwa 10% noma ngaphezulu eziwuketshezi zalo, ukufa kungenzeka. Lapho nalabo izifo zohudo kudingeka kabusha Yipha, uma nje zikwazi ukuthola amanzi angcolile, ephuza ngaphezulu kuyoba nje enza ukuba balahlekelwe eziwuketshezi zabo ezingokomzimba ngokushesha, okwenza nokufa kuseduze kakhudlwana. Kungenzeka yezindlela ezingemnandi kunazo ukufa, futhi ngokudabukisayo, ubulala ikakhulu izingane

Inhliziyo Ischemic (IHD) sifo sabulala million 0,57 emazweni engenayo ephansi-ngo-2008 [xliv] IHD unciphisa igazi ligeleze liye enhliziyweni ngokusebenzisa elibi nenqwaba qwembe cholesterol, noma ezinye obstructions. Abampofu yokudla, ukubhema nokuphuza kuyizinto izimbangela ezivamile. It is a yimbangela ejwayelekile kakhulu kangakanani yokufa emazweni umtimba engenayo ephezulu.

Izinombolo sasingcono emazweni engenayo ephansi ngo 2004 Ngalowo nyaka abantu abayizigidi 2,94 bafa ngenxa ukutheleleka zokuphefumula aphansi kula mazwe futhi million 2,47 bafa ngenxa coronary yesifo senhliziyo ngo-2004 Zombili lezi zifo abangela ukufa kwabantu le esingaphansi in middle and high amazwe engenayo. Abantu abayizigidi 1,81 babulawa isifo sohudo emazweni engenayo ephansi-futhi million 1,51 babulawa HIV / AIDS ngo-2004 [xlv]

HIV and AIDS zibonakala ikakhulu ngimbone njengoba izinkinga Afrika ngoba ikakhulu ezithinta Afrika, kodwana HIV ne AIDS empeleni izinkinga ezinkulu e America kanye lokhu kuthinta inombolo ongalingani ngabanye abampofu ezincane. America liyikhaya abaphethwe iningi AIDS of wonke amazwe anezimboni, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi kuyinto lizwe elicebe kakhulu emhlabeni. Kunabantu abanaleli abantu abangaphezu kwesigidi e-America, kodwa abantu ezimbalwa kakhulu bafe kuyo eMelika kuka e-Afrika ngoba ukwelashwa lapha kungcono. Ngo-2009 kwafa abantu 17.000 kusuka AIDS in America [xlvi] kanti ngu-million 1.4 bafela Sub-Saharan Africa kusukela AIDS ukuthi nyaka.

The 2011 US nesicelo federal isabelomali ukwelashwa AIDS in America kwaba $ 20,4 billion. 69% yale mali lesabelwe ukunakekelwa, 14% ucwaningo, 13% Ukusizwa, futhi 4% for lokuvikela. Isabelomali US eyabelwe zokuvimbela AIDS kanye nokwelashwa e-Afrika kwaba ephansi le, nakuba ezigidini 22,5 Abantu abahlala Sub-Saharan Afrika HIV, okuyinto nxazonke-kwamathathu ezimbili wezindleko global. Uma AIDS waba Ubhubhane America njengoba kuba e-Afrika, kwakuzoba khona okuningi media ukubikelwa kuwo nemali okungaphezulu lesabelwe ukwelashwa, kodwa kwemingcele yiwona yimbangela umehluko in ukwelashwa.

Zokuvimbela HIV kubaluleke kunazo Afrika. Ezamahala zokuvimbela inzalo, spermicides, ezemfundo sex, ingati njalo kanye nodokotela abangochwepheshe kwezempilo zokuzala engaba usizo kakhulu. Abantu abaningi e-Afrika HIV ne AIDS awazi bona bane, ngoba kukhona le imitholampilo ezimbalwa kakhulu ukuthi ukunikeza ukuhlolelwa free. (HIV Ukuhlolwa kungaba nakho ukukhiqiza imiphumela engemihle, ngisho nalapho igazi omuhle for HIV kungakapheli ezinyangeni zokuqala eziyisithupha emva yokudlulisela.) Labo abenza ukwazi basuke zitheleleka ngezinye izikhathi ungatsheli abalingani babo kwezocansi, futhi lokhu okunye okudlulela sifo. Anamahlazo zenkolo, ukudlwengula, (okuyinto yande amaningi izifunda ingxabano-yaqothula of Africa) kanye nokuntuleka nokubika mayelana zonke lezi zimpikiswano futhi kunomthelela nalezi zinkinga.

Imitholampilo Ngini kudingeka amiswa Afrika kanye odokotela abangaphezu kumele ngokuzithandela ukushintsha lokhu. Ukudlwengula emakilasini zokuvimbela futhi amaqembu support nakho kungaba usizo kakhulu. Wonke e-Afrika ne HIV ne AIDS Okungenani kufanele ukuthi banayo futhi ukuyinqanda ukuthi ingasabalali nokuthi ukuze bakwazi aphathe ngokwabo. Nakuba lingekho ikhambi elaziwayo noma, imishanguzo engabambezela ngentuthuko izifo futhi ibuye kuwavimbele ingasabalali. Ngiphinde bakholelwa ikhambi AIDS iyotholakala futhi kusakazwe mahhala ingakapheli iminyaka eyishumi nanhlanu noma.

HIV and AIDS anesizotha basakaze ikakhulu ngocansi sowesifazane sangasese bese anal. Awukwazi thumela noma ngokusebenzisa salvia. Ingabuye ibe basakaza ngegazi, okungase kwenzeke uma izinaliti gciwane asetshenziswa. Omama igciwane kungaba njalo adlulisele izifo ukuze izinsana zabo njengoba ngishilo, futhi 70.000 nezinsana zizalwa ne-HIV njalo ngonyaka.

Imishanguzo ingasetshenziswa ukuvimbela kumama-kuye enganeni of HIV, kodwa kungcono ukugwema ukuba nabantwana bakho siqu uma utheleleke nge-HIV noma ingculaza. Kunezingane eziningi eziyizintandane e-Afrika abadinga abazali ababekwazi bazuze babanakekele. Ukuze maduzane-to-babe omama kanye sifo, la WHO incoma kusiphuce yezidambisigciwane izidakamizwa Zidovudine amaviki 28 ngemva kokuba ukhulelwe futhi ukuthatha Nevirapine ngesikhatsi zabasebenzi ukuvimbela yokudlulisela. Baphinde batusa ukuba unina bathathe Zidovudine no Lamuvidine emva kokuzalwa kanye ngesonto elilodwa ukuthi usana anikwe umthamo elilodwa Nevirapine ngokushesha emva kokuba azalwe futhi Zidovudine nsuku zonke isonto elilodwa emva kokuzalwa. (Lokhu akuyona into ukuvumela yalezi mithi.)

HIV and AIDS kungabuye ngobulili ngokusebenzisa ubisi lwebele, kanjalo omama akufanele ukuncelisa, kodwa esikhundleni sebenzisa formula. Izingxenye caesarean kungabuye eyenziwa ukunciphisa amathuba okudluliswa. Kodwa izigaba cesarean kukhona ebizayo futhi zingaba yingozi kakhulu ngaphandle imishini efanele yezokwelapha, odokotela abaqeqeshiwe kanye nebhoduluko oyinyumba. Kakade eliphezulu ezingxenyeni eziningi ze-Afrika kanye nezinye izifunda abampofu lokufa omama, ngakho izingxenye cesarean banganezela ingozi. Izinga lokushona kwabantwana bezalwa e Chad no Somalia zaziyiminyaka 1200 per 100,000 ukubeletha ngo 2010 [xlvii]. E Afghanistan ukuthi ingamaphesenti 1400 lokufa komama per 100,000 ukubeletha, (Afghanistan godu inenani kwezinsana lokufa rates: ezaphila 121,63 per 1,000 [xlviii]) kanti America kodwa kwadingeka 24 lokufa komama naseCanada kwadingeka 12 per 100,000 nokuzalwa. Amazwe iningi aseMpumalanga Yurophu kwadingeka noma aphansi izinga lokushona kwabantwana bezalwa (ngaphansi 10), ngenxa yokuthi abaningi babo babe izinhlelo kwezempilo okungcono futhi ngendlela enempilo.

Unhlangothi nesifo senhliziyo sibulale million 1,48 emazweni engenayo ephansi ngo-2004 Chronic obstructive nezifo yamaphaphu (COPD) futhi yabulala million 0,94 kanye nesifo sofuba sabulala 0,91 million ukuthi ngonyaka emazweni engenayo ephansi. Eziningi zalezi ukufa kwabantu nazo ezibangelwa lokugula ezihlobene nogwayi, yokudla abampofu noma kokubili. Izifo ezisanda kubelethwa zase obhekene ukufa kwabantu 900,000 ngalowo nyaka; umalaleveva kwaba obhekene ukufa kwabantu 860.000, futhi ngaphambi kwesikhathi kanye eliphansi sokuzalwa-isisindo zase necala lokufa kwalabo 840.000 emazweni engenayo ongaphakeme. Lezi zonke izifo kalula siyavikeleka futhi pheze ungalokothi iyokwenzeka emazweni acebile.

Umalaleveva yisifo pheze akekho ufa kusuka emazweni ocebile ngoba kulula kakhulu uvimbele futhi aphathe. It is ikakhulu ngobulili ngokusebenzisa omiyane bite namanetha omiyane kubiza ambalwa nje dollar. Ukuvimbela it emhlabeni wonke ngeke malini okuningi. Ukwenza kanjalo ekusindiseni izigidi izimpilo. Nokho, lezi zifo kungukuthi nje okubangwa ukuntula umuthi nokunakekela lwezokwelapha; basuke nazo esibangelwa ukuswela kwezikole okuhle kanye nokwaziswa ezifundeni eziningi zezwe. Pheze eziyinkulungwane abantu ngonyaka ka-2000 ayengenakukwazi ukufunda noma ukubhala amagama abo, nokho amaphesenti esingaphansi omunye yesabelomali global wezempi ukuthi nyaka wayengase ezinikeza imfundo yonke ingane emhlabeni. [Xlix] Abesifazane ngokuvamile noma ukungena kuwo kakhudlwana emfundweni emiphakathini misogynist ngenxa ababusi bayazi bona bayoba nobunzima more ezisizayo ukube abazi indlela. Lona yesizathu esifanayo zonke group lelikhishelwe igcina ukufinyelela emfundweni.

Nakuba lokhu bonke esangulukisayo kakhulu, kuvimbele ukufa yindlala, amanzi engcolile, ukuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni, futhi ukungabi okwandile wezemfundo kanye nokwaziswa kungadla amaRandi yingxenye encane kuphela lokho likapondo zichitha ezintweni akudingeki futhi bekungeke ithawula ngokukhululekile. Abantu Rich akudingeki babe abalimi ukuze kube nokulingana xaxa. Kukhona imithombo ngaphezu kokwanele emhlabeni, kodwa inkinga iwukuthi abantu abacebe bekhathalela kakhulu ngemali kunabo benze ngabantu, futhi bazame ukusenza sikholelwe ukwenza okufanayo.

Ngo-1997 America naseYurophu yachitha $ 17 billion on ngokudla pet, $ 8 billion on izimonyo futhi $ 12 billion on ngamakha. A nje $ 13 billion (Ngaphezu kulokho kakade wachitha) lalizolunikeza yezempilo eyisisekelo kanye nokudla for lonke somphathi ngxenye yomhlaba. [L] (Abantu empeleni lula ukondla kuka izinkomo noma ezifuywayo nezilwane ngenxa zikhule abo nokudla siqu.) Ngaphezu kwalokho, imfundo ngoba bonke ngabe kubiza nje $ 6 billion ngaphezulu, emanti kanye kwendle for bonke ngabe kubiza kwezempilo billion $ 9 ngaphezulu futhi zokuzala kwabesifazane emhlabeni wonke ngabe malini $ 12 billion ngaphezulu. Bebonke, ngabe kubiza amaRandi nje $ 40 billion ngaphezu ngaloko wachitha. Global izindleko zempi ngo 1997 kwaba $ 780 billion, okuyinto izikhathi-20 ngaphezu ngalokho laba izidingongqangi osindisa ukuphila babeyoba Izindleko ngaphezu. Sekuyisikhathi amagugu ethu ngiqale ukubonakalisa namaqiniso ethu kanye izindleko zethu. Umnikelo wezwe aid ngamazwe (kusuka ohulumeni) is ingxenyana nje US zichitha on kwezempi sodwa.

Imali uthenga nenkululeko nje kuphela kodwa isikhathi eMhlabeni kanye, futhi isinika izinsizakusebenza eziyisisekelo ezidingekayo ukuze baphile impilo enhle. Kodwa abantu ababa hoard izigidigidi zamaRandi futhi ungayeki dollar elilodwa emuva ubani babe igazi ezandleni zabo. Basuke ukusika izimpilo zabantu short ngokuvumela izifo ukusabalala kanye nabantu alambe ngisho eqonde ukuxhaphaza nabampofu, abantu abalambile nje ngenxa yenzuzo. Laba bantu kwakuzodingeka nje ukuyeka a ingxenyana yengcebo yabo ukuvimbela izigidi ababulawa. Kodwa iningi musa ohlose ukukwenza lokhu, futhi bengafuni izakhamuzi isilinganiso ukwazi ngalezi kulokungalingani, ngoba okuyosenza sobugovu engaphansi.

Abaningi baseMelika alwazi kwenkululeko kwalezi zinkinga ngoba ezinkulu wezindaba izinkampani musa asitshele ngabo. Mainstream Izindaba amahange kukhona abadlali bamabhayisikobho. Bayingxenye esekisini elikhudlwana kwenziwa ukusiphazamisa, ezihlukene, uvalo, ibangele.

Ngikholelwa kunesidingo uhlaziye ukuziphatha, imali kanye nendlela senza yebhizinisi embulungeni yonke. Abantu abaningi abanalo imithombo esindisa izimpilo ukuthi abacebe kanye enamandla kunazo ngokuvamile kalula. Kodwa nokungalingani kwezomnotho kuyinkinga solvable. Uma nje senza uku sonke siqaphile futhi okungantengantengi imizamo yethu ukuze athole ukulawula ovamile phezu izinhlaka zethu kwezomnotho namabhizinisi, nathi kungavimbela umcebo kusuka ekunqumeni zezempilo zabantu futhi sibe nethemba ngekusasa.

Incenye ezine: Ukuthuthukiswa Senkulumo-ze, izindaba media okukhulu, ukukhangisa kanye yako ungubani

4.1 Asathuthuka ze futhi sondla ukuthenga

Izindaba Esinokwethenjelwa kanye exchange free imininingwane ewusizo kunazo ngamathuluzi kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba kungaba ukuqwashisa mayelana nezindaba zosizo kanye nokunyakaza kwezenhlalo ukushintsha izwe lethu ngokufanele. Kodwa mass wezindaba abezindaba is more ngokuvamile kusetshenziswa njengendlela thuluzi ukuze akhohlise futhi phatha nabantu kunokuba ukubasiza ngoba amanga, ukuxhaphaza kanye nokubika abakhethayo ngokuvamile inenzuzo ngaphezu lonke iqiniso.

Izıhlabane Corporate nabezombangazwe nokulawula futhi ukusakaza abezindaba kunazo kufinyeleleke kalula futhi amazwi azimele ngokuvamile waminzisa out yalokho. Ngisho nalapho izinkampane ezinkulu media yokusakaza voices intuthuko, ngokuvamile nje ngoba bayazi ukuthi abantu ngeke ukhokhe ukuzwa la amazwi. Iningi la izinkampane abanandaba ngenzuzo social la amazwi kungaba. Abaningi Izindaba conglomerates ezinkulu nazo imithombo kuphela ukwaziswa olutholakalayo kwamanye amazwe. Sinenkosi esinakho imininingwane yokuthi kohulumeni kanye nezithakazelo zenkampani bafuna ukulawula okushiwoyo nalokho okukholakala ukuthi uyiqiniso. Kuze kube 2013, isibonelo, eBurma nje kwadingeka eyodwa kuphela iphephandaba okukhulu futhi umsebenzi walo ezibalulekile kwaba ukuze bathethelele umbuso yamanje.

Ngo 1992 23 izinkampani owned futhi ezilawulwa ngu-50% azo zonke amaphephandaba, studios movie, iziteshi ze-TV, iziteshi umsakazo abamemezeli America [li], futhi iningi ezinkulu iziteshi Izindaba nasemaphephandabeni isaba ephethwe nje idlanzana bezinkampani ezinkulu, futhi abaningi babo abaye conglomerated.

Abezindaba Izindaba has bethambekele oholelayo kakhulu ngoba kuthinta imizwelo yabantu kanye nemibono. It wazisa indlela okufanele bazizwe, senze futhi avela, futhi izinkampane ziye sasebenzisa la amandla. Kokusungulwa abezindaba mass uye ‘isicaba emhlabeni “futhi wenza ze noma koda kakhudlwana futhi efinyelela kude. The lokuhlushwa of zabezindaba uye wabenza enenzuzo kakhudlwana futhi kwasiza ajenda yabo ukuvumelanisa up.

Zobuchwepheshe ngokushesha imali ohulumeni futhi izinkampane ngesikhathi yasungulwa. Edward Bernays kwaba obhekene okuningi of zakuqala US ze. Yena Wabizwa ngokuthi ‘unguyise ubudlelwano zomphakathi’ in umlandvomufi wakhe. Bernays wasebenza ngesikhatsi WWI for the Woodrow Wilson in Committee on Public Information wayesefakwa ibuye ekuthetheleleni impi emphakathini by ‘nihlola’ kwakuyisikhathi konke ngenxa ‘intando yeningi. “Waphinde wasiza bathethelele Icebo lika of umholi wentando yeningi of Guatemala ngo-1954 encwadini yakhe Crystalizing Public Opinion (1923) ithonywe Josef Goebbels, elidume kabi ngenxa ze yakhe amaNazi.

Kamuva Bernays kwakuqashwa yi-American Kagwayi Corporation. Wazama ukwenza ugwayi ukubhema umgoqo ezingahlelekile umphakathi kwabesifazane ukuze kwandiswe umholo. Wabuye wayesebenzela Proctor & Gamble, United Fruit Company, CBS no General Electric. Njengabanye iningi elite ocebile, Bernays babekholelwa ukuthi ukulawula izingqondo zabantu kwakudingeka nakanjani ukuze kuqinisekiswe uhlelo emphakathini wacabanga umphakathi. Encwadini yakhe, Propaganda (1928), wabhala:

“Lo nokuwotawota oqotho nehlakaniphile imikhuba ihlelwe nemibono uquqaba iyincenye lebalulekile emphakathini wentando yeningi. Labo abasebenzisa kabi le washi ezingabonakali zomphakathi bakha uhulumeni ongabonakali okuyinto amandla elibusayo weqiniso wezwe lethu. Sibuswa, izingqondo zethu olubunjiwe, akuthandayo zethu kwakhiwa, imibono yethu wasikisela, ikakhulu amadoda akakaze sizwile. Lokhu kubangelwa okunomqondo indlela umphakathi wethu wentando yeningi uhlelekile. Inqwaba abantu kumele sibambisane ngale ndlela ukuze baphile ndawonye njengoba emphakathini kahle esebenza … Cishe zonke isenzo ezimpilweni zethu zonke, kungakhathaliseki emkhakheni of kwezombangazwe noma ibhizinisi, ekuziphatheni kwethu yezenhlalakahle noma ukucabanga kwethu nezimiso zokuziphatha, thina kubuswa ngenani elincane abantu … abaziqondayo izinqubo ngengqondo kanye amaphethini yezenhlalo uquqaba. It is they zidonsa izintambo okuyinto ukulawula ingqondo umphakathi. ”

Bernays wayeqinisile ukuthi izingqondo zethu ngokuvamile olubunjiwe ngokuyinhloko abantu siye ngizwe nobe wahlangana ngenxa ze enamandla, kodwa wayeshaye phansi ngalesi ngokuba yeqoqo wentando yeningi. Abantu ukubunjwa ukukhonza izithakazelo ezimbalwa ngamandla, hhayi ukuvimbela nezinxushunxushu kanye ingxabano emphakathini. A intando yeningi yangempela ezizimele ngokuphelele futhi ingafinyelela oda nokuthula ngoba abantu iningi bafuna kokubili. Kukhona nje kudingeka abe ukwaziswa free, ukubambisana, kanye nethuba kanye nekhono aphishekele izithakazelo zomuntu futhi asinde.

Inkinga nge izinkolelo eziqinile Bernays ‘ukuthi sincike kucatshangwa ukuthi abantu ababona Izıhlabane enengqondo okwazi ukuqonda kanye ngokubambisana, okungaholela inzuzo enenjongo ukuze wonke. Ukuze avimbele chaos emphakathini, izwe enza zidinga abaholi, amaphimbo abavelele kanye lezihlakaniphi anganika isiqondiso nokufundisa. Kodwa lokhu akulona yini Bernays wayekhuluma. Abamele kumelwe abe Amapayipi amakhulu yabantu, hhayi manipulators self-abanesithakazelo.

In an gama ekahle, izwi okuwukuphela sizathu lomuntu kwakungeke kube kukhulu phezu ngabomunye kungaba ukube kwakungekho value ngaphezulu izwi. Ukubaluleka izwi lomuntu kanye nomsebenzi yayingase azimisele ngezindlela eziningi ezahlukene, ezifana ukufuneka umphakathi ngoba, ubukhulu ipiyeri yayo ukwesekwa, kanye nomthelela walo ongachazeka emphakathini. Kodwa lokhu akulona ngokuvamile icala. Kunalokho, amazwi loudest yilezo nemali sizwakale futhi airwaves abuse futhi izitaladi kanye izigijimi zabo. Isizathu main abantu badinga isiqondiso okwamanje ngoba kakade adukise ngu izakhiwo ngamandla ukuthi akhona.

Bernays kwakuyindawo umshana ka Sigmund Freud, uyise wezifo zengqondo. Freud wazizwa eliphakeme kulabo nezinkinga zezempilo yengqondo, futhi weza nezinkolelo zasendle ngabo. Wazizwa wayenedumela ilungelo ukulawula imizwelo yabantu kanye nemininingwane for ‘inzuzo yabo siqu. “Wayevame wahluleka ukucabangela izidingo zeziguli’ noma ufuna, futhi kunengqondo ukuthi le elitism nabanengqondo futhi umuzwa ifanelwe bekungeke idlulele on nomshana wakhe.

4.2 Nokwasungulwa ucingo nethelevishini, umthelela wabo on amasiko, kanye nokuthuthukiswa counterculture eMelika

Sekunezikhali zobuchwepheshe kanye nezokuxhumana eyethulwa izinkampani kanye nohulumeni ithuba lokuthola ukulawula enkulu nakakhulu phezu engqondweni yomphakathi ngoba laba ezisunguliwe ezintsha kwadingeka ezingadala koda futhi engrossing ngaphezu amaphephandaba noma izincwadi, okuyinto ngaphambili izindlela kuphela basakaze nkulumo-ze .

Namathelevishini baba itholakale 1930 emakhemisi ezindaweni amaningi asethuthukile, njenge America, iningi iYurophu nezingxenye ezinkulu ze-Russia. , Amafilimu buthule omnyama nomhlophe eyenziwe ekupheleni kwekhulu le-19 ezandulela ukusakazwa zethelevishini. In the 1940, izimakethe TV nezinye izinhlobo izikhangiso kakade baba ingxenye wasamukela ngisho esilindelekile sokuphila. Engenayo middle-iningi omhlophe, baseMelika in the 1940 babekholelwa lokho ayekuzwa futhi kumabonakude umsakazo nokufunda kumaphephandaba. Abaningi wayenokholo lwabo kuNkulunkulu, uhlelo, uhulumeni (“emagunyeni ofayo”), kanye nenkulumo-ze isakazwa yibo.

In the 1940 sekwephuzile futhi ’50s, umnotho America kwakusekelwe eliqhutshwa ngokuyinhloko ngumthengi-engqondweni benamandla in umphakathi by izinhlobo ezahlukene abezindaba kanye capitalism kahulumeni ngonya okuqhubekayo. Abantu abaningi babefuna le “into engcono” elilandelayo futhi kwakungekho Yazi okungenampilo inzuzo ngezimali kanye ezibonakalayo. Little kwaba yangasese ebusweni, kodwa okungokoqobo of ekuphileni kwabantu abaningi kwakuvame Ayelokhu ukucasha okuningi. (Europe neRussia welashwa izinguquko ezifanayo.) Abantu abaningi baqala ushintsha konke ngabo nje ukuhambisana namazinga social eqhutshwa izinhlobo kuyinqaba of yabezindaba.

Iningi US oMongameli bakhuthaza la izinhlobo izitayela, kodwa kuye kwaba ngaphandle ambalwa. Jimmy Carter wenza inkulumo ligxeke ukuthenga ngo 1979 Waxwayisa abantu ngezingozi kokuhlala ngenxa lechitfwa futhi sihlale sicabanga imikhiqizo emisha:

“… Too abaningi kithi manje bathambekele ekukhulekeleni nokuzitika kanye ukusetshenziswa. Ungubani Human akuyona ‘eside kuchazwe yilokho omunye akwenzayo, kodwa ngokwalokho anakho. Kodwa ngiye sesithola ukuthi ekubeni nezinto futhi kuchitha izinto akusho sanelise isifiso sethu ukuze incazelo. Sike safunda ukuthi enqwabelanisa izinto ezibonakalayo kungaba agcwalise yize izimpilo zazo akukho ukuzethemba noma injongo “-. US President Waphambilini, Jimmy Carter

Kule nkulumo, Carter babebonakala ukunakekela kakhudlwana ezithinta le ubunikazi of baseMelika ngendlela eyakhayo ukwedlula imali yenziwe kubo, okuyinto kwaba ezingavamile in a umengameli.

Imindeni ngokwesilinganiso eMelika nezizwe ezifanayo base kwadingeka nobunzima ekubeni qotho komunye nomunye ngalesi sikhathi futhi abaningi kwadingeka nenkathazo Especial Ukubhekisisa nokwabelana izinkinga zabo.

Kamabonakude zase ezisunguliwe umxhwele kakhulu. Amasignali omsakazo kanye ukusakazwa okuphuthumayo nezimpendulo zabo ziye yasindisa ukuphila kwabantu abaningi. Ngenxa yalezi imisebenzi zingaba usizo kakhulu. Abantu nabo baye baba kakhudlwana ukuthi imikhuba nomunye kanye zokuphila futhi yabo siqu ngenxa izinhlelo ezinhle. Izincwadi, umculo, amaphephandaba kanye zonke izinhlobo yobuciko ngekukhula yayikhona ngaphambi TV nasemsakazweni, Yebo, kodwa yini uhlukile mayelana TV nezomsakazo siwukuthi Exclusive kakhudlwana ‘amakilabhu. “Noma ubani ukubhala incwadi noma i intatheli elizimele kufanele banabo intando (noma uma nifuna ukwenza imali, bengingeke batusa it.) Kodwa eba phakathi neso yomphakathi futhi phezu airwaves kuyinto inqubo more eziyinkimbinkimbi ukuthi ngokuvamile kudinga ukwazi “ilungelo” abantu futhi uya ngokusebenzisa isigaba sabefundisi izinhlobo. Iziteshi iningi ezingasekelwe uxhaso obala uboshelwe bezinhlangano omkhulu run by abaphathi ababengakwazi ukunakekela engaphansi mayelana Art, nkulumo noma nesibopho emphakathini.

Art Yiqiniso, awuphili ngenxa bezinkampani ezinkulu nabakhangisi. It ikhona ngenxa abaculi. Kodwa art kanye nokwaziswa anikezwa, washintsha futhi zazihlolwa by izinkampani ezinkulu nohulumeni ngoba singazuza kulo. Bavame inciphise value social zezinhlamvu yabezindaba. Nokho, izincwadi, imibukiso, umculo, kanye nomsakazo futhi zonke izinhlobo abezindaba zingaba emphakathini-enophephela, wabaxoxela, futhi uncensored uma maphakathi-amadoda kugwenywe nokulawula kunikezwa emuva abaculi kanye nabasekeli babo.

4.3 Ngaphezulu ukushintsha kwamasiko

Ukuthenga America sika abeka futhi inkulumo-ze mayelana kobukhomanisi safinyelela iphuzu tipping in the 1950 yabhebhetheleka. Abantu abaningi babengabantu abanelisekile ngokuphila ebudlelwaneni babo kanye izimpilo. Kwakukhona abesilisa abahlukene kanye izindima female, okuyinto yanciphisa “uvunyelwe ‘ukuziphatha esilisa nawesifazane. Lezi zindima abangu eqhutshwa izinhlobo ezihlukene yabezindaba. TV ubonisa like “Baba Knows Best” wenza obaba kubonakale enokwethenjelwa futhi yanciphisa indima matriarchal kuya imisebenzi yasendlini efana ukupheka, ukuhlanza kanye ukhulisa izingane. Kodwa counterculture of the 1950 no 1960 babefuna ukuwenza uvumelane la izindima.

Ukusekela counterculture sika yothando free, ukulingana ngokobulili, amalungelo LGBT, futhi ukuhoxiswa osheshayo kusukela Vietnam futhi uqede zonke izimpi zase kakhulu kutenhlalakahle oqondile. Laba bantu waba nemiphumela yezwakala nase ezinkulu emphakathini, eziningi zazo zase emihle kakhulu. Nokho, imibono yabo awazange ezamukelwe ngu iningi ngoba kwakukhona aphikisayo omningi kubo kusukela amandla eyodwa. Iningi yezwe wayebe amahlelo futhi, olubandlululayo amelana ngokubambisana kanye ukuhlehla. Le counterculture wayefuna ukubonisa abantu ukuthi ukuphila kungaba ezinkulu ezihlukene futhi benza lokho ngokwenza ukuphila kakhulu ezahlukene kunabaningi. Abaningi imatasa umbhikisho, ngokubhala, ukukhankasa, ngokubambisana kanye ngokukhululeka benana imininingwane kanye nokuzijabulisa. Imizamo yabo yasiza ulethe izinguquko eziphawulekayo ukuze kwezombusazwe zaseMelika kanye nomphakathi, kodwa yi-1980 kwaba ngokuyisisekelo emuva “ebhizinisini njengokujwayelekile.” Le counterculture ayekhathele futhi zincipha, kanye namabhizinisi amakhulu futhi ukufaneleka lwabo ukuxhaphaza ayeqinile ukuze uvumele esimeme ushintshe. Ukukhethwa uRonald Reagan kanye ukuvelela lapho ezezimali asiza kakhulu.

Abaningi counterculture bashaywe, behlukunyezwa, nangokomzwelo ohlukunyezwayo kanye nokucindezela umbhikisho non-enobudlova kwaba isibambo kakhulu abanye. Okubulala ezinye ababhikishi, Abavukeli counterculture ‘, civil amalungelo izishoshovu efana uMartin Luther King noJohn F. Kennedy wanezela ukuba izinkathazo zabo. Ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa The counterculture nayo wenza abantu abaningi yithathe engaphansi sina. Kodwa ukusetshenziswa kwabo izidakamizwa kwaba eqakathekileko ngenxa yezizathu kungani ayesebenzisa kubo. Kwehlwaywe, zokucwaninga kanye nakho disinhibiting kungaba usizo kakhulu. Abanye counterculture nje wathatha lo mbono ngendlela eyeqisayo ukuze ukubalekela ngokoqobo izimo bona banikezwe.

Iningi baseMelika base engajabule ngoba babesendaweni njalo zifunana okuthile okungcono (futhi abaningi baseMelika ababephathwa yahlelwa ukulwa eVietnam by 1955). Abantu abaningi babekhona futhi ngokuvamile beyofuna umsebenzi ephakeme kokukhokha, indlu ezinkulu, imikhiqizo engcono, futhi lutho ithelevishini nobe umsakazo ayethi kudingeka. Kunengqondo a counterculture wasukuma zasabela ngendlela labawentile.

The Occupy Movement esasivele ngo-2008 ungomunye abambalwa kakhulu enkulu, amaqembu kuzwelonke waqaphela kwakheka kusukela 1960 ukuthi ungathi counterculture kanye nemibono yabo. Lokhu kuhamba (kanye UK uncut kanye Anonymous) kungaba ngendlela emangalisayo siphumelele uma amalungu abo balondoloze yobumbano ugxile emgomweni yokuqala ka ekhuluma massive ukungalingani okuhambisana nezenhlalo futhi zisebenzise solutions nomphakathi-enophephela. The enkulu Occupy ukunyakaza kanye nezinhlangano (buka Occupy Wall Street) asebenza ezimisweni of ngqo intando yeningi, umhlangano kanye ngokubambisana ngoba kuphumelela kakhulu. Izinhlangano like StrikeDebt ukuba yayakhiwe aphume ngekubambisana komphakathi bese Occupy kufanele anda. Bangaba izibonelo for thina abanye abafuna ukwenza okufanayo.

Ngesikhathi 1960 eMelika, ingxenye enkudlwana yabantu kunanini ngaphambi kuleli lizwe laqala ucabangela abesifazane njengabantu esilingana amadoda. All US uthi bavumela abesifazane ukuvotela by 1920 futhi lokhu kwaphumela izinguquko kancane kancane nombono. (Amazwe amaningi emhlabeni wathatha eside ukunikeza abesifazane ilungelo lokuvota. Ezinye kusadingeka hhayi.) Lapho abesifazane abangaphezu uzibuse futhi waqala ukwenza imisebenzi ukuthi amadoda iningi babekholelwa nje babekwazi ukwenza, kwakukhona elikhudlwana sengqondo shift. Abesifazane counterculture zase ngokukhethekile ezinzima futhi zinesibindi futhi abaningi balwa engakhathali amalungelo esintu. Ekhulwini le-19 nelama-20 sisonke ebona abanye abesifazane ezinethonya kunazo futhi emihle khona. Wangari Mathai, owesifazane Kenyan owaqala ukuhamba Green Belt ngo 1970 ungesinye sezibonelo. Lokhu kuhamba uye watshala izihlahla million 51 kusukela ekusungulweni yabo. Esinye isibonelo Rachel Carson Silent Spring ogama esidumile waphefumulela Clean Act Water ka 1970, mhlawumbe piece ephumelela kunazo komthetho ngezindinganiso ehlanzekile amanzi America kulotshelwa. Izishoshovu Ukuthula like Dorothy Day, uBarbara Deming futhi muva nje abesifazane efana Malala Yousafza yizibonelo eyengeziwe. The suffragettes owalwela for ilungelo lokuvota abesifazane efana Julia Ward Howe, uSusan B Anthony, uHelen Keller, futhi umfokazi Iqiniso kukhona eminye izibonelo idolo. Women of movement amalungelo civil efana Rosa Parks and of ukunyakaza sezenhlalo like Rosa Luxembourg maningi. Kukhona neze ukulingana ngokobulili eMelika namuhla, kodwa uma eqhathaniswa ezweni efana Saudi Arabia, kuba ehloniphekile. Women in womabili amazwe yezimfundiso izinhlobo ezingaphezu futhi ezehlukene kanye kobukhulu nokucindezelwa. Izimpi eziningi baye won kwabesifazane ekhulwini lama-20, kodwa nge wonke amalungelo esintu kanzima kuningi namanje ukuba kwenziwe.

Ubuhlanga kwaba zisatholakala kule 1950 yabhebhetheleka e America (futhi emazweni amaningi) kanye ezincane, ikakhulukazi African baseMelika, kwenziwa khulu okumelwe esatshwe. (BaseMelika kwase owned izigqila American African eminyakeni 90 nje ngaphambi kulokhu.) African baseMelika futhi ngokuvamile ezinye ezincane yayisetshenziselwa amathuluzi eMelika ukwandisa ukwesaba nenzondo of izidakamizwa ezingekho emthethweni by association. Izidakamizwa ezingemthetho bebelokhu ukuvezwa nguhulumeni waseMelika njengendlela usongo capitalism, bethenga “izindinganiso umkhaya” wemfundiso yabo kanye nemithetho.

4.4 Izindaba media ukucwaninga kanye biases, ukukhangisa, futhi inthanethi

Inkulumo-ze ezindabeni akuyona ezicashile. Inkulumo-ze mayelana ezincane eMelika namuhla, isibonelo, namanje okwakusobala. Nokho, ulimi sesishintshile. In the 1920s kwakungeyona evamile ukubandlululwa nokugconwa avele emaphephandabeni, kanti zanamuhla wezindaba pundits namuhla sola ngokuvamile ethnicities wonke ngezindlela ezicashile. Pundit ngoludala, Lou Dobbs, ngokwesibonelo, uye wakhuluma ngokuphindaphindiwe mayelana ‘usongo the alien ngokungemthetho, “esikhundleni ngokusebenzisa slurs aluhlaza kakhudlwana, (okuyinto nakanjani lokho ongathanda ukukwenza). Kodwa amkhethayo amazwi namanje ecashile inzondo yokukhuluma ukuba Kuhlukanisa izigidi izakhamuzi kulelizwe. Nakuba inkulumo-ze uye waba kancane kakhudlwana “efanele ezombusazwe”, inzondo ihlozi nobandlululo in kuba nje kuyingozi, uma kungenjalo nakakhulu ngenxa yokuthi abantu abaningi abaqapheli kuba olubandlululayo.

Nezinhlelo Izindaba nezinye abezindaba nabo baye baba dumber futhi lolumalula kakhudlwana ngezindlela eziningi, ikakhulu ngenxa yokuthi yilokhu bafuna ohulumeni corporations. Television izinkampani bachithe airwaves nge kwezakhi obungenangqondo, amafilimu, umculo kanye netikhangisi letentelwe ukugcina abantu elula, lutho, futhi abathengi esingaguquguquki imikhiqizo ze kahulumeni. engokoqobo ubonisa ukuthi glamorize izimpilo zabanye abantu abangenalwazi iningi kungenza nathi uyayazisa intelligence esingaphansi. “Ingabe ngobuchule esingaphansi Fifth Grader?” akufanele okudingeka ukuba acelwe ukuba abadala. (Okungenani, ezemfundo ngalé ebangeni level yesihlanu ubonakala ufana imfuneko enengqondo ukuba mdala esivunyelwe on umdlalo show.)

Lezi imibukiso nazo enza abantu alulaze ngokwabo nje imali. Bavame ukuvuza izenzo angenangqondo lungentiwa for shock value imali nodumo. NBC sika Owasinda kanye Fear Factor yizibonelo kakhulu. Izingane ezincane nazo wasizakala futhi wadalula amaningi imibukiso ngokoqobo TV, kushintshe ukuphila kwabo unomphela kwezinye izimo.

Ukuzijabulisa “Izindaba” mboni futhi uye waphenduka osaziwayo zibe Gods. Abantu akudingeki kube abanekhono ukuze babe nobe bahlale abadumile. Bamane babe khona. Uma abantu abaningi baye bezwa umuntu futhi yena izingobo enkulu intshisekelo yomphakathi ngenxa yanoma yisiphi isizathu, udumo ongaphakathi ukuthi umuntu ukufinyelela inqobo. Kukhona Yiqiniso, abantu ababa abadumile ngezizathu ezinhle. Kodwa abahlakaniphe kakhulu, abantu ezihlakaniphile odumile ngokushikashikeka okukhulu ukusho musa ngokuvamile yimibuso airwaves. Author Jaron Lanier wabhala “Uma ufuna ukwazi ukuthi kwenzekani ngempela emphakathini namkha imibono, landela imali. Uma imali ogeleza ekukhangiseni esikhundleni kuya abaculi, izintatheli, futhi abadwebi ke umphakathi ukhathazeke kakhulu nge ukuxhaphaza kuka ngeqiniso noma ubuhle. Uma kokuqukethwe okungenanzuzo ke abantu uzoqala ukuba babe abangenangqondo kanye contentless … Culture iwukuba babe ngokunembile lutho kodwa ukukhangisa. ”

Ezokukhangisa nakho elicwile baba bukhulu kakhulu kunangaphambili. Banxusa abathengi ‘baser siyizidalwa nokukhuthaza sameness ukuze kuzuze abambalwa. Baphindze i ezinye imikhiqizo engenamsebenzi kunazo zezenhlalo kuyakhohlisa nemisebenzi ongayicabanga. Uma abakhangisi ezinkulu ngempela saba inhloso ukusiza noma ubani, bengafuni ukwenza imali eyanele bakwazi ukukhokhela Izigatshana zezinyanga emini kumanethiwekhi ezinkulu.

Major amanethiwekhi zethelevishini nabakhangisi ukulandelela imikhuba zabathengi yabo. Ayazi ngubani ukubukela futhi lapho futhi ezikhangisa ngokufanele. Bayoba ukusakaza izimakethe for colleges online, ukubolekisa zesikole, imisebenzi “kulula”, izikweletu ukuhlanganiswa kanye loans esheshayo nge osindayo interest rates ngokuvamile phakathi 9:00 am no 3:00 ntambama futhi sebusuku kakhulu ngoba bayazi ngabanye abangasebenzi hhayi esikoleni kukhona okungenzeka kakhulu ukuthi ukubukela ithelevishini kulezi izinkathi. Ngemva kwaphakathi kwamabili, phone sex imigca, soft-core porn, futhi dating izindlela zivame ikhangiswe ngoba bayazi abantu abathile lonely uzobheka. Again, lokhu akukhona ukuba bazizuzise. It is nje kwenziwa ukusizakala ukuthi yobuzwe ethize. (I uqobo angeke ucabange “sex ocingweni” uyenelisa kakhulu.) Izikhangiso ngokuvamile akhanga ubuthakathaka zabantu futhi asizakale nokungazethembi zabo. Abantu angawodwa basengozini ngokukhethekile kulokhu ngenxa bezinhlangano zithi imikhiqizo eminingi kumele owned ukuba siyozijubulisa ohilelekile futhi ithandiwe.

Izinkampani nazo kungukuthi ngenhla ezibhekiswe izingane izikhangiso zabo (abantwana kanye nentsha nazo kudla media ngaphezu bona bobunye ubudala) futhi lokhu kungaba nemiphumela eyingozi kakhulu. The ubunikazi zabantwana zithonyeka kalula futhi abasengozini, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi ‘ngesikhathi esibucayi “ngoba basaqhubeka asathuthuka nsuku zonke. Ngakho-ke, uma abakhangisi abantwana ezingabalulekile, izinto ezibonakalayo noma bakholelwe yinoma, bangase bahlale ngale ndlela ukuze ukuphila kwabo.

Amaqembu zokukhangisa lezizwe ezihlukahlukene ukuthi iningi labantu abaye ngizwe benze izinkulungwane zezigidi zamaRandi ngokwenza lolu hlobo lomsebenzi. Esinye isibonelo salokhu Publicis Groupe sika Starcom MediaVest, okwenza $ 5.418 billion ngo 2011 WWP Group kwadingeka ezingenayo of $ 10 billion ngo 2011 OnicomGroup, okungase kuzwakale ngokulinganayo engayazi, wenza $ 13,9 billion izimali ngo-2011 Lezi zinkampani abanalo ukuzibophezela esingokomthetho value social . Bathi baphilela ukwenza inzuzo.

Kufanele siqaphele ukuba bathembele ezokuxhumana kakhulu ukuhlala axhunyiwe futhi unolwazi ngoba ngokuvamile kangaka ukusetshenziswa. Kukhona futhi akukho esikhundleni usebenzelana, ukufunda, kanye esakhiweni izibopho ekuphileni kwangempela. I Apple Corporation kanye ezifanayo mega-izinkampani ayadingeka ngempela khona akekho noma lokungenani akudingeki ukuba ube. Abantu ababa ngokweqile uncike amafoni abo kanye computer abo bangase baqale uzizwe lihlukana kakhudlwana kulabo abaseduze nabo futhi avele njengoba bengenandaba lapho empeleni nje ugxile nge iminako yabo siqu kanye nobunzima.

Ezokuxhumana Yiqiniso, has izici emihle kanye ones engemihle. I internet ingaba umthombo omangalisayo kolwazi futhi ingenye izindawo lokugcina ngempela inkhulumo free. Amawebhusayithi amaningi avumela abantu ngabanye ukuba post noma yini abayifunayo, futhi baningi uncorrupted yithonya nezombusazwe noma corporate. Nokho, lo internet kungaba futhi umthombo edukisayo yolwazi uma sithemba amazwi okungalungile, ngakho kufanele aqaphele ngaye sinquma ukuthembela futhi kungani. Uhlaka onokuqonda iyasiza ngaphambi siwele nokufunda kusukela internet. Singazuza ezokuxhumana nje asisebenzisi it lutho, phakade noma ngaphandle umcabango okuningi.

Kusukela bezinhlangano iningi ancike imibuso yezombangazwe, bengafuni ukwenza lutho ukuze ziphazamise ubuhlobo babo nabo. Nokho, le internet, ifomu entsha yokuxhumana, uye wakwazi ukuba esingaphansi onakaliswa amandla ezinkampani nezombusazwe. I internet liye lenyuka kakhulu zokuqwashisa abantu of izindaba zomphakathi kanye nohulumeni nenkohlakalo ngoba internet unika abantu abaningi kangaka izwi. Kunabantu abaningi kakhulu sitshelana imibono yabo ukuze uhulumeni yokuthulisa nobe indiva kwabo bonke. Kodwa manje amandla moneyed bafuna asuse internet kanye, futhi emazweni amaningi ukuthulisa abaphikisi bombuso zezombusazwe. (Kuphela 3% of the labantu Afghanistan has inthanethi-ukufinyelela.) Ngo America, PIPA (Vikela Act IP) kanye uSopa (Stop Online ukudunwa Act) Umthetho asongela internet nkululeko. Nokho, ngenxa imibhikisho inthanethi ngoJanuwari 18 nele-19 ka-2012 (ezinye website athandwayo like Wikipedia wathathwa phansi umbhikisho) zombili IzEnzo yamiswa futhi ekugcineni ukhohliwe mayelana.

Ngo-2006 kwakunabamemezeli cell phone kanye emhlabathini-line ababhalisile billion ezine kanye nabasebenzisi internet angaphezu kwezigidi eziyinkulungwane emhlabeni wonke. Nokho, abantu abaningi Emhlabeni namanje abanawo ukufinyelela internet, ngakho value kutenhlalo inthanethi akuyona njengoba kabanzi-efinyelela njengoba kungaba. Wonke Emhlabeni babengaba feasibly ukufinyelela internet for ingxenyana yalokho esetshenziselwe ukuzivikela, futhi lokhu kungaba isinyathelo esibaluleke kakhulu phambili. Inthanethi wayengase sikwazi emhlabeni wonke zokuxhumana, ngokubambisana kanye nosizo, kanye nobudlelwano ezisezweni wawuyoba yenengi kakhulu futhi ejabulisayo yalokho.

4.5 abezindaba ukuxhaphaza , ukuhloba, futhi ilungelo lobunikazi yokuphila

Njengoba Ngiye kuxoxwa, lo mass wezindaba yabezindaba akuyona yabantu. It is a run by abanikazi abambalwa nje ngubani umlisa owayebheka Imithombo yezindaba iyasisebenzisa zabo siqu nabalobi nangabe lokho basuke bebhala eliphikisa izimfuno zamabhizinisi abo. Iningi olujwalekile talking amakhanda musa ukuxoxa massive ukungalingani okuhambisana nezenhlalo noma izimbangela zawo zangempela ngenxa yalesi sizathu. Babuye ngeke ukusakaza olungacelwanga, ukubikelwa ngokomzwelo-icala of izinhlekelele kazwelonke, kodwa ngokuvamile indiva izinhlekelele ezinkulu kuleli nakwamanye amazwe efana impi eCongo ukuthi wabulala abantu abayizigidi ezinhlanu noma lokuthi abantu abangaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezintathu njengamanje imbuya.

Izinkampane ezinkulu futhi lokuxhaphaza abezindaba ngokukhokhela izinhlangano zindaba ukugijima izindaba emihle ngabo futhi ugweme abanhliziyo engemihle. Imali akuyona ngaso sonke isisusa single for ezinkulu wezindaba pundits, kodwa cishe bonke eziphethe yezinkampani ngubani baqashe nabo, kanjalo quality, journalism othembekile ngokuvamile kakhulu kubambezele.

Journalism ezinhle mayelana amahlazo Monsanto sika, isibonelo, liye wangcwatshwa izikhathi eziningi. Lokhu nkampani kwamakhemikhali nje lisekhona ngenxa yekhono ayo lokuxhaphaza abezindaba. Njengoba ngishilo esethulweni, le nkampani kwaba obhekene engaba 500,000 ukufa kwabantu (ngisho more kwasekuzalweni) lapho edala ngu-million 19 zamalitha Agent Orange utheleleke nge dioxins for the US Air Force. Chemical izitshalo Monsanto nabo baqala ukunyathelisa biphenyls polychlorinated umdlavuza (PCB) ku-1930 baze kwakuvinjelwe 1976 Monsanto DDT wabuye kukhiqizwa, zinambuzane enobuthi kakhulu kusukela ngo-1946 kuya ku-1972 lapho yavalwa. Monsanto noma wasiza luthathe plutonium for izikhali zenuzi zokuqala e-Dayton Project for uhulumeni US.

Lokhu nkampani is arcade laziwa namuhla ngoba “Roundup” Ukhula killer walo, elivele nje glyphosate yasungulwa ngo 1970 Ngo-1982 waqala Monsanto izinkampani inzalo kanye ilungelo lobunikazi zofuzo ukuthenga ukuqhubekisela phambili indlela yayo angena embonini yezolimo. Ngo-1996 Monsanto wenza “Roundup Ready” kabhontshisi, ezazinengaphansi esangenwa Roundup. Ke, le nkampani izakhi futhi enelungelo lobunikazi zonke izinhlobo izitshalo (efana yommbila) ukumelana Roundup. Kuyinto Ngokuqinisekile kungenzeka le izifutho yenkampani Roundup on US izitshalo okungezona ezakhe kubo ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuze bathenge nxazonke-up izitshalo nemithi. Baye wabuye wenza izigidi abalimi amakontileka ukuthi evimbela nabo kusuka osindisa noma ukugcina imbewu ezitshalweni zabo siqu, futhi izinkulungwane abalimi abampofu ‘abaye ezifuywa futhi isetshenziswe inzalo yabo baye wamangalela for “copyright. Lokhu akulutho iDemo of misanthropic ngoba kusho abantu esingaphansi ungadla sekela ngokwabo.

Yokuphila Plant akufanele bavunyelwe ukuba nelungelo lobunikazi. Izinkampani abakwazi umphumela kakhulu indlela nature sika for wokusakazeka, futhi zinambuzane nakho ngokungadingekile kwasekuqaleni. (Akunzima kakhulu ukudonsa nokhula. Ngiye wadonsa abaningi.) Kukhona zinambuzane eziningi ezingokwemvelo kukhona kungavamile ukuba ingozi linjengamafutha Neem. Ukuthenga Monsanto sika ukhula killer futhi yabo izitshalo zinambuzane-mzimba kuyinto uhlobo like ukuthenga umuthi evela kumuntu owenza nawe ugula.

Kuwo khona Monsanto sika, ngemphumelelo luye elawulwa ukubikelwa ngalezi amahlazo eziningi. CEO yamanje, Hugh, (hhayi ACTOR) owenzé umsebenzi omuhle kakhulu ekuphatheni umbono womphakathi mayelana inkampani yakhe ezingcolile. Ngokwesibonelo, ngo-1970 lapho kutholakala Genentech kuqala futhi nelungelo lobunikazi sakhi for sezinkomo somatotropin, hormone peptide ekhiqizwa izinkomo, baba kuhlelwe umqondo sakhi, ukudala isakhi sokuzakhela hormone iqhaza sezinkomo, (rBGH). Izinkampani ezithaka imithi ezinkulu ezine zenza imikhiqizo nokulisebenzisa kuhlanganise Monsanto, American Cyanamid, UpJohn, no Eli Lilly. Lapho Monsanto eqala ujova izinkomo zabo nabo ukwandisa umkhiqizo wabo ubisi, ososayensi zabo benza usuku-90 ubuthi nesifundo namagundane on ubisi bona kukhiqizwa. Kulesi mbiko, it waboniswa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-ubisi engcoliswe rBGH kungabangela umdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zezempilo, kodwa FDA indiva la umthelela kwezempilo sína ngoba cishe nomvuzo by Monsanto. (The FDA uthatha njalo imali vumela izidakamizwa engaphephile.)

WTVT-TV, Florida, Fox Izindaba lobulungu izintatheli okuphenya, uSteve Wilson and Jane Akre, bazokwakha ukubika kule nkinga, kodwa ngaphambi kokuba besengakwazi abameli Monsanto sika ngefeksi Fox News, echaza ukuthi kwakuyoba khona “nemiphumela emibi for Fox News” uma beba akazange bayasondela indaba. Umphathi-jikelele we WTVT, uDavid Boylan, wabe esetshela Wilson and Akre ukudonsa indaba ngoba Wachaza, “We wakhokha $ 3 billion lezi eziteshini zethelevishini. Sizokwenza unqume lokho izindaba kuyinto. Izindaba yilokho esikushoyo kuyinto. ”

Lapho lo izintatheli enqaba ukubambisana Boylan, wazama ukugwazela kubo, kodwa benqaba futhi, futhi ekugcineni wadubula kubo for ngeke avume ukuba alale embikweni. Babe wamangalela Fox for ukuqedwa ekhubazekile, kodwa Fox wakhalaza sinqumo. Izinhlangano ezinkulu Five Izindaba basekela evikela Fox ngenxa yokuthi izindaba Izitolo ezinkulu konke kulawulwa izinkampani ezifanayo futhi akekho kubo bafuna le ezaziwayo. Belo Corp, Cox, Gannet, Media General, Post-Newsweek iziteshi bonke bafaka briefs kule suit. Wilson and Akre kwasekuqaleni wamangalela Fox ngaphansi amakhwela Blower isimiso, okuyinto ezama ukuvikela labo emangalela abaqashi babo yokona. Nokho, inkantolo yathola ukuthi senze izilinganiso zindaba ongamelene umthetho, ngakho Fox likhange saphumelela. RBGH namanje lihlala US ubisi ezweni lonke kuyilapho ezinye izizwe eziningi like Canada baye yalivimbela. Kulendaba yabukiswa nywa ngawo video, The Corporation.

Ngenxa yokuthi abezindaba Izindaba kangaka elilawulwa izinkampani kanye nohulumeni, kokuyisebenzisa ukuze bathethelele noma akhiqize whatever ezikufunayo. Izindaba kwabezindaba izinkampani nazo zithola iningi imininingwane yabo emithonjeni kuhulumeni aphume lula ngoba ulwazi iningi. Uhulumeni kuqinisekisa abantu babo bazi kakhulu, kangangokuba singazuza nokusakazwa abakhethayo kolwazi. Imithombo Independent ezingaphandle kukahulumeni ngokuvamile nzima ukuthola nzima interview, yingakho imithombo ngaphakathi kahulumeni ayethanda. Futhi uma zindaba abahlinzeki ukukhuthaza i-ajenda esihamba ngokumelene nohulumeni, ngokuvamile zisaba bavunyelwe ukufinyelela ukwaziswa okuvela imithombo efanayo. Kwamanye amazwe, izintatheli nawo wabulala for sokumelana ajenda kukahulumeni futhi ukudalula nenkohlakalo.

Amafilimu kanye art nazo ngokuvamile zazihlolwa, kodwa ngokuvamile ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukene. E America, i Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) kanye Federal Communications Commission (FCC) banesibopho iningi censoring of abezindaba American, futhi ngokuvamile umlisa owayebheka ucansi futhi impikiswano izihloko okuningi ngaphezu ebudloveni. (The MPAA is Akumangazi ugijime abantu zenkolo, ingxenye enkulu.) The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) censors radio nethelevishini ayehlome kanye.

Ubudlova esingaphansi zazihlolwa eMelika cishe ngenxa isiko kakade enobudlova eMelika. By censoring sex disproportionately, la maqembu basuke eyembula ukuthi udlame kuyafaneleka kakhudlwana futhi eyamukelekayo kuka sex. Ezingcolile nalo elawulwa kakhudlwana uvalwe kwezinye izifunda zomhlaba ngezizathu ezifanayo. In Japan kuyinto emthethweni ukukhombisa owesifazane nude ngokugcwele uncensored kunoma iyiphi media, kuhlanganise izithombe ezingcolile graphic, okuyinto uvunyelwe. Kodwa ayikho imithetho mayelana ubudlova abezindaba zabo. La maqembu ukucwaninga kanye nohulumeni ngokuvamile bona izenzo zobudlova njengoba ngaphezulu “emvelo ‘kunalokho ngobulili abezindaba ezithile sikhombisa lokho. Ngokuvamile kahulumeni ukucwaninga ejensi umlisa owayebheka imilayezo ezombusazwe ngaphezu kwanoma yini enye. Ohulumeni abaningi umlisa owayebheka films ngqo, (noma abanye benze) kodwa Isilinganiso omdala ngeke ukuhumusha phakathi ukubukwa le esingaphansi, futhi abanye amatiyetha ngeke noma ukudlala films omdala-rated.

Kabanzi Izindaba media futhi ngokuvamile ufaneleke class namasiko izimpi. Impi izidakamizwa, isibonelo, ibizwa kakhulu kuyaqabukela imibuzo abezindaba. Izintatheli ukukhuluma ‘namaqhawe “DEA agents abenze zamuva kwezidakamizwa ngokudayisa; bona babike yokwaziswa okungafanele ngezidakamizwa kanye nemiphumela yabo. Abasebenzisi, Abathengisi, amasiko kanye ngaphezulu zilulazwa. Izintatheli uyophinde baxoxe kwentengo izidakamizwa nobugebengu, kodwa cishe ungalokothi ukuhlonza nobe bangabaze nemithetho ngempela wakubangela noma sina ucabangele ngokomthetho kanye umthethonqubo. Pundits eziningi nazo ukukhuluma “isono” of ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa, kodwa lokhu ngokusobala reductive.

Like izinkolo zivame izidakamizwa ezisetshenziswa njengoba omunye umdlalo kusuka qiniso ukuthi sisize abantu bakhohlwe lokho abazi noma abakwazi ukushintsha noma ukwamukela, futhi lokhu kwenza izidakamizwa ngendlela emangalisayo ewusizo kohulumeni nezinye izakhiwo namandla. Izidakamizwa zingenza abantu abanandaba ezimweni esabekayo futhi wayengakuboni ezinye izindlela. Kodwa ngokungafani nenkolo, ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa njengendlela umdlalo isibe izaba bamukelwa kakhudlwana ukubeka abantu ejele. Ngakho wonke umuntu unikezwa komncane futhi bexhashazwa kakhulu; abantu ababa iningi okudingeka ukubalekela izimpilo zabo ezibuhlungu ngokuvamile yibo abaphendukela izidakamizwa, futhi impi on izidakamizwa Kuyindlela elula ukushushisa, ukulawula kanye yenzuzo kubo .

Incenye ezinhlanu: The abakhethayo izidakamizwa impi, ukuboshwa kanye esibhedlela abaphoqelelwe: more Indlela ezintathu control kwezenhlalo nezomnotho

5.1 Gentrification

Abantu abaningi baye ezicebile njalo wayefuna abantu abampofu aphume omakhelwane babo ukunciphisa yabo yezombusazwe ukuzibandakanya, inhlangano, kuba khona nokuqaphela engenayo kungalingani. Lapho imali inquma imiphumela yokhetho, ocebile athole ngaso sonke isikhathi lokho ezikufunayo. Abezombusazwe zingakutholi iningi lamavoti zabo (noma imali) ezivela kubantu abampofu kakhulu abadinga usizo ngoba ngokuvamile ngeke bavunyelwe ukubhalisa. Izifiki abangenaso ubuzwe zomthetho, abangenamakhaya, abantu abakhubazekile, Veterans, ex-yizigebengu, ngisho ethnicities lonke, ubulili kanye orientations basuke ehluthulelweyo kusuka ukuvota ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba. Abaningi ukhethe uyeke zokuvota ngoba kufanele yokudunyazwa yonke inqubo yezombusazwe.

Izishaya avumela amabhange big ukuguqula imizi abampofu ibe abalahliwe, ghettos foreclosed ngokunika mpofu loans Abantu for emakhaya bayazi bona angeke, futhi lapho laba bantu abampofu dula aphume izindlu zabo, abaningi noma baba bengenamakhaya noma baphoqeleka ukuba bathuthele more elingenabo abantu abaningi ezindaweni lapho izindlu kuyinto ethengekayo futhi bayobizwa ezingabonakali ngu abacebile. Amabhange uyobe abeke impahla yabo endala emakethe for cishe lutho, azi zimali ezicebile (ngezinye izikhathi zisizwa izinkampani efana ‘Vultures Condo “) ngeke ukuthenga impahla, ukulungisa kabusha it bese lithengise it kubantu ikakhulu abamhlophe for i nzuzo omkhulu. Le nqubo odlulela anabambalwa nabampofu kuya emaphethelweni futhi siguqule imiphakathi yabo ibe ocebile, abanhliziyo ngokobuhlanga bahlukana. Lokhu gentrification nalo ilekelelwa esimisweni evumela ukuba izikole kabi-kuxhaswe ayinamali hamba ngenkathi ezinkampanini yotshwala enkulu US nabathungi nesibhamu zitholakala exhaswe. Libuye uhlelo lokuthi ngaphezulu kabi ujezisa anabambalwa nabampofu for izidakamizwa yabo yokuzikhethela kunalokho owenza acebile abelungu ngenxa izidakamizwa yabo yokuzikhethela.

The ngokungemthetho izidakamizwa ukuhweba ingenye misebenzi kuphela kufinyeleleke kuwo wonke umuntu. Akukho ezemfundo noma isipiliyoni iyadingeka ukuma ekhoneni nge isibhamu isikhwama – nje ukuzimisela ukuthatha ingozi. Yiqiniso, ubuphofu ishintsha abantu futhi lungasishukumisela abaningi ukwenza ngokuphelelwa yithemba noma eyingozi izinto ukuze bahlale bephila. By ubugebengu izidakamizwa futhi ukusika supply yabo emfushane, ohulumeni futha amanani, futhi ngo bikho, amathuba emihle ehlukile kwezomnotho, abathile bheka okungekho option. Izibhamu, ukuhweba kwezidakamizwa, ukuphelelwa ithemba kanye nokuhlukunyezwa glamorization utshwala kanye nabampofu yokuphila ukukhetha abhubhise abangomakhelwane abampofu. Ukubulala, bankruptcies, foreclosures kanye nokuboshwa ngokuvamile kwandiswe kuze kukhona akayekiwe okuningi.

Impi on izidakamizwa ngokucacile has lutho nokuphepha komphakathi noma izidakamizwa kanye konke ukuyenza nabantu ukuwasebenzisa, kanye ukwenqatshelwa ngemali kudala. Impi on izidakamizwa, eqinisweni, obulala abangamakhulu ezinkulungwane (mhlawumbe izigidi) minyaka yonke. It is nakho kubangela okukhulu nobuhlungu engenakulinganiswa nokuhlupheka. Abantu abavela kuzo zonke izizinda zokuphila abathintekayo. Nemikhaya libhujiswe lokufa kanye neendakamizweni zamalungu omndeni wabo futhi kukhona ukulahleka nxazonke. Nokuvimbela izidakamizwa lande cishe zonke uhlobo ubugebengu ngenxa yokuthi izimakethe ngokungemthetho bondle nomunye. The criminalization izidakamizwa nakho uye kwaphoqa imilutha angena ithunzi futhi waphenduka izinkinga zabo zezempilo zibe zobugebengu.

Abashushumbisi amanani aphezulu ngokuvamile gcwalisa musa anqande abantu abavela ukuthenga izidakamizwa. Ngokuvamile babangela imilutha ukuba babe mpofu ngokushesha futhi baphendukele izinyathelo more ngokwedlulele ukuze ondle ukulutheka kwabo. Izigidi ezashiywa izidakamizwa non-enobudlova (abangazange ngokuqinisekile musa bawe kwelinye taxonomy kwezomnotho, ngokwebala, noma zenhlalo) nawo eboshelwe zokuphola ngokusebenzisa izidakamizwa okungezona eziluthayo like insangu njalo ngonyaka. Laba bantu bangaba abanobudlova ejele ngoba emajele amaningi ezindaweni ezimbi iziboshwa isimo yisidlova kakhudlwana, nobutha kanye ukuzivikela. Abazi ngenjongo lingisize ubani. Yimuphi jele ukuthi namanje isebenzisa evalelwe yedwa njengomuntu ‘esizwakalayo “isijeziso (cishe bonke akwenze America) has abayinaki wezempilo yengqondo kweziboshwa zabo. Kwamanye amajele usebenzise njalo sokuhlushwa nokuswela sezinzwa. Kuphela Iziboshwa ezimbalwa njalo ‘ukwakha kabusha “ngenxa yabo siqu namandla siqu kanye ukuqapha nokusekela.

Nokubopha yezidakamizwa kuyinto ukuhlukunyezwa ephelele kwamandla. Uma umlutha wezidakamizwa enza ubugebengu oshayelayo isikhathi sebedakiwe, yena kufanele kushushiswe. Kodwa lolu hlobo lobugebengu kungagwenywa ngokunciphisa ngentando for budedengu, Ukuziphatha elimazayo. Iningi yezidakamizwa ukulimaza bona kuphela. Laba bantu musa kungokukaJehova ejele. Abantu abaningi abasebenzisa izidakamizwa nazo hhayi imilutha, futhi abanakho nzima ukuwasebenzisa ngokuzibophezela futhi ngokulinganisela. Amaphesenti angu bonke abasebenzisi izidakamizwa ukusebenzisa nje insangu, okuyinto ingenye izinto ayinangozi kunazo Emhlabeni lapho esetshenziswa ngokulinganisela.

Okuwukuphela Isizathu abantu ngavalelwa ngokusebenzisa izidakamizwa ezithile yingoba uhulumeni ufuna ukulawula izingxenye ezithile emphakathini. Impi on izidakamizwa iyimpi kubantu, futhi ingenye yezindlela eziphumelela kakhulu usibuse. Iningi lethu uyasiqaphela izingozi utshwala nogwayi, kodwa ahlale kwezomthetho. Ababhemayo kanye notshwala musa ukuya ejele nje eziluthayo kwabo ngenxa. Uma umsebenzi izidakamizwa criminalization kwaba ukuqinisekisa ezokuphepha komphakathi, kungani okwehlukile enziwe ngenxa ngotshwala, ugwayi nezinye izidakamizwa eziyingozi zomthetho, okuyinto zibulala kakhulu abantu? The real izizathu utshwala nogwayi kukhona kwezomthetho Akwaziwa abantu abaningi, kodwa kubaluleke kakhulu ukwazi ukuze siqonde izisusa zangaphakathi for impi on izidakamizwa.

5.2 Isizathu sangempela ukuze abakhethayo ukwenqatshelwa of izidakamizwa

Ngokusho Ukudla, Drug and Ngibe Muhle Act, (21 Film ‘321) izidakamizwa kukhona “izihloko baqaphela e-isikhulu United States Pharmacopeia, isikhulu Pharmacopeia homeopathy-United States, noma isikhulu Natural Formulary … nezihloko ezihloselwe ukusetshenziswa kule uphethwe, ikhambi, ukunqandwa ukwelashwa noma ekuvimbeleni izifo kumuntu noma ezinye izilwane kanye nezihloko ngaphandle kokudla ezihloselwe kunomthelela nesakhiwo yimuphi umsebenzi umzimba yomuntu noma ezinye izilwane. “Nakuba kagwayi kanye notshwala izidakamizwa futhi, kungukuthi bayabona umuthi futhi abayi ngayicabangela izidakamizwa kule siceshana nomthetho.

Kukhona futhi umehluko oyinqaba phakathi izidakamizwa kanye nokudla (kanye iziphuzo), hhayi nje kulo Mthetho, kodwa Emiphakathini iningi emhlabeni wonke. Abantu abaningi bakholelwa ukudla ngandlela-thile abahlukene ezidakamizweni, kodwa nezidakamizwa iningi kungenziwa amuncwa ipheshana sokugaya ukudla, okusho bona ingagxila ngomlomo. Opium raw, amakhowe Psychedelic, insangu ezikhishwe, nezinye izidakamizwa eziningi ukuba bakhule ngokwemvelo edliwayo. Imikhiqizo eminingi ukuba basuke ngokomthetho njengoba ukudla noma eziphuzweni angaba ngokufanayo ejulile imithelela neurochemical on ebuchosheni njengoba okuthiwa “izidakamizwa.” Ubisi Bovine nemikhiqizo yayo efana ushizi, isibonelo, aqukethe casein, (osekhulile, ushizi eqolo ngokuvamile iqukethe casein ngaphezulu kuka ushizi avamile) okuyinto ukhala phakathi casomorphin, i peptide opioid, once udle.

Ushukela ezithile kanye chocolate nakho kungaba nemiphumela ephawulekayo neurochemical. Chocolate kwandisa neurotransmission of serotonin. Theobromine, lo alkaloid kwesitshalo ukhokho etholakala ushokoledi kuyinto inhibitor phosphodiesterase. It is futhi kwenziwa ngokwemvelo by umzimba lapho caffeine is idliwe. Caffeine, omunye izidakamizwa / isiphuzo, is a omhlophe zekristalu alkaloid injalo okumsulwa futhi ivuselela lengqondo (efana cocaine) ukuthi uba i inhibitor acetylcholinesterase. Caffeine kwandisa neurotransmission of acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, Glutamate nezinye neurotransmitters. Chocolate kanye caffeine kokubili babe ukusetshenziswa kwezokwelapha kanye nemiphumela kwezempilo. Yiqiniso, utshwala kungenye isiphuzo nge nemiphumela ephawulekayo neurochemical. Kuthinta naseGeba, serotonin, acetylcholine nicotinic, futhi glycine mangqamuzana ezinzwa. Liphinde kuvimbela NMDA nezinye iziteshi. Vivinya umzimba njalo Kukhulula opiates zemvelo endogenous. Ingabe lokhu kusho ukuthi kufanele enqabela ushizi, caffeine (lokhu sekwenziwe), ukuvivinya umzimba, noma kakhulu amakhemikhali enziwe ngokwemvelo imizimba yethu? Yiqiniso, akufanele. (Wonke umuntu kuyodingeka ukuya ejele.) Umahluko phakathi izinto zomthetho futhi emthethweni akuyona noyedwa okunengqondo noma okuhambisana, kodwa munye ngenkani kithi.

Abantu abangaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane elilodwa Emhlabeni intuthu kagwayi noma bacishe 1 ngo-6 abantu, futhi abantu abangaba izigidi ezinhlanu babulawa ekuguleni ehlobene nogwayi-ngo-2010, okuyinto mayelana inombolo efanayo abantu abashona the Second Congo War. Pheze ayizigidi ezimbili ngaphezulu ababulawa utshwala 2011 Ugwayi imbangela 1 ngo-10 ababulawa omdala, futhi kuyimbangela single zivinjelwe lokufa ngokuvumelana World Health Organization, nokho zonke izidakamizwa ezingemthetho kuhlangene nje ubulala abantu abangaba ngu-200,000 ngonyaka .

Lokhu kungalingani in the tolls ekufeni ayibangelwa ngesimo esingokomthetho noma izidakamizwa noma ngisho by kokungalingani amakhono abo ukuze abangele ukulimala ngokomzimba. Isizathu sangempela izidakamizwa zibulala zomthetho kakhulu abantu kungoba basuke ukuphiwa ngendlovuyangena elitholakalayo nabantu zikhohliswe mayelana nemiphumela yabo wezempilo by izinkampani abahahayo nabezombusazwe abayoba ukukhuluma phakade ngezingozi insangu, umuthi ukuthi akekho owake wafa kusukela (ngoba akunakwenzeka ukwenza kanjalo [13]) hhayi asho lutho ngotshwala, ugwayi, noma izinkampani ezenza imithi ezinkulu ngoba aphehle zentela ejwayelekile.

Wokulwa nokuthandana “izidakamizwa” amabutho empi yenkolo bakholelwa ukuthi uma izidakamizwa ezingemthetho enziwa zomthetho babengeke zibulala nje abantu abaningi njengoba izidakamizwa licit kodwa babeyoba zibulala nje abantu abaningi ukuba izinkampani bathengisa le mithi ngezindlela ezifanayo ukuthi benze yotshwala nogwayi nabezombusazwe asekelwa nabo nge imixhaso, njengoba benza nezinkampani ugwayi kanye notshwala. Anti-kwezidakamizwa amandla ngokuyisisekelo abasiqondi kahle kungani abantu basebenzisa nokuhlukunyezwa izidakamizwa, futhi kunomehluko. Abantu bayazi bona akufanele njalo kudla okuthile leyo ekugcineni ababulale. Isizathu nje benza kungoba bamsola angikwazi yingozi kangakanani noma zisezinhlungwini futhi abanandaba ngempilo yabo.

Asidingi kunathi umthetho mayelana ephuza bleach umthetho mayelana umlutha meth yimuphi ngaphezulu. Asazi zimemezele impi on ekuhlanzeni imikhiqizo nje yokuthi abanye basuke yingozi. Ntu kakhulu badinga sokubhekana indlela ukuhlukunyezwa izidakamizwa, kokubili licit kanye obungemthetho, kanti nesizathu okuwukuphela abathandekayo licit kakhulu ngokuvamile kabi kungoba basuke kabanzi ithathwa njengoba ephephile futhi more okwamukelekayo emphakathini. Kodwa okwenza izinto ezithile emthethweni akumvimbeli ntu abanandaba ngempilo yabo ekusebenziseni kwabo. Limelene kabi kwezidakamizwa kanye nokuhlupheka okubangelwa nakho akufani njenganekhono wokulwa nokuthandana “izidakamizwa.”

Asikho isizathu ubani okufanele ababoshiwe yezinto ngenxa yokuluthwa. Utshwala kanye kukagwayi ziphathwa njengoba ukukhathazeka yezempilo yomphakathi, hhayi izinkinga obugebengu, (nakuba utshwala ngokuphawulekayo kwandisa amazinga ubugebengu kanye,) futhi zonke izidakamizwa kufanele baphathwe njengoba umphakathi ukukhathazeka zezempilo. Imininingwane ezamahala kufanele khona mayelana zonke izidakamizwa, imiphumela yabo, futhi nemiphumela yazo ezingase zibe kanye.

Njengoba nje imithetho izidakamizwa musa ukuvimba abantu abaningi ekusebenziseni kwabo, nabo musa ukuvimbela ukudayiswa yabo. Usongo ejele sikhatsi kusho okuncane kuya lukhuni, ompofu izidakamizwa nomthengisi ohlala emijondolo kungabikho nezinye amathuba ezicacile. Imfundo enhle kuyabiza futhi ngokuvamile kunesidingo ukuthola umsebenzi omuhle, abashushumbisi abampofu kangaka izidakamizwa angakwazi noma engozini inkululeko yabo futhi izimpilo bese wenze ngokwanele noma emsebenzini at amaketanga okudayisa for amaholo ubuncane. Yilezo iyatholakala kunazo, izinketho ezimbili ziyabonakala eminingi izifunda abampofu emhlabeni jikelele. Kungukuthi wanikela yobuningi amathuba ekhokhelayo nezanelisayo ukuthi ngalabo abanemali zitholakala lakhonakele. Ukudayisa izidakamizwa akuwona “ngendlela elula ‘ngenxa nezingozi ezihilelekile. Angikholwa kuyafaneleka uzowahlulela kangaka ngokhahlo lapho basuke bebhekene enjalo ongakhetha elibuhlungu. Kunzima ukusho ngokuqiniseka okuphelele ukuthi ubungakhetha indlela esemthethweni uma efakwa ukuthi isikhundla uma ungazange okubekwe sikhundla.

Ubugebengu is hhayi ukuphazanyiswa esongela noma ukujezisa abantu ubuhlungu. It is ukuphazanyiswa ngokubonisa uzwela nokunciphisa intando ukwenza ubugebengu ngokufaka ngcono izimpilo zabantu, futhi kudingeka sithathe ubugebengu aphume ukuhweba izidakamizwa ukuze kube udlame kancane futhi umlutha. Ukuze kuncishiswe ezingafanele futhi licit izidakamizwa abantu kudingeka ziyochazelwa ngezidakamizwa, imiphumela yabo kanye ukungezwani kwawo, futhi badinga ukunikwa isizathu hhayi ukufuna ukubhubhisa ngokulahla ngcono kahle yabo. Abantu kudingeka banikezwe izizathu hhayi ukuzidayisa illicitly. Akuwona wonke mithi ziyafana, kanti imbangela iningi overdoses yiyona misperceptions yande mayelana umehluko emkhatsini izidakamizwa licit futhi ezingekho emthethweni. Uma utshwala nogwayi wahlala zomthetho, kodwa akakaze ikhangiswe nobe akhazinyuliswe, ukusetshenziswa abayitoho kanye umlutha kuzoncipha.

Lapho abanye abantu bacabanga le ngokomthetho kwezidakamizwa bona ngeso ezikhangiso for heroin kanye TV izikhangiso for methamphetamine futhi ngokuqinisekile akekho owayezobhekwa khulumela lowo, (ngaphandle zamanje izidakamizwa kingpins mhlawumbe ngubani ngeke vuma ezindaweni ukuthi musa yicala lobugebengu izidakamizwa). Imizamo amaphoyisa yokwehlisa izidakamizwa ingabe ngezinye izikhathi ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwabo kwamanye izifunda, kodwa akunakwenzeka yokuqeda ngokuphelele into kukhona ukufuneka global for. Kuyinto sasivumela lula ukuthola noma iyiphi isidakamizwa obungemthetho okwamanje nomaphi lapho uhlala, ngaphandle uma ufunda le ezintabeni eSiberia. Bahlale pheze njengoba ayatholakala, (futhi ngo eziningi zangaphakathi-imizi bona ayatholakala ngaphezulu) kuka ugwayi noma wotshwala. Ugwayi Nokho ngokuvamile athe iyatholakala kakhudlwana futhi ashibhile kuka izinto ezingafanele kwezinye izindawo ngoba ngogwayi zingatshalwa mass ngokomthetho. Umehluko esiyinhloko akukho esiningi a yenhlamba elixhumene kotshwala noma nogwayi futhi basuke kabanzi ithathwa njengoba kuphephe kuka izinto ezingafanele ngoba ikhangiswe futhi akhazinyuliswe ngenkathi izinto obungemthetho babizwa idemoni.

Umuntu angaba angene esitolo utshwala ngaphandle namahloni, kodwa ngoba izidakamizwa ezingemthetho baye baphoqeleka komhlaba, ukuthola kwabo kungaba eyonakalisayo, inqubo esiyingozi. Nemigoqo ehlanzekile oyithokozeli ngokuvamile kukhona best at ekuvimbeleni ukuphuza ngokweqile kanye ziyasebenza izakhiwo ezingaholela anikele izidakamizwa. Uma kade, isimo senhlalo esekelayo esikhundleni abampofu street emagumbini kungekho ziqondiso on quality, siyobe sibone ukusetshenziswa esingaphansi. Singase senze, indawo ephephile ahlanzekile ezinikeza izidakamizwa, kodwa ukuba anqande abasebenzisi (kanye imilutha ikakhulukazi) kusukela ukuthenga le eyingozi kunazo abanhliziyo kanye umnikelo isiqondiso nokwelashwa uma kudingekile.

Ukwehlisa izinga izidakamizwa Ukutholakala ngokusebenzisa amaphoyisa ukuqedwa ngokuvamile kuyalimaza. Lapho agency kahulumeni yenza ngokudayisa enkulu endaweni kakade inabantu lelisetulu abayimilutha, imilutha futhi ngokuvamile umphakathi xaxa ahlupheke ngoba ukufuneka kanye amanani ngenxa izidakamizwa ashaqe ukwanda, okubangela abayimilutha ukuba kube lula ngokwengeziwe ukuba ubugebengu. Indlela embi kunazo ukuthola osangulukile iwukuba ukusetshenziswa ukuhoxiswa evele ngoba ukuhoxiswa kungaba buhlungu kakhulu ngisho ukubulala ngemithi efana heroin kanye notshwala. Rehabilitation ngokuvamile kuphumelele kunazo esekelwa abangane nomndeni, amaqembu support, abeluleki, kanye nemithi.

Izidakamizwa ezingemthetho babengaba babe zomthetho kodwa hhayi DUMISA, futhi ukusetshenziswa kwakuyoba ayizukushintsha noma kwehle ngenxa ukuba kwenziwe ngokubambisana ne emizamweni yokwehlisa intando yabantu kabi izidakamizwa eziluthayo. Medicine nezidakamizwa kukhona umphakathi ukukhathazeka zezempilo, hhayi imikhiqizo ukuba ethola inzuzo. Zombili kufanele kube mahhala kulabo abangakwazi ukuyikhokhela.

Abantu abaningi abasekela le ngokomthetho kwezidakamizwa umusa izidakamizwa ethile. Kodwa okuphambene kungaba kuyiqiniso. Angaba ala ngokumelene ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa futhi basekele ngokomthetho wabo ngoba uma imithi ngokomthetho futhi kusakazwe ngezindlela wemfanelo lokho kungavimbela izidakamizwa, umlutha kanye nobugebengu ingasabalali.

Utshwala nogwayi babe nemiphumela ehlukene zokuphila zabantu kunemithi iningi ezingemthetho ukukwenza, futhi lokhu kuyinto eyodwa sezizathu eziyinhloko kunjalo kwezomthetho. Ugwayi kanye notshwala bebelokhu kwezomthetho acishe emhlabeni wonke kuwo wonke umlando ngoba ocebile, abantu ezinamandla abaye criminalized izidakamizwa ethile ayethanda nogwayi notshwala phezu nezinye izidakamizwa ngenxa yezizathu ezinkulu ezintathu: le mithi babe nemiphumela nkomoni; abazi ngokuvamile kuthinte ikghono lakho ukusebenza noma ukulwa, futhi ezedlula wonke amazinga ikilasi. Ohulumeni Rich badinga abalandeli babo netitfombe ukugcina kwabo ukusebenza kanye nokulwa nobe okunye babeyoba angabe esaba khona izizwe ezinamandla. Emva American kweMpi Yombango the ukusetshenziswa ugwayi lalibizwa ezihlobene ngamandla, ingcebo kanye capitalism kanye lokhu kuyingxenye yesizathu it wanamathela lapha. Iqhaza kagwayi kwaba nje kuvinjelwe kafushane America ukuba yehle supply futhi ngaleyo ndlela andise ukufuneka kanye amanani. Ugwayi kwandisa Umnotho America ngaphambi ngisho uzibuse eBrithani, futhi kwandisa Umnotho yaseBrithani. Sasingekho isizathu owake yicala lobugebengu njengoba yenza asizange kucatshangwa sinikele ubani angakwazi ukusebenza noma ukulwa. It wagcina yabulala izigidi zabantu, kodwa sasingawohloki kwaziwe kagwayi kwaba imbangela kuze muva emlandweni wethu.

Asetshenziswa Utshwala nogwayi by kwabacebile nabampofu. Kodwa kulapho izidakamizwa ukuthi abantu basebenzisa ikakhulu ukuze babalekele izimpilo zabo kungavimbela abasebenzisi ekubeni ekhiqizayo ngomqondo yendabuko noma ekubeni enobudlova umzimba, ngakho ngokuvamile babe ezihambisana abampofu. Abacebile kudingeka agcine abo okucabanga ukuze umcebo wabo futhi bahlale emandleni. Ngokuvamile abanaso isizathu bafuna ukweqa izimpilo zabo ngoba ngokuvamile babe lula, izimpilo sijabulise ngaphezu kwabantu abampofu, futhi kudingeka sihlale uquqaba onobudlova futhi fractionalized ukuhlala emandleni. ENgilandi ekhulwini le-18, i-gin senziwa emthethweni ngenkathi whiskey wahlala zomthetho ngenxa i-gin kwaba eshibhile futhi abantu abampofu esetshenziswa it njalo. Lezi zinhlobo izitayela zikhona emhlabeni wonke.

Ugwayi hhayi ngokuvamile esetshenziswa ngabanye ukubalekela izimpilo zabo nomsebenzi, kodwa ngokuvamile isetshenziswa ukusiza ukugcina zokuphila, uthole ngokusebenzisa usuku bese uqhubeke zokusebenza. Ugwayi kungaba nemiphumela ivuselela ngemithamo aphansi, futhi sithuthukise motor emakhono okuhlushwa, yingakho abanye abantu bathi ukubhema ugwayi kuyabasiza enze imisebenzi ethile. China nguye inombolo eyodwa umthengi ukubhema emhlabeni futhi omunye ukuyedlula, iminotho ezanda ngokushesha emhlabeni njengamanje. Nakuba utshwala angase konakalise motor amakhono, ukusetshenziswa abayitoho akuphazamisi ikghono lakho ukwenza umsebenzi wakho kakhulu ngendlela izidakamizwa ezingekho emthethweni iningi ukukwenza. Utshwala kungaletha out ukuthambekela abanobudlova kubantu.

Iningi imilutha kagwayi babe imisebenzi kanye nabantu abaningi abaphuza babe imisebenzi futhi. Kukhona ngisho kusebenza yotshwala kanye imisebenzi, kodwa zimbalwa kakhulu nokusebenza crack nobe meth imilutha ngoba cishe ngeke abe munye, omunye ingasaphathwa obuye abe CEO nobe sezombusazwe. Iningi abangasebenzi. Kodwa ngokungemthetho yokulutheka kuqinisekisa bona bahlale abangasebenzi nokuthi izinkinga zabo nje kuphela sibe sibi kakhulu.

Ohulumeni abaningi besaba ukuthi abantu ngeke ekugcineni ziyeke ukusebenza bese ulahlekelwa intando yabo ukulwa ukuba izidakamizwa ezingemthetho kwenziwa kwezomthetho. Kodwa benza kube nzima abayimilutha zangaphambili futhi zamanje ngisho abasebenzisi izikhathi enecala ngamacala izidakamizwa ukuze uthole imisebenzi. Kukhona imilutha ezingaphezu Manje kunanini ngenxa kakhulu izidakamizwa imithetho, futhi iningi labantu liyahlupheka futhi abangasebenzi. Ngisho nensangu, umuthi non-eluthayo akusho konakalise amandla akho ukusebenza (kuye ngokuthi umsebenzi wakho) kangaka njengoba ezinye izidakamizwa enze akukho emthethweni ngezizathu ezifanayo. Ngokufanele noma ngokungafanele, ngokuvamile insangu lihlotshaniswa Pacifism and ukucobeka, izimfanelo ezingenanzuzo okuyinto ohulumeni bengafuni abantu ukuba babe. Kubaluleke kakhulu futhi elinamandla kakhulu kunalokho kagwayi kanye nemiphumela yayo yokugcina eside okuningi, okwenza kube lezimpahla esingaphansi ekhokhelayo kuka ngogwayi. It nje kuba nenzuzo kakhulu uma kwenziwa imizamo yokuqeda it ngoba black market ngeke futha intengo ngenxa ingozi ehilelekile ababethengisa it. Kungokufanayo kusebenza bonke izidakamizwa.

Ababusi zethu kwezombusazwe corporate abazange yicala lobugebengu izidakamizwa ngoba babecabanga kwakuyoba ukusiza abantu. Bengafuni ukuba bayeke umlutha noma sehlise inani labantu ababulawa izidakamizwa. Uma benza babengeke njalo ukunxusa ngokumelene efanele ibe kuhlu lokuhlukumezeka izidakamizwa zomthetho. Cishe kubo bonke yicala lobugebengu izidakamizwa out of self-interest. Nokho, abazi ukuthola ngaso sonke isikhathi lokho ezikufunayo. Kukhona ukulimala ayinakugwenywa nxazonke. Cops namanxusa federal abafa nsuku zonke futhi ohlwini umlilo ovela impi osopolitiki bethu bathi kumelwe silwe.

Lapho ohulumeni yicala lobugebengu izidakamizwa, inhloso cishe ungalokothi ukwandisa nokuphepha komphakathi. Izinhloso zabo ziyiqiniso ngokuvamile ukuze ‘kuvikelwe “(ikakhulu) emhlophe, engenhla-ikilasi yabo kanye inzuzo yabo ukuyigcina kude izidakamizwa kanti odala ezingenayo wezinkampane futhi ngokwabo ngokuxhaphaza abampofu ukusetshenziswa kwabo izidakamizwa. By ubugebengu futhi demonizing ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa kanye amancane abasebenzisi izidakamizwa, le ukhonza nakho ukugcina iningi inqanyuliwe kusuka amaqembu amancane futhi ithethelele ukuxhashazwa ezincane nangezinye izindlela.

Ngisho nalapho ohulumeni do yicala lobugebengu izidakamizwa ngoba bakholelwa ngobuqotho kuzobangela abantu bazo zonke amakilasi ukuze kabi izidakamizwa kancane futhi andise nokuphepha komphakathi, akukaze has loluhlupho. Kwakucatshangwa opium criminalization eChina, isibonelo, laliyowavulekela leli nomphumela, kodwa wawusiza okuhlukile. IBrithani wakwazi ukusebenzisa opium ukuze buthaka eChina, futhi lokhu kungenye umkhuba ohulumeni ocebile. Baye bazama ukusebenzisa izidakamizwa umlutha njengendlela ezilulazayo izitha zabo aphesheya kanye neminotho yabo ngisho kuyilapho baye criminalized, futhi okuwukuphela angajeziswa ngakho namuhla ngoba aye criminalized.

Kufanele kube sobala ukuthi umphakathi elungile sokuphepha ukuze criminalization of izidakamizwa kumane olungaphambili lwesonto. Cops ngokuvamile basabela kulezi zinkinga zaba nemizwelo yabo bakudala kakhudlwana, hhayi izingqondo zawo noma izinhliziyo nabezombusazwe eminingi ayinakho kokubili. By ubugebengu izidakamizwa ohulumeni kungaba ukulawula imakethe elikhulu obungafanele “ukuqedwa” imizamo futhi ngaleyo ndlela balawule ukufuneka, futhi intengo izidakamizwa, le kobukhulu ubugebengu nezidakamizwa ehlobene, kanye nenani abayimilutha. Kuyinto konke ezandleni zabo. Ifuna, kubukeka sengathi basuke belwa izidakamizwa, ngazo bathi, kodwa empeleni Zilwa olwisana ntu bona ayikho izinhloso lokusiza nokwenza imali inqubo babe. Amasaka izidakamizwa kungukuthi icala. Kodwa abantu, futhi bagcina ukuhlupheka ngenxa it.

Amaphoyisa amaningi, abashushisi namajaji ajezise imilutha likholwe basiza umphakathi, kodwa abantu phezulu abenza imithetho bazi kahle ukuthi abakwenzayo. Izishaya ngubani ikwazi ukufuna izidakamizwa imithetho onamandla bayazi basuke belwa nje udonsa kanzima abantu abampofu, ngoba ingxenye enkulu ngoba abanaso nenhlonipho nobe acabangele ngabo. Bathi nje afuna ukuba izidakamizwa njengoba elinye icebo angabawa asizakale linjengamafutha.

5.3 Izidakamizwa nobuphekula

The criminalization izidakamizwa ngokuvamile walungisiswa ngokuba athi amadoda eziyingozi kunazo middle abadayisa izidakamizwa efana “Amaphekula”, amalungu gang kanye namalungu izidakamizwa Cartel banesibopho bonke ubudlova nempi izidakamizwa. Kodwa la maqembu obugebengu kungukuthi adalwe izidakamizwa; basuke adalwe yimithetho ukuba abeke izidakamizwa on emakethe okusho abazalwa wezimpi ezalandela. Futhi leyakhiwe ukwehlukana okuhambisana nezenhlalo ukuthi sibona omhlaba esiholela abantu ukuba ezimpilweni ubugebengu.

Eyibhalela inkulumo-ze mayelana ‘izidakamizwa nokuxhasa ubuphekula “kusukela DEA nezinye Kuphatsa odukisa kakhulu. Abanye abasebenzisi izidakamizwa do ukukhokhela ezinye abashokobezi izidakamizwa-ukuvunana ngokungaqondile, kodwa ngeke ukube izidakamizwa zase kwezomthetho. Amaphekula anesizotha adalwe amandla ezicebile, kanti la amandla singahlosile (futhi ngezinye izikhathi ngenhloso) ukukhokhela nabo emthethweni izidakamizwa wezohwebo.

Ohulumeni ukudala izitha emakhaya ngendlela efanayo. Bathi indiva izinkinga ngobukhulu okuhambisana nezenhlalo futhi ayaqhubeka basakaze nabo ukuze kuzuze bona. Amaphekula amalungu gang bonke abahilelekile ukuba ube le scapegoats, kanye ejensi ngobukhulu futhi izinkampane bagcina kanye izidakamizwa eziningi, imali, nenkazimulo. Imibuso yomhlaba abacebe ngokuvamile babe imithetho izidakamizwa esiqine kakhulu, futhi ukuxhasa nobuphekula nale mithetho ngokuphendula izidakamizwa zibe ebhizinisini elikhulu.

By ubugebengu izidakamizwa e ocebile, amazwe athuthukile, osombusazwe (abantu ababa sigcizelele ukwesaba wangempela kunazo ngokuthumela izigidi zibe izimpi) enza elikhulu funa obungemthetho ligcwele ngokwengxenye by amaphekula ngoba bazimisele ukubeka ngokwabo kanye nabanye engozini. Kodwa yini kubalulekile ukuthi amaphekula musa ngokuvamile sikhule izidakamizwa like poppy nobe Coca izitshalo. Kuyinto abalimi abampofu ekhula nabo futhi akuvamile ukuceba, ngoba le mithi nibaluleke emncane emakubo.

E Afghanistan lapho iningi opium kwezwe Simila, umuthi kuwufanele ingxenyana encane yini kuwufanele emazweni acebe like America. In a interview 2009 nge female opium umlimi olwenziwe Integrated Regional Information Networks News ikomkhulu eNairobi, eKenya, wavuma yena nje kwenza ayisithupha khilogremu of opium ngonyaka, okuyinto utsengise for $ 3000. [Lii] Lowo is $ 500 ngamunye ikhilo. In America eyodwa kilogram of opium kuwufanele kuze $ 35.000 ngokuvumelana Office United Nations on Izidakamizwa Crime (UNODC) 2009 Umbiko Drug, okuyinto ilingana dollar Afghani mayelana 1.5 million.

Izitshalo poppy bakhule Afghanistan ngoba optic nesomiso izitshalo ukumelana. Basinde amanzi kancane kakhulu futhi Afghanistan yomile kakhulu. Ezinye izitshalo ezidliwayo edinga amanzi amaningi musa vuma khona kahle, ezikhulayo kanjalo, ahambise nokuthengisa ukudla hhayi abantu esimeme kakhulu noma practical.If elusizi emazweni ampofu banikwa amathuba ngaphezulu, imithombo kanye nezinzuzo, bebengayikuba isizathu neqhaza emakethe ukuba ugcwala egazini ngenxa isimo salo ezingokomthetho. Abalimi musa ngokuvamile ukubona lapho izidakamizwa bagcina noma konke abantu ubuhlungu futhi ebulawa izidakamizwa kanye nemakethe izidakamizwa enobudlova. Nokho, ngisho noma bakwazile ukubona le, kungaba namanje nzima ukwahlulela kubo uma eqhubeka sikhule izidakamizwa lapho zizama kanzima kangaka ukuze nje baphile. Abantu abaningi abampofu abangakhetha noma sikhule izidakamizwa noma aphile ngokomthetho bese engozini ingaqedi ukukhokhela imfundo enhle, ukudla, amanzi noma ezinye izidingo eziyisisekelo zokuphila.

Lapho izidakamizwa zokuqinisa umthetho ejensi fafaza Coca amasimu poppy amasimu emazweni angaphandle abayi bekhinyabeza abashokobezi nobe abashushumbisi bezidakamizwa kakhulu; basuke bekhinyabeza abalimi abampofu, futhi ekugcineni ukushayela up intengo yale mithi likapondo ngokunciphisa supply, okuyinto eyenza umlutha ebizayo kakhudlwana. Ohulumeni zethu abangenalo igunya ukubhubhisa izitshalo abampofu womlimi emasimini abo. Far Abantu abangaphezu bafe yizifo ezihlobene nogwayi-emazweni asathuthuka kuka baseMelika enza kusukela overdoses on izidakamizwa ezingemthetho, kodwa amazwe athuthukayo kungukuthi sishaye American nobe Chinese kagwayi amasimu noma ezentengiselwano izidakamizwa zabo lapha, ngakho akufanele ukubhubhisa izitshalo zabo kanye namahlathi zabo. Noam Chomsky wabhekisela kulesi ngokuthi “impi eziphilayo” in ukukhohlisa Kudingekile:

“Enye mbuzo lurks hhayi kakhulu ngemuva. Nje lokho okulungile owenza US ziye ukuba bafeze imisebenzi ezempi impi ikhemikhali-abulalayo kwamanye amazwe ukuba abhubhise isivuno it ayithandi? Asikwazi ukubeka eceleni ukusabela agxeke ukuthi ohulumeni eceliwe le “usizo”; okanye. Ngakho-ke kumelwe sibuze ukuthi ingabe abanye babe extraterritorial ilungelo efanayo ebudloveni nokubhujiswa ukuthi izimfuno US.

Isibalo Colombians abafa kusukela US-kukhiqizwa izidakamizwa ebulalayo idlula isibalo North baseMelika abafa kusukela cocaine, futhi isihlobo obukhulu kakhulu labantu. E East and mpumalanga Asia, US-kukhiqizwa izidakamizwa ezibulalayo nomthelela izigidi yokufa. Lezi amazwe baphoqeleka hhayi nje ukwamukela imikhiqizo, kodwa futhi bememezela ngabo, esongelwa unswinyo ezohwebo. Imiphumela ‘marketing nolaka futhi ukukhangisa amafemu aseMelika is, esilinganisweni esihle, obhekene … nokwanda sizeable in yokubhema rates kwabesifazane kanye nentsha emazweni ase-Asia lapho iminyango baphoqeleka kuvulekile usongo ezinzima US yezohwebo unswinyo, “Impilo yomphakathi abacwaningi baphetha. The cartels Colombian, ngokuphambene, abavunyelwe ukuba ugijime elikhulu imikhankaso yokukhangisa lapho uzakwabo uJoe Camel lidumisa izimangaliso cocaine. ”

Njalo emva Coca amasimu olufuthwe eNingizimu Melika, abalimi abampofu nabanikazi nezwe ziphoqelelwa zibe ghettos zasemadolobheni ngenkathi izwe labo sithathwa phezu by izinkampane zaseMelika ukuthi kwesami izwe ngenxa yezinto zayo. Lokhu kuyefana nalokho okwenzeka abantu abampofu emazweni acebile lapho omakhelwane babo inganqotshwa izidakamizwa, ngaphandle basuke qhutshwa ezindaweni zasemakhaya xaxa noma emaphethelweni amadolobha. Lena gentrification esivamile kakhudlwana. Kodwa umqondo siyafana zombili izifunda: ukuhlukaniswa by isimo nengcebo ukuze adale umcebo xaxa kulabo amandla ngenkathi ukulimaza abampofu.

Opium umlutha incane of inkinga Afghanistan kuka emazweni angomakhelwane, ikakhulu ngoba ubonakala njengoba elinye nje kwezitshalo. Iningi Afghanis kungaba angabacwasi kalula ukuthola opium noma hashi. Abekho ngokwezenhlalo umgoqo in iningi izifunda lapho futhi ezinye izidakamizwa ngisho kubhekwe engcwele abanye. Ukusetshenziswa zamasiko nezombusazwe noma zenkolo ukuba is okuvamile wamukelwa ezindaweni eziningi, kodwa izidakamizwa kungukuthi zifa iyatuswa. Ngokweqile kanye hedonism ingangeni ehlonishwa khona ikakhulu ngenxa yezimfundiso zenkolo. Basuke bephoqeleka ukuba babe abavuthiwe ngezidakamizwa futhi uma babe imilutha, kuba mancane amathuba kuzophela up aswele njengoba imithi yonke indawo (futhi abaningi kakade basuke bempofu). Kunjalo of amazwe cocaine kanye cocaine ukukhiqiza. Nokho, la ohulumeni neze babe izinqubomgomo model izidakamizwa. Nabezempi abanobudlova futhi ekhohlakele namabutho zenkampani futhi ‘amaphoyisa’ amabutho ngokuvamile ukulawula ukuhweba izidakamizwa kula mazwe. Bathi umonakalo on labantu jikelele, ukuboshwa abatshali, bagawula ashise izidakamizwa amasimu ngaphandle kwemvume lothile. Konke lokhu wenza nokuntengantenga kanye simo esishubile kwezidakamizwa kanye nomnotho.

Ezingenayo Afghanistan sika inani kusuka obungemthetho opium kwesivuno kwaba $ 3 billion dollars ngo 2006, elalingaba 35% omkhiqizo wezwe lizwe ukuthi nyaka. [Liii] Neither Afghani noma uhulumeni waseMelika ufuna ukuqeda umsebenzi wezandla enenzuzo esinjalo, ngoba ikakhulu kubuhlungu abampofu ukuze bazizuzise. Iningi izidakamizwa abalimi kukhona banendlela ekahle, kodwa izidakamizwa abazenzayo benze ingozi ikakhulu ngenxa imithetho izidakamizwa engenangqondo zashaya ohulumeni.

Ukubaluleka izidakamizwa ezingekho emthethweni ezindaweni ezahlukene ezindawo kunqunywa ukuthengisela funa, okuyinto kulawulwa ezicini eziningi kubandakanya ukusondela izidakamizwa endaweni, izinkambiso yomphakathi namazinga, nokungalingani kwezomnotho, ukwanda kwabantu, kanye kobukhulu wemithetho izidakamizwa. Imithetho izidakamizwa ivame kakhulu kunakuqala ku lamazwe acebe, (zezwe ngokungenzeleli izinkinsela Holland ngenye okungekho ephawulekayo) ngoba imali isebenze. America uyisibonelo ecacile. Kuyinto lizwe abacebe Emhlabeni futhi has labantu elikhulu kunawo ejele.

Umcebo of America edonsela izidakamizwa futhi has imali ukuze bafeze a-ngezinga eligcwele ‘war on izidakamizwa, “kuyilapho amazwe amaningi ampofu musa not.However, amanye amazwe ampofu naso izinhlawulo ezinzima kakhulu for izidakamizwa crime.In Eqinisweni, abampofu abaningi amazwe eMpumalanga Ephakathi, e-Afrika, futhi mpumalanga Asia basebenzisa isigwebo sokufa ngenxa yezidakamizwa ngamacala athile, kuhlanganise iSiriya, India, Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Pakistan, kanye Saudi Arabia.But abangenazo cishe lo izinombolo of amaphoyisa namanxusa ukuthi amazwe ezicebile do.The US no China (mazwe amabili abacebe by GDP inani) nawo ukusebenzisa isigwebo sentambo ngamacala athile izidakamizwa.

Amazwe amaningi ezikhiqiza eziluthayo, izidakamizwa ezingemthetho bampofu kakhulu, futhi ningabi eziwusizo baze bafinyelele likapondo nemithetho izidakamizwa esiqine. Akuyona oholelayo ukuba babe imithetho esiqinile izidakamizwa e Afghanistan ngoba abantu iningi kukhona bampofu kangaka. Uma abalimi izidakamizwa bahlale abampofu, ohulumeni nezinye maphakathi-amadoda ngazuza kakhulu. Kuyinto oholelayo kunazo ozothola imithetho eqinile izidakamizwa emazweni acebile nesigaba igebe kunabo, futhi ubugebengu izidakamizwa ngokuxhaphaza abantu abampofu abenza imithi e Columbia, Bolivia, Peru, Afghanistan no Myanmar (sibala ezimbalwa) kakhulu ngendlela it usebenzisa oluncane abantu abampofu emazweni ocebile abafuna ukubalekela nobunzima izimo zawo ngokusebenzisa kabi izidakamizwa.

Abantu ababa uthole izidakamizwa kusukela emazweni abampofu emazweni ocebile ngokuvamile engaphansi scrupulous, (yize abaningi abayizisulu izimo kanye). Sinenkosi engozini izimpilo zabo futhi ngezinye izikhathi bazimisele ukubulala ukwenza lezi hambo. Ziyakwazi ngokuvamile yenza ngokuphelelwa yithemba kakhudlwana ukuya phezulu, futhi uyokwenza noma yini ukuze athole khona. Kodwa la maqembu abanobudlova Sidalwe by ndlela kukahulumeni ecasulayo siqu kubasebenzisi izidakamizwa kanye wabenza. Abantu ubabele bathathe izinyathelo ngokuphelelwa yithemba, futhi udaba izidakamizwa asikwazi asebenzelana ngayo ngokusebenzisa ngobudlova noma amandla noma okunye impi abunamkhawulo.

La mazwe acebile ngidalé izimpi izidakamizwa omhlaba kanye tolls nokufa ezikhuphukayo nsuku zonke, ikakhulukazi eMexico lapho ukubulawa mass phezu izidakamizwa zivamile kakhulu. Abanye osopolitiki ezicebile, izintatheli kanye abaphathi babe Gull ukuba basikisele ukuthi emngceleni ukuphepha ikhambi. Bafuna ukwakha ezicijile nxazonke kwemingcele yabo ukugcina abantu abampofu out ngoba uma bengakwazi kubonakala bona akudingeki kwasiza nobe asebenzelana ngayo. Kodwa lokhu akulona ikhambi. Ikhambi lenkinga yezidakamizwa zomuntu iwukuba ukuxhasa amazwe ampofu futhi kuncishiswe buphuya emhlabeni jikelele. Uma amazwe ampofu avunyelwe ukusebenzisa imithombo yabo siqu ngezindlela ezizuzisa wonke umuntu kuyo ke ngeke iphendukele ebugebengwini noma izidakamizwa. Ngamanye amazwi, kumele siphathe abantu abafana uthengisa langempela babantu abafanelwe amalungelo ayisisekelo.

Okubizwa ngokuthi “impi on terror” has ngalutho nobuphekula ngokoqobo. Kungenzeka kakhulu abulawe engozini yemoto noma nge kadokotela zomthetho kunokuba endaweni kuhlasela kwamaphekula e America, nokho sizwa kabanzi mayelana usongo lobuphekula kunathi nempela mayelana kadokotela noma imoto izingozi futhi nathi musa baqongelele amabutho ukuzama ukuvimbela la ukufa kwabantu. Usongo lobuphekula angaphandle eMelika Ngokuyisisekelo non-akukho, futhi kungaba yebo esingaphansi of usongo uma siba babengavunyelwe usebenzisa amandla ukulwa naso.

Izidakamizwa ungomunye izindlela esikhulu kunazo wokulawula izenzo, imicabango, izinkolelo umphakathi kanye nengcebo yabo kunalokho cishe noma yini okukhona. Ukube izidakamizwa criminalization kwakufanele sisebenze ncamashí iqembu elibusayo angathanda it, kwakuzoba global, medicated, amaphoyisa-state. Yiziphi ababusi zethu abaqondi ukuthi kudingeka ukunika abathile bazizwe asinalutho ulahlekelwe namkha omunye zingase njalo bazizwa ngale ndlela futhi konke nomphakathi wayengase bahlupheke ngenxa yalokho. By “pha” Angazi nje asho imithombo noma imali; Nami asho ubungane, ukusondelana, umjuluko, amandla, isikhathi kanye nothando. Uma utshela abantu izinhlungu bengakwazi babe okuthile abakholelwa uyobenza bazizwe kangcono basuke nje siya uyayifuna kakhudlwana futhi sithathe izinyathelo ngokuphelelwa yithemba kakhudlwana ukuze uthole it.

Abezombusazwe kanye izinkampane kudingeka bathembeke nabantu mayelana wonke izidakamizwa. Izidakamizwa babe zangempela, ukungefani ongachazeka. Konke ezehlukene umlutha nekhono kanye nemiphumela engqondweni nasemzimbeni. Kodwa uma senza generalize futhi amanga ngemiphumela izidakamizwa, akekho bazokwazi ukunquma yiziphi izidakamizwa ngempela nokuthi yiziphi izidakamizwa kufanele zigwenywe ngokuphelele, futhi abaningi ngeke babe futhi uhlale imilutha ngoba abawazi ezinye izindlela eziyingozi kunazo.

Kuwukuchitha ephelele isikhathi sokuzama ukuqeda yonke izidakamizwa ezingekho emthethweni okwamanje. Ukuze lokhu kube ngisho nakulezo kungenzeka yonke inkululeko abangabantu kwakuzodingeka uthathile kanye nabantu kwakuzodingeka ukuba njalo ukugadwa. Futhi ngisho dystopian esinjalo, isimo amaphoyisa, abantu cishe namanje sithole indlela athole izidakamizwa. Iziboshwa ngokulondeka emajele esiphezulu angathola izidakamizwa, ngakho ngaphandle uma sifuna ukuphila izimpilo zethu nemingcele ngaphezu iziboshwa esiphezulu zokuphepha do, asikwazi sicabangele ephelele izidakamizwa ukuqedwa njengendlela kungenzeka noma ngisho Injongo esifiselekayo. Imilutha kanye abashushumbisi bezidakamizwa kudingeka banikezwe isizathu hhayi ukuzilimaza bona futhi engozini izimpilo zabo, futhi usongo ukujeziswa akusho ukukhonza leyo njongo futhi ngokuvamile nje kwenza kubo self-ezibhubhisa kakhulu.

Esikhundleni yokubopha yezidakamizwa, kufanele zivunyelwe izidakamizwa futhi adale kwezomthetho nokusatshalaliswa kwezidakamizwa izikhungo ukuthi ukufundisa abantu mayelana nemiphumela yezidakamizwa, babanakekele, abenzele nokuvuselelwa uma kudingeka, futhi sizikhuthaze hhayi ukuthenga izinto eziyingozi kakhulu futhi kunalokho zama ukunciphisa intando yabo ukuwasebenzisa ngokubanika isiqondiso. Addiction wayebe kwehle kakhulu uma kwenziwa ngokubambisana ne ekuhlinzekeni imiphakathi abampofu imali, amathuba kanye nemfundo ezikudingayo, futhi belingeke akukho nto ezifana black market izidakamizwa nobugebengu. Lokhu kwakuyosho kungadambisa ubuphekula nobudlova emhlabeni wonke.

5.4 Ukuhlaziya umlaliso ezingafanele cocaine izimakethe

Cocaine kanye opium (nemikhiqizo yalo efana heroin) baphakathi izidakamizwa ezingemthetho eziyinkinga kakhulu futhi nenzuzo emakethe njengamanje. Izitshalo iningi Coca etshalwa e Columbia, Peru no Bolivia lapho kukhishwe cocaine, kanti nezitshalo eziningi poppy etshalwa ku “Golden Triangle” kanye “Golden Crescent.”

I Golden Triangle isenkabeni eNingizimu East Asia nje kuya kwesokudla India. It saze sayothi chaphasha amazwe amane: iBurma, Vietnam kuneLaos neThailand. I Golden Crescent isenkabeni nje ngakwesokhohlo of India futhi saze sayothi chaphasha amazwe amathathu: Afghanistan, Iran nePakistan, kanjalo India ngokuyinhloko uzungezwe izitshalo opium. Opium Simila India kanye, kodwa abaningi bayidayise ezinkampanini ezenza imithi ezinkulu kuya.) Ngenxa yobumpofu India kanye isondele yabo ukuba emizileni Opiate ezingemthetho, ababenakho abangaba yizigidi ezine imilutha kuleli lizwe ngo 2003 ngokusho ucwaningo olwenziwe India nezidakamizwa Control Bureau. Nakhona kagwayi ababhemayo eyizigidi ezingu 250 eNdiya ngo-1997 ngokusho WHO ilinganisela.

Iminyaka engaba ngu-nambili, Afghanistan ubelokhu umthombo oyinhloko ka-opium emhlabeni, futhi Columbia ubelokhu umthombo oyinhloko ka cocaine emhlabeni iminyaka embalwa. I Taliban ekuqaleni waqala imingcele ukukhula poppy e Afghanistan ku-1990 ukuze wehlise supply bese andise ukufuneka kanye intengo umkhiqizo. Uwoyela amasimu zishiswa ngenxa yesizathu esifanayo. Baphinde labeka izinhlawulo kanzima kwabantu ezitholakala ezikhulayo it abangazange babengavunyelwe. Beheadings zazivamile.

I Taliban waphumelela emizamweni yabo futhi baqala Afghanistan iqhaza okuncane kakhulu emakethe opium. Kodwa ngemva kokuhlasela of Afghanistan ngo 2001, ukukhiqizwa opium wavuselela emazingeni zayo zangaphambili futhi by 2007 Afghanistan wenza 92% of emhlabeni opium supply. [Liv] Lokhu kwenzeka ngokwengxenye ngenxa yokuthi emnothweni wabo labhujiswa ngakho kwadingeka bathembele kakhulu izitshalo ekhokhelayo ukuthi babekwazi sikhule. I US-wasekela Karzai administration ngumlindi ake loku kwenzeke, futhi ezinye izingxenye US of ibutho nazo lula ukwabiwa kwalesi izidakamizwa ezingemthetho. Ngokusho ULieutenant Colonel, uJohn A. Glaze:

Manje “Izikhulu zikahulumeni Afghan kukholelwa ukuthi ukuhileleka amaphesenti opium ukushushumbiswa lokungenani 70, futhi ochwepheshe balinganisela ukuthi okungenani 13 ababusi zangaphambili noma abakhona wesifundazwe ngokuqondile ahileleke ukuhweba izidakamizwa. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amaphesenti amalungu akhethwe 249 ephalamende up 25 nawo kusolakala ukuthi kokuba ababehileleke ekuhwebeni izidakamizwa … Kokunye lezi kweziphathimandla zempi kukhona abantu ezifanayo ngubani wabambisana ne-United States ngo nokuxoshwa i Taliban ngo 2001 “[lv]

Hamid Karzai waba uMengameli of Afghanistan ngoDisemba 7 2004 emva kokhetho yokuqala yayiqhutshelwa. Wamemezela ‘jihad on poppy’ le nyanga, kodwa nokuphathwa sakhe maphakathi ukuhweba. Karzai wayithethelela emihlanu emngceleni patrol amaphoyisa ubanjwe nge 124 khilogremu futhi anikezwe inkululeko zakuqala abanye abaningi. [Lvi] The CIA bamnika $ 500 million “ghost ngemali” ukuthi akuzange eyabangela. Okuningi it cishe waya Kabul Banks kanye cartels.

Engumakhelwane Iran engakhuli izitshalo ecishe njengoba abaningi poppy njengoba Afghanistan, kodwa ingabe kudla futhi basakaze esiningi opiates kusetshenzwe. Amazwe amaningi abampofu ukuba bakhule izidakamizwa eziluthayo like Afghanistan ukwenza okuncane of the processing kanye yokwehlisa nokuthi okusele kwamanye amazwe ukuze kwandiswe inzuzo. Ngo-2007, isibonelo,% 11 kuphela heroin nokuquleka zenzeke Afghanistan kanti 28% awo Iran.

Opium abatshali kuyaqabukela ukucubungula mkhiqizo wabo siqu ngoba luyindida hhayi nokwenzeka for umlimi isilinganiso. Columbia ubelokhu umholi in Coca plant ukutshalwa iminyaka eminingi ngokuyinhloko ngoba izitshalo Coca kwazivelela khona. Ngo-2010-30% of cocaine emhlabeni bambamba kwaqala Columbia. Yezwe namanje emagumbini ukuhweba, nemali cocaine zokubasa imikhakha eminingi umnotho wayo.

Izidakamizwa akuzona umgoqo ezindaweni iningi Afghanistan nobe Columbia. E Afghanistan ziningi hashi izitolo ukuthi ngokukhululekile ukudayisa hashi kanye hashi amafutha izimakethe lapho opium udayiswa njenganoma yimuphi omunye umkhiqizo ezisemthethweni. Kodwa abantu emazweni ngokushikashikeka okukhulu imali ngokuvamile kudingeke ukuthenga izidakamizwa ezingaphezu surreptitiously. Opium kuyingcenye ebalulekile emnothweni Afghanistan sika. Kuyinto eshibhile ukwabiwa kuvamise esingaphansi olunegazi kunalokho emazweni akhelene lapho abantu abathile banobudlova ukuhambisa it emazweni acebile. Afghanis kungukuthi abaphoqelelwa ukuba kudla inkulumo-ze mayelana zezidakamizwa ajenda duplicitous njengoba baseMelika, futhi nezidakamizwa akuzona eqolo, ngakho angakwazi ulinge futhi wenze izinqumo zabo siqu ngalokho okulungile kubo.

Like cocaine, Opiate ukusetshenziswa kuyinto eziphakeme emazweni ezicebile awakhiqizi nabo. Afghanistan enza sebenzisa opium ngokungenzeleli njalo, kodwa babe imilutha abangaphansi kuka emazweni amaningi, futhi kuyaqondakala ukuthi kungani abanye bangase ungathanda ukuyisebenzisa ngoba ukuphila kwabo kwansuku nosuku kunzima kakhulu. Afghanistan kwadingeka a GDP yemali of $ 906 ngo-2012 [lvii] It ingenye lamazwe ampofu kakhulu emhlabeni. Baphinde bebelokhu behlaselwa iU.S. kusukela 2001 nangaphansi Taliban control ngaphambi kwalokho. Yobukhulu ngobunzima abantu Afghan baye bakhuthazelela Kuleminyaka engamashumi amabili angenakuqhathaniswa.

Okuningi opium ezenziwe Afghanistan is yangenisa ePakistan, okuyinto eyenza kakhulu kwalo. Pakistan kuyinto bacebe ngaphezu Afghanistan ngokulandela GDP, kodwana isabelo enkulu yomphakathi wawo ihlala ububha kanye. GDP Its lengenako kwaba $ 2.906 ngo-2012 Iningi opiates ezivela Pakistan bagcina kokuba yangenisa Iran, elinganayo ne efanayo GDP yemali.

Afghanistan and Columbia bangawela neze ukuba umlutha nezidakamizwa udlame, kodwa izidakamizwa ziphathwa ngaphezulu njengoba izinkinga siqu kunalokho ubhubhane social khona. Uma imithi babengamadodana okubi wangempela ke Columbia no Afghanistan wawuzoba abaningi kakhulu abayimilutha nokufa ezidakamizweni kunanoma isiphi izwe emhlabeni. Kodwa lokhu akulona icala.

Izidakamizwa kukhona amakhemikhali nje ezingaphili. Basuke lakhiwe ofanayo baser izakhi njengoba konke okunye emhlabeni. Kunalokho sibanika ngamandla abazi bafanelwe. Umlutha Physical ungokoqobo kakhulu futhi kungaba enamandla kakhulu, kodwa akuyona ezingaqondakali kangaka angisenaye. Siyayazi isayensi ngemuva umlutha futhi singakwazi aphathe it. Kodwa Ohulumeni bengahlosile ukwelapha zonke umlutha babe, futhi abasoze kuzuzwe lokhu ngokwenza elisebenzisa onegazi izidakamizwa empini.

Izidakamizwa kukhona kalula in Afghanistan and Columbia. Abakwazi ukugwema kubo, kodwa abantu balapho ngokuvamile azitshelwanga indlela ukuzizwa ngabo. Kwathatha isikhathi eside ukuze cocaine kanye opium sisakazekele kwamanye acebile, amazwe esithi kakhudlwana ukuthi lifakwa phezu kwabo njengoba benza konke okunye. Kodwa uma izidakamizwa wahlala ingcaca iyatholakala Columbia no Afghanistan futhi abazange babe okungaka umbango wangaphakathi nobumpofu ke umlutha Angajabula esingaphansi kudlange khona.

Iningi cocaine unprocessed “unama ‘futhi cocaine eyenziwe eBolivia is yangenisa eChile, Argentina kanye neBrazil. [Lviii] Bolivia iyizwe sasivumela abampofu nge GDP kwemali of $ 4.592. Ngo-2007 izindleko cocaine kwakungekho nje $ 9 igramu ngokwesilinganiso ngamunye nobe $ 1300 kilogram ngamunye. [Lix] Argentina Nokho, kwadingeka a GDP kwemali of $ 18.205 ngo-2012.

Bolivia kuyinto kakhudlwana emithonjeni cocaine kuka Argentina, kodwa ukusetshenziswa ophakeme ngo Argentina ngenxa yomcebo yayo xaxa isihlobo. Ngo-2007 Argentina wavelelwa ukuvama lonyaka cocaine ukusetshenziswa 2,67% kanti Bolivia nasePeru, ezimbili eziyinhloko Coca abatshali ezintathu wavelelwa ukuvama yonyaka ka 1.31% no 0,66% ngokulandelana. [Lx] Uruguay nayo ukuvama yonyaka ka 4.0%, ngokwengxenye, ngoba ukuceba futhi lincike kwamanye amazwe ukuze cocaine. Cocaine kwaba $ 13,20 igramu ngamunye khona ngokwesilinganiso ngo 2007. [lxi] Sekukonke, cocaine umlutha akukhona ecishe okuningi of inkinga eNingizimu Melika kunalokho emazweni acebile, kanye namazwe eNingizimu Melika ezenza cocaine babe ukuvama aphansi yokusetshenziswa . Cocaine okungangcoliswanga kudliwe Argentina zithunyelwa aphume endaweni laseTrelew eNtshonalanga Afrika azungeze Senegal. Cocaine okungangcoliswanga kudliwe Brazil is yathunyelwa Nigeria naseNingizimu Afrika. [Lxii]

Ngo-2007 nezinye abakhiqizi eziyinhloko ezimbili cocaine eNingizimu Melika, Peru no Colombia, naye kwadingeka GDP aphansi lengenako kunobukaJohane Argentina and eChile. Ngawo lowo nyaka, i-cocaine Peruvian kubiza mayelana $ 1,30 igramu ngalinye ($ 1 for unama) noma $ 851 kilogram ngamunye. Okuningi it zangeniswa Brazil, Panama, futhi ngokuqondile abanye zithunyelwa emngceleni US-Mexican tsini Tijuana. Panama saba GDP kwemali of $ 12.577 ngo-2010 eMexico empeleni ekude esingaphansi abampofu kuka iningi eNingizimu Melika, nakuba ingxenye enkulu yabantu (44.2% ngo-2010 [lxiii]) is mpofu. Cocaine ingaba ubiza kakhulu eMexico ngoba uhlanganyela imingcele America. Ngo-2007 a ​​kilogram cocaine abiza $ 12.500 eMexico. Ngo-2012 GDP laseMexico kwaba $ 1,629 trillion, 11 emhlabeni futhi saba GDP yemali of $ 15.113, naphezu labantu babo enkulu bempofu. [Lxiv] Uhulumeni waseMexico unalo amazipho on izidakamizwa ezimakethe kanye cartels khona, okuyinto ngokwengxenye kungani GDP yayo kuphezulu kangaka, kodwa abantu ezivamile khona nokuncane kangaka.

Okuningi the cocaine wokuthi kuphelela up eBrazil zithunyelwa aphume Sao Paolo, isimo elinabantu abaningi yeBrazil. It has GDP wesibili esiphezulu kwemali aphume sithi Brazilian. Ngezinye cocaine eBrazil zithunyelwa okunye North, kodwa kakhulukazi ezindaweni ngengcebo xaxa. Little of it zithunyelwa ngokusebenzisa Colombia. Okuningi cocaine Colombia sika is eyebiwe kuya Venezuela. Venezuela Ubuye a GDP ephakeme kunaleyo womathathu of the okuyisisekelo amazwe cocaine ukukhiqiza. Kwemazinga Its per kwaba $ 11.889 ngo 2007 cocaine Iningi Venezuela zithunyelwa ngokusebenzisa eCaribbean ePuerto Rico, eDominican Republic, Cuba, Southern Mexico, Asia nase-Australia.

GDP yemali Puerto Rico mkhulu GDP yemali of Cuba kanye Dominican Republic kuhlangene. Coke okuningi zithunyelwa khona. Lapho coke sifinyelela la mazwe zaseCaribbean ibizwa noma kudliwe noma eyebiwe phambili enyakatho, ngokuvamile eMelika. Florida kwaba iphuzu ezivame kakhulu zokungena for cocaine kusuka eCaribbean ku 1980, kodwa namuhla beshushumbisa iningi Caribbean ukuya East Coast lapho funa nengcebo zizinkulu. Abanye futhi hamba phambili eCanada kuyilapho Veer abanye eFrance, Great Britain naseNetherlands.

France ne-United Kingdom aphakathi amazwe acebe kunawo wonke emhlabeni, futhi imithetho esiqine kakhulu izidakamizwa, kodwa izimakethe ezinkulu izidakamizwa. France kwadingeka a GDP of $ 2,582 trillion kanye GDP kwemali of $ 41.018 ngo-2010, kanti i-United Kingdom wayenenkinga GDP of $ 2,247 trillionand a emalini GDP of $ 36.120 ngalinye. Cocaine eFrance kubiza $ 60,40 kuya $ 140,80 igramu per nobe $ 48,289.70 kuya $ 68,410.50 kilogram ngamunye ngo-2009 [lxv]

Njengo America, France kanye United Kingdom babe obungenangqondo, amakilasi ecishe okungahleliwe for izidakamizwa ifuna ngokusekelwe ekuqondeni izishaya ‘okulinganiselwe kakhulu imiphumela yalezi mithi nekhono yabo sobala ukuvimba abantu besebenza. Baphinde babe izinhlawulo esiqine kakhulu izidakamizwa yifa, kuhlanganise nokuphila ejele. EFrance, ngokoMthetho Isinqumo February 22 1990, insangu buyisidakamizwa kanye heroin, cocaine, methadone kanye opium ohlwini 1. Lokhu kusho uhulumeni ubheka la izidakamizwa eziyingozi ngokulinganayo nokuthi ifa yisiphi kubo kufanele bajeziswe nge isigwebo olunzima kungenzeka.

Edidayo ngisho nakakhulu yilo mthetho sika elisezingeni amphetamine (ezinye zazo kungadala neendakamizweni ngokushesha ngaphezu heroin) njengoba class 3 izidakamizwa iTHC, amakhemikhali eliyisisekelo in insangu bubalwa liklasi 4 ketshezi. ITHC sika ngezigaba eziphansi Cishe ukushukunyiswa imibono zigxile ngemithi yendabuko. Ukuze uhulumeni bacabangele into a ‘umuthi’ it kuvamise ukuthi kube yinto elingalodwa, lemagalagala elisebunyeni nize ngesimo iphilisi. Umahluko efanayo senziwa eMelika. Ifa insangu zokwenziwa nobe ekhishwe insangu compounds ngokuvamile ajeziswe esingaphansi kakhulu. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi zokwenziwa insangu senziwa ikakhulu by izinkampane ezinkulu kanye nohulumeni abone inzuzo ukuba kwadingeka. Kodwa nezinkampani ezithaka imithi, i-DEA, i FDA nezinye izikhungo ezinkulu kukhona musa inzuzo ukube wonke umuntu ovunyelwe imithi yabo siqu zikhule, (ngaphandle kokuba bamba it) futhi lokhu kungani okwamanje baphikisane it.

The namanje ephumelelayo ukusebenzisa kabi izidakamizwa Act of 1971 e-UK futhi ichaza heroin, ukuqhuma, ecstasy, LSD kanye amakhowe njengoba ikilasi “A” izidakamizwa. Kodwa le mithi sonke ehlukene kakhulu. Ngenxa imithetho elingenangqondo kodwa eliphimiselekayo izidakamizwa eFrance United Kingdom, kanye ngengcebo yabo kanye anamahlazo kwezenhlalo izidakamizwa ezizungezile, intengo izidakamizwa ziphakeme futhi umlutha luvame. Iningi cocaine kwezwe is kudliwe the America naseYurophu.

Cocaine eMexico iningi yangenisa America nge Texas, eCalifornia no Arizona. Lapho ifinyelela la ithi, kuba eyigugu kakhulu kangakanani, kodwa akavamile afinyelele isiqongo wentengo close kangaka eMexico. Lezi uthi kukhona izindawo ekahle yokwethula izidakamizwa phakathi America ngoba zinkulu kakhulu futhi kuzoba cishe akunakwenzeka kulondeke zonke intshi of kwemingcele yabo nge eMexico. Yiqiniso, okwandisa emngceleni security akulona ikhambi vele.

California iyi-indawo enhle kakhulu ngoba kukhona ukufuneka kakhulu izidakamizwa balapho ngenxa bakhona kwabantu, omkhulu kwehlukahlukana kwezomnotho, (ikakhulukazi Los Angeles) nangaphezulu amathemba ovulekile kwezenhlalo. Izidakamizwa akuzona njengoba ukukhuluma ngocansi eCalifornia kanye nemithetho ezibonisa ukuthi, okuyinto eye kwanciphisa esiningi umonakalo owadalwa impi izidakamizwa, kodwa emajele amaningi eCalifornia zibambe iziboshwa ezingaphezu kuka umthamo yabo ngoba izidakamizwa wokukatelela ejensi bayaqhubeka lokubopha ababhemayo, naphezu wendawo imithetho. Ukusatshalaliswa insangu zokwelapha kusemthethweni ngaphansi komthetho landa, kodwa hhayi ngomthetho federal, onikeza licit abasabalalisi ukuvikelwa amaphoyisa wombuso futhi endawo, kodwa ejensi hhayi federal. Californians abaningi basebenzisa insangu, kodwa asisebenzisi kabi izidakamizwa nzima ngesikhathi amanani efanayo ukuthi ezinye ithi do, kanye ukutholakala insangu kunganciphisa intando kabi izidakamizwa kakhudlwana.

USA ingenye yezindawo oholelayo kunazo ukuthengisa izidakamizwa. In America kukhona ukufuneka omkhulu for izidakamizwa adalwe ngumuntu ikilasi gap omkhulu, ukwehluka zobuhlanga, ukungezwani ngokohlanga, ukucindezeleka, izindaba zomphakathi kanye nangokwengqondo, ezemfundo abampofu, ukungasebenzi, amakhaya, imithetho izidakamizwa esiqine kakhulu futhi amaphoyisa wokukatelela obunzima. IMF Kulinganiselwa America saba GDP of a $ 15,6097 trillion ngo-2012 futhi aper Ngemali GDP of $ 49.601. Intengo igramu of cocaine ngo-2007 e-America zazisuka a eliphansi $ 20 kuya aphezulu $ 350, futhi cocaine umlutha luvame kakhulu eMelika.

Lo UNODC Umbiko 2007 walinganisela kwakukhona abasebenzisi 120.000 of cocaine eMelika Central, 170.000 saseCaribbean, 2.250.000 eNingizimu Melika, futhi 6.870.000 eNyakatho Melika. Amaphesenti enkulu abasebenzisi cocaine eNyakatho Melika nabo alinganiselwa abasebasha kunalabo eNingizimu Melika naseMelika Ephakathi, futhi ngaphezulu babengabantu abasebenzisi eside esigcwele zomuthi. Western no Yurophu Central futhi kwadingeka 3.870.000 abasebenzisi cocaine ngo 2007.

5.5 Ukuhlaziya nokuqonda kwezomthetho opium emakethe kanye ketshezi abahlukunyezwayo Emhlaben

Opium buyisidakamizwa eyingqayizivele ngoba amagama ahlobene eziningi kangaka nge potencies engafani kakhulu futhi iye yasetshenziswa njengesisekelo umuthi izinkulungwane zeminyaka, nokho opiates nazo le izidakamizwa ezingemthetho kunazo yomngane kabanzi. Abantu abaningi ukuba bangene ukwelashwa izidakamizwa bayimilutha opiates. I UNODC walinganisela ukuthi kwakukhona 12 kuya 21 million Opiate imilutha emhlabeni wonke ngo-2011 [lxvi] Ukuqonda opium, i licit kanye obungemthetho opium wezohwebo, futhi umehluko phakathi ezimbili lusemqoka ukuze baqonde yonke impi on izidakamizwa.

Opioids basuke okungaphezulu amukela ukusetshenziswa okwelapha kunokuba insangu, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi zingabantu umlutha wayo futhi ebulalayo. An opioid kuyinto ikhemikhali oluhlanganisa kuya ezenza opioid emzimbeni. An Opiate ungomunye uhlobo opioid ukuthi yenziwa by izitshalo poppy. Kukhona futhi endogenous peptides opioid okuyinto akhiqizwa imizimba yethu, (ngokuvamile umsebenzi ngesikhatsi nangemuva yokukhathala) kanye opioids Semi-zokwenziwa, okuyinto ezakhini opiates zemvelo futhi ngokugcwele-synthetic opioids, okuyinto azisenzeki emvelweni.

Kunezinhlobo ezine zama-endogenous peptides opioid: endorphins, enkephalins, dynorphins, kanye endomorphins. Opiates zemvelo kukhona alkaloids abakhona in poppy resin noma ‘opium raw, “okuyinto lo latex omisiwe ukuba oozes kusukela ekhanda cut (inzalo angavuthiwe pod) of isitshalo poppy. The opiates ekhona opium raw kukhona morphine, codeine kanye thebaine. Ezinye alkaloids ukuthi musa abophele ezenza opioid efana papaverine kanye noscapine nazo okwamanje. Zikhona 25 nezinye alkaloids ezincane, kodwa hhayi bakholwa ukuba nensada value kwemithi.

Morphine kanye codeine kuyizinto opiates luvame kakhulu okuluhlaza opium resin futhi yizona opiates ngokuvamile isetshenziswa kwezokwelapha. Opium ngokuvamile siqukethe mayelana 8-17% morphine kanti codeine yenza up mayelana 0.7-5%. [Lxvii] (Nokho, ezinye izitshalo poppy kuthiwa ezifuywa ukukhiqiza kakhudlwana noma ngaphansi ngamunye ancike enhlosweni yabo ekugcineni.) Morphine kanye codeine kungaba angabacwasi utholakala kalula kusuka opium eluhlaza. Eqinisweni, morphine kwakuyiyona alkaloid wokuqala okwelapha behlukene isitshalo [lxviii] futhi yasishintsha ukuqonda kwethu emithi nesayensi.

Opiates zemvelo, ezifana ne morphine codeine, kungenziwa uguqulwa opiates Semi-zokwenziwa, njenge diacetylmorphine (heroin), hydrocodone, dihydrocodeine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, oxycodone, nabanye abaningi ngokushintsha isimo sabo amakhemikhali. Ngenxa yokuthi codeine esingaphansi kuveza izitshalo poppy, esikhundleni ukuzihlukanisa zikuthola opium raw, it is more ngokuvamile wadala kusukela morphine ngokusebenzisa methylation, okuhilela ukususwa group -OH of the molecule morphine nge -OCH3.

Heroin uvamise kuhlelwe umqondo kusuka morphine nge acetyl hydride, okuyinto acetylizes amaqembu morphine sika hydroxyl. Lokhu Ukusabela kwamakhemikhali ubuyisela amaqembu -OH of the amangqamuzana morphine nge OCOCH3. Opioids zokwenziwa like fentanyl, pethidine, methadone, tramadol kanye dextropropoxyphene engenziwanga kusuka opiates, kodwa ngamakhemikhali ezihlukene laboratories basuke.

Heroin mancane oncibilikayo emanzini kunokuba morphine, yingakho it kufanele ijovwe. Akunjengesikhathi ephumelela uma zithathwa ngomlomo. Kanye heroin esegazini kalula ovivinyweni barrier ubuchopho igazi, okuyinto evimbela amanzi amangqamuzana oncibilikayo bangangeni. Heroin linamandla ngaphezu morphine, kodwa imiphumela yayo musa kuhlale inqobo, okwenza kube umlutha wayo. Njengoba heroin kusingathwa ngu umzimba, amaqembu ayo acetyl kususwa, ukuguqula morphine.

Indlela morphine futhi zonke opioids ukusebenza njengoba analgesics iwukuba ezifanele ngokuphelele phakathi isayithi esebenzayo on zobuhlungu. Abakwazi ukwenza lokhu ngenxa shape sabo esiyingqayizivele. Iqembu benzene of morphine, isibonelo, isifuthefuthe ngokumelene ingxenye ezingeni le-opioid yokwamukela amaprotheni, kuyilapho bent carbon iqembu athomu kuyavumelana i indentation eceleni kwalo, okuyinto ivumela kahle icala nitrogen atom ukuze babiza ongemuhle icala group on the yokwamukela . Lokhu uvalela izinhlayiya ndawonye.

Ngenxa yokuthi opium raw aqukethe cishe 8-17% morphine no-3% codeine nje ngokwesilinganiso, kuba ngomunye nje yeshumi njengoba elinamandla njengoba morphine okuhlanzekile. Lokhu kusho morphine imayelana izikhathi eziyishumi more enamandla umlutha kunokuba avareji opium eluhlaza. Heroin, on esandleni, imayelana amabili kuya kwemithathu onamandla ukudlula morphine lapho ijovwe ngemithambo yegazi, nakho kwenza kube nzima ukuyeka. Eziningi zokwenziwa opioids kukhona ezinamandla ngisho nakakhulu futhi umlutha. Fentanyl, isibonelo, izikhathi 75 kuya 125 ngaphezulu onamandla kuka morphine. Sufentanil izikhathi 500 kuya 1000 ngaphezulu elinamandla kuka morphine, futhi Etorphine izikhathi 1000 kuya 3,000 ngaphezulu elinamandla kuka morphine futhi ikakhulukazi isetshenziswa njengendlela okokulalisa elephant. (Le izidakamizwa akuhloselwe ukudliwa abantu.)

Heroin saqale kuhlelwe umqondo kusuka morphine ngo 1874 futhi imakethwa njengomuntu, ikhambi ephephile non-umlutha for morphine umlutha. Kwakungekhona kwaze ngekhulu le-19 ukuthi abantu bathola le kwakungalungile neze lapho heroin ukuhlukunyezwa waba nenkinga okusakazekile. Izinkampani ukuthi bathengisa heroin efana Bayer, lo corporation ukuthi uthengisa Tylenol nezinye izidakamizwa eziningi namuhla, inzuzo iminyaka eminingi evela eziluthayo abantu ukuba Dope yabo.

Heroin wabekelwa imingcele e-UK ngo 1868 ne Pharmacy Act. Izwe lase livele ezamukelekayo for uhulumeni waseBrithani ukuvumela opium umlutha chitha China, kodwa lapho baqaphela izakhamuzi zabo siqu base besebenzisa it ngamanani amakhulu, bafuna ukuba zivimbele it. Uhulumeni waseBrithani kabavumelanga izakhamuzi zawo besebenza baba imilutha Dope ngoba babedinga nabo ukuze umshikashika wabo kanye nemibono. Heroin wayebhekwa an “ukuphambukiswa ezingenanzuzo” kusukela emsebenzini nguhulumeni waseBrithani, kanye i ukuvinjelwa international kwafika eMpini Yezwe One lapho umlutha lasakazekela amasosha ngoba kabanzi ezinqunyiwe yobuhlungu ukuphathwa. Lalibizwa waze ngokuthi ‘amasosha sifo “ngalesi sikhathi.

Namuhla, iningi opium kwezwe licit senziwa ngu eNdiya noma Turkey. Yiqiniso, izinkampani ezinkulu ezithaka imithi ngeke ukuthenga opium kubalimi Afghani nobe Pakistani ngenxa isimo salo ezingokomthetho. Bengafuni ukuzihlanganisa nabantu ngokuvamile zibizwa ‘amaphekula. “Baphinde abafuni ukuphazamisa kahle lokho imali ngokuthi impi izidakamizwa inikeza, ingasaphathwa asize abantu ezivamile saseMpumalanga Ephakathi.

Imindeni 170.000 eNdiya babe amalayisense bakhule opium in iziza ezincane, futhi ngenxa yokuthi amalungu omndeni basize kule kwezolimo, okungenani esigidini abantu Kulinganiselwa ukuba ahileleke ukuhweba. Iningi bampofu kakhulu. Uhulumeni unomsebenzi ukukhulisa amanani umkhiqizo ngezikhathi ezithile ukuze kuvimbele abalimi kusuka ukuphambukisa product kuya emakethe ezingafanele ngoba izinkampani zokwenza imithi umvuzo wabo kancane kangaka zomkhiqizo kwabo. Njalo izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi sifune imikhiqizo ezishibhe izinhlobo, kungakhathaliseki umthelela womuntu.

Ngo-2003 uhulumeni waseNdiya wabeka intengo isisekelo kilogram of opium ka 630 rupees, okuyinto ilingana $ 14,05 e US currency. Izibalo zamuva of obungemthetho Afghani opium ebiza $ 500 kilogram ngamunye ngokwesilinganiso e Afghanistan futhi kuze 35.000 $ e-US. [Lxix] Lawa umehluko omkhulu.

Ngomnyaka ka-2000, uhulumeni ka India wasibekela licit isivuno opium target of 1200 amathani metric. Amathani 870 base lesabelwe ukuthekelisa, amathani 130 ezazibekelwa ukusetshenziswa ezifuywayo, namathani 200 ezinqolobaneni. Lokhu incane kakhulu kunaleyo inani opium kukhiqizwa for emakethe ezingemthetho. Ngonyaka ofanayo, Afghanistan yedwa kwaveza 3000 amathani for emakethe obungemthetho futhi enekhono ukukhiqiza amathani kuka 8000 ngo-2007 [LXX] amazwe Rich are the abathengi ngokuyinhloko opiates licit. Isidingo opiates licit kakhulu idlula supply, ikakhulukazi emazweni ampofu. Ngokusho le INCB, 80% yomhlaba has a ukushoda morphine zokwelapha. In ukuhlaziywa David Mansfield sika on opium poppy ukutshalwa eNdiya naseTurkey yena uyachaza:

“Lo ukusetshenziswa of morphine kakhulu bagxila neenarha 20 ne esiphezulu kwemali gross product kazwelonke lokulandisa cishe 75% of global morphine ukusetshenziswa. Lokhu ihlukile ngokuphawulekayo ne ukusetshenziswa of morphine asathuthuka. Ngempela, i-INCB [International nezidakamizwa Control Board] ibika ukuthi States eziningana nasezindaweni zinikeze izilinganiso abazange ukuhlela yimuphi isidingo wezokwelapha noma kwesayensi for morphine. Ngaphezu kwalokho, abaningi bayaqhubeka States ukubika amazinga aphansi kakhulu morphine ukusetshenziswa.”

Amazwe ampofu cishe self-medicate nge opium eluhlaza futhi ngokuvamile akhokhe intengo ngenxa ngenxa laws.Some abakhiqizi of opium kunawo wonke emhlabeni abanayo okwanele kwabantu ezibhedlela zabo siqu ngenxa kuyinto kuyabazuzisa okuthekelisa okuningi kakhulu. Abalimi abampofu kanye izakhamizi bagcina ukuhlupheka kanye indlala kakhulu, ukuze abantu ezicebile bangazizwa ndikindiki (nezwi).

Ngokusho ipheshana DEA on ukukhiqizwa opium eyanyatheliswa ngo-1993, angu omunye ezweni (10,000 metres square) ngokuvamile nje ikhiqiza mayelana 8-15 khilogremu of opium elomile, Indian kangaka poppy abalimi omunye nje hectare komhlaba kuphela kwenze $ 116-217.50 per Unyaka ezimakethe licit. Nokho, abalimi ngubani hlekisa it emakethe ezingemthetho noma bangakini eNdiya wayengase enze imali okuningi ikhilo ngamunye.

Izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi eFrance, eNgilandi, Australia, Japan neJalimane lenyuke ukukhiqizwa wabo licit opium eminyakeni yamuva. Johnson and Johnson, GlaxoSmithKline, uJohnson Matthey, futhi Mayne babe amasimu poppy e Tasmania, Australia. Sanofi Aventis has poppy amasimu eFrance Shionogi Pharmaceutical has amasimu eJapane. MacFarlane Smith unabo amasimu e-United Kingdom. [Lxxi] Ngenxa yezinsiza lwabo olwengeziwe nekuvisisa kwenhlabathi bekwazi ukwenza opium yabo siqu ngenxa zincane kunalokho abalimi Indian futhi Turkish can. Nokho, naphezu le Turkey kanye India sihlale abahlinzeki emhlabeni main opium licit ngenxa ‘ukubusa 80/20 “wadala ngo 1981, okuyinto ubeka ukuthi” okungenani 80% of opium licit amazwe angena United States kumele zivela India nobe Turkey . “no ezingaphezu kuka-20% lungatholakala Australia, eHungary, ePoland, France nasezweni elaliyiYugoslavia. Lokhu akuzange cishe kwenziwe ukuze sikhuthaze umnotho of Turkey noma eNdiya, kodwa kunalokho ukuqinisekisa opium amanani wahlala ngaphansi. Kodwa manje imithi ezinkulu ziye zathola indlela ukukhiqiza opium ngokwabo noma ngaphezulu elishibhile kuka abalimi abampofu bangakwazi, bafuna abaye kulesi ukubusa uqediwe.

One umqondo wasikisela njengendlela ikhambi yokunciphisa ukugeleza izidakamizwa ezingekho emthethweni futhi bathuthukise umnotho ka Afghanistan no Pakistan iwukuba zivunyelwe ukukhiqizwa zokwelapha of opium khona futhi babe izinkampani ezithaka imithi (noma nje ngabanye abadinga) athenge opium kubalimi Afghani futhi Pakistani. Kodwa njengoba kushiwo, la izinkampane wayengeke ayenze le ngoba bethenga opium evela eNdiya at $ 17 a ikhilo futhi ukukhiqiza eyabo ngisho esingaphansi. Ohulumeni of Canada, US kanye nezinye izifunda ecebile nawo ababephikisana le ngokomthetho of opium e Afghanistan ngenxa yezizathu ezifanayo. Bathi amanga mayelana kungani anikholwa ngokomthetho kwakuyoba ilungelo khona. Bathi ukukhiqizwa poppy kwakuyobonisa ukwandisa nokuthi lizobe ikakhulu buyisela ezimakethe ngokungemthetho, kodwa lokho kakade icala. Kubonakala ngokuthi ukuvunyelwa ngokomthetho futhi elawula yokuthutha of opium e Afghanistan zaziyoba ukwandisa yokuthengisa obungemthetho ukube base nje onenzuzo njengoba yokuthengisa licit nobe kungoni mkhiqizo kwaba inzuzo. Empeleni, ukufuna ezingemthetho kwakuyoba lehle kusukela abantu abangaphezu uyofuna odokotela esikhundleni wabenza for yobuhlungu ukuphathwa. Afghanistan kungenzeka futhi agcwalise yokuntuleka emhlabeni wonke of opiates zokwelapha kule nqubo.

Uma opium waba ezingokomthetho Afghanistan noma izinkampani zokwenza imithi wakhokha abalimi Indian nobe Turkish ngenani ohloniphekile opium yabo licit, lezi zinkampani bekuyokwenza ngemali encane, amanani zaziyoba kwandise izinkampani zomshuwalense wezempilo, kanti uhulumeni angase alahlekelwe imali imixhaso. Ngakho-ke, laba zikhungo awafuni imibono enjalo ngisho kubhekwe. Kodwa thina (iningi lwesintu ukuthi akanayo umcebo Amazing) abanaso isizathu bafuna le ukuqhubeka, futhi singakwazi ukushintsha la maqiniso ezesabekayo njengoba nje sinesikhathi intando kanye nolwazi ukwazi njani.

5.6 Umlando Omfushane the ukwenqatshelwa of insangu e-United States

Njengoba abantu iningi ejele eMelika kukhona khona insangu yifa, ukusetshenziswa noma ukudayiswa, ukuqonda ukuthi kungani le into yaba emthethweni lapha kuphawuleka. Ngomlando criminalization wawo eMelika kuyinto kunalokho eside kanye tale aluhlaza cwe. Hemp esekhulile ngokomthetho isikhathi eside e-America. Ezinye obaba wokusungula yebo sakhula Hemp naphakathi ingxenye nekhulu le-18 e-America, Hemp kwaba eyigugu kunemali paper. Empeleni, ngezikhathi Hemp ukushoda (efana 1763 kuya 1767), abalimi babengase beboshwe ngokungayi ezikhulayo it. [Lxxii] Kwakuthinta ikakhulu likhule ngenxa fibre in umoba ayo futhi akuzange ngabhema ngalesi sikhathi abaningi baseMelika. Hemp growing wagcina kwenziwa emthethweni eMelika yi-Marijuana Tax Act. Lo Mthetho akuzange kwadlula ngoba uhulumeni wayibona imiphumela engemihle social ezihlobene insangu ukusetshenziswa, kodwa kunalokho yokuthi izishaya babengafuni imboni Hemp lizothola ezinye izimboni enenzuzo.

Lo Marijuana Tax Act akazange technically yicala lobugebengu Hemp e America, kodwa kunalokho intela it ngendlela wakwenza ngokungemthetho ukuze zikhule nobe ifa. Abanye izinhlobonhlobo insangu noma Hemp ninazo izindawo eziningi psychoactive, kodwa kwakungekho umehluko kuleli mthetho phakathi izinhlobo psychoactive kakhulu Hemp nezinhlobonhlobo nge ngokuyisisekelo akukho izakhiwo psychoactive, okuyinto ayesetshenziselwa kuphela fibre in umoba zabo. [14] enemicu Hemp ayikwazi ngabhema. Imiphumela kungaba sakugcina futhi engathandeki kakhulu. Izinhlobo Psychoactive of Hemp ngokuvamile abizwa ngokuthi insangu noma insangu kunokuba Hemp, kodwa cishe izakhi nsé.

Hemp eyayingase ngabhema kwaba zazihlanganisa Marijuana Tax Act ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukene khulu. Igama elithi “marihuana” yagcina isisetshenziswa ukuchaza izinhlobo psychoactive kakhudlwana, kodwa ngaphambi senziwa umehluko, imibandela emibili zazisetshenziswa synonymously eMelika. Marihuana kwaba Mexican slang term esetshenziselwa insangu. Ukusetshenziswa Its kodwa baba okwandile eMelika ngoba uhulumeni kanye nabezindaba wasebenzisa izwi ngokuvamile kusukela yayibizwa ezihlobene baseMexico ababekwa kuvezwa ukuvilapha neyokungazi, okuyinto ayesazobhekana ukusuka ngokoqobo.

Izinhlobo Non-psychoactive of Hemp ezazifakwe kuleli senzo intela ngoba izingodo, Petrochemical, futhi izindaba tycoons, kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni wayemesaba it zaziyowafica ezinye izinsiza efana kagwayi, izihlahla zikaphayini, zokwenziwa polymers kanye amakhemikhali asetshenziswa ukubenza. Hemp iningi esekhulile abalimi abampofu futhi esebenza-class, abadlali ezinkampani nakwezombusazwe enkulu kangaka ayizange inzuzo kuze isitembu Tax kwamiswa umthetho. Hemp kwakuyobonisa ngcono impilo abalimi eziningi nemikhaya yazo uma kwakungenzeka wahlala kwezomthetho. Uma wenza kwezomthetho Manje, isivuno yayingase abe inombolo eyodwa kwezitshalo cash kuleli lizwe. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi Hemp usetshenziswa eziningi kangaka. Uma sibala ezimbalwa, eqinile, fiber Hemp sika eziqinile zingasetshenziswa for ukudalwa ephepheni kanye sepulasitiki. Hemp kungabuye enziwe zibe izingubo zokulala, bioplastic, ukwahlukanisa, okokwembatha, intsambo nezinye izinto eziningi eziwusizo. Hemp kungabuye elibilile zibe ethanol (efana corn) futhi wasebenzisa njengendlela uphethiloli nge imithelela engemihle esingaphansi kwezemvelo kuka embiwa phansi. (Nokho, kukhona kangcono ehlukile imithombo energy etholakalayo izimoto efana welanga kanye electric.) Uwoyela hemp nzalo iqukethe amanani aphezulu protein nokubalulekile fatty acid, Omega-6 no-Omega-3. (USoya aqukethe nabo.)

In the 1930, imishini lena ahlubule Hemp fibre waba ezingabizi futhi kunengqondo ngaphezu kubantu ezivamile ukusebenzisa, futhi lokhu usongo izimboni eziningana ukuba ancike izinsiza esimeme kangako futhi kabusha. Encwadini yakhe i-Emperor Igqoka No Izingubo, uJack Herer uthi:

“Ngo-1916, USDA Bulletin No. 404 libike ukuthi omunye acre of insangu Hemp, ngokushintshana yonyaka esikhathini engu-20, wayeyoveza uginindela lesenele paper njengoba 4.1 esingamahektare zezihlahla kokuba bagawula esikhathini esifanayo ngonyaka-20. Le nqubo ayezisebenzisa 1/7 kuya 1/4 kuphela lingcolisa okuningi nesibabule-based acid amakhemikhali ukuze ngivule lignin glue-like oluhlanganisa imicu of uginindela, noma ngisho nhlobo usebenzisa soda ash. Konke lokhu lignin kumele kuphihlizwe ukwenza uginindela. Hemp uginindela kuyinto% 4-10 nje lignin, kanti izihlahla kukhona 18-30% lignin. Inkinga dioxin ukungcoliswa emifuleni kugwenywe kule Hemp papermaking inqubo, okuyinto akudingeki ukusebenzisa chlorine bleach (njengoba izinkuni uginindela papermaking nqubo kudinga), kodwa kunalokho esikhundleni ephephile hydrogen peroxide enqubweni kuphupha.

Kanjalo, Hemp inikeza izikhathi ezine njengoba uginindela okuningi okungenani ezine kuya izikhathi eziyisikhombisa ukungcoliswa esingaphansi. Njengoba sibonile, le Hemp uginindela-paper engahle ixhomeke kokusunguliwe kanye zomklamo imishini emisha for Ehlubula Hemp by ngobuchwepheshe besimanje. Lokhu belungafica ukufuneka njalo aphansi ukuze imithi sinciphise izindleko izindlu, kuyilapho ngesikhathi esifanayo esiza kabusha oxygenate planethi.

Njengoba isibonelo: Uma entsha (1916) Hemp uginindela paper inqubo babesesandleni ukusetshenziswa ngokomthetho namuhla, bekuyoba maduze ithathe isikhundla langema-70 yonke phepha izinkuni uginindela; kuhlanganise ikhompyutha ephepheni eliphuma kuyo paper, amabhokisi lukathayela kanye nezikhwama paper. Ukube Hemp ayengazange enziwe emthethweni, 80% of kwebhizinisi Dupont sika wawungeke imizimba futhi iningi ukungcola eye ubuthi Northwestern wethu nemifula mpumalanga babengeke kwenzeka. ”

Lena cishe olunembile. Iningi ephepheni lethu kanye amakhadibhodi bavela ezihlahleni zikaphayini, futhi le mboni unesibopho ukuqothulwa kwamahlathi okuningi. Ngokusebenzisa Hemp esikhundleni pine, sithola ukugcina izihlahla zethu imuphi sequester carbon nokunikeza oxygen.

Nomthandazo ekuqaleni eyasungulwa njengoba isigayo gun powder usebenzisa imishini French (kungakho igama). Nylon yadalwa ngo 1935 ngu Dupont, (umdali walo wabulala ngokwakhe ngokuphuza ubuthi be-cyanide) kodwa ngabe enziwe ngokungadingekile ukube Hemp eyayilokhu zomthetho ngenxa plastic okubolayo ingenziwa Hemp ngaphandle kokusebenzisa amakhemikhali noma ukungcola. Kungenzeka Dupont balahlekelwa imali ezihlukahlukene kwamanye polymers kanye netinchubo ephepheni-ukudala. Ngakho-ke, wenza imizamo Dupont abaningi ukuba yicala lobugebengu Hemp.

Abanikazi ecebile enkulu conglomerates iphephandaba eMelika like William Randolph Hurst ngubani wasungula Hearst Corporation ngo 1887 futhi wafuna yicala lobugebengu Hemp ngezizathu ezifanayo. Hearst kwaba opportunist ocebile ababamba phezu The San Francisco Examiner kusukela usozigidi wakhe, yilungu lephalamende ongubaba, uGeorge Hurst. Wabe wathenga The New York Journal. Yena wakhethwa for ehhovisi ngo-1903, centralizing amandla akhe, futhi aluthola amabili nesishiyagalombili ezinye amaphepha. Amaphepha akhe wagcina kwadingeka kuka million 20 abafundi. Bathi ngokuvamile ran ze futhi “journalism yellow,” (njengoba kwenza amaphepha Joseph Pulitzer sika) ukuba ithonywe imibono yomphakathi. Hurst mkhankaso ngokumelene insangu in amaphepha akhe akazange ngokuyinhloko ngenxa yokuthi bafuna ukulahlekelwa noma iyiphi imali embonini Hemp. Wabuye nomthelela ukuxhasa impi iSpanishi American ka 1898 ukuze yena ngeke alahlekelwe izwe kanye nezinye izimpahla yena ephethwe eMexico.

Uyise William ngokucebile wathenga 670.000 esingamahektare komhlaba at 20-40 amasenti i acre waseMexico emva uhulumeni wawahlula umholi Native Apache zendawo, Geronimo. UGeorge ayenobungane umashiqela Mexican Porfirio Díaz kanye nempahla yakhe eMexico Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi yakhula 1,000,000 esingamahektare. Ngo 1886 UWilliam wabhalela unina “Angazi ngempela ukubona ukuthi yini ukuvimbela us Kusukela ekuphatseni ngetulu lonke Mexico futhi egijima it ivumelane ngokwethu.” [Lxxiii] Nokho, idlelo wabo laphangwa ngesikhathi Mexican Revolution of 1910 ngaphansi Pacho Villa, omunye eziholela Abavukeli yaseMexico. Labe ohlala amabutho Venustiano Carranza sika.

Hurst, Pulitzer nezinye Izıhlabane eziningi ngokwezimali atshalwe kwaveza okwandile smear imikhankaso mayelana insangu ukuze ukhuthaze criminalization futhi kuthinte imibono yomphakathi. Lies mayelana nendlela insangu ukusetshenziswa kubangela lokubulala mass kanye ubuhlanya yashicilelwa emaphephandabeni Hurst eziningi in. Amaphephandaba phesheya esifundeni futhi wagxila disproportionately on car izingozi ezihilela insangu, nakuba izingozi notshwala okuhlobene kuno izingozi insangu silandiswa ezingaphezu kuka 10,000 kuya 1. [lxxiv] izihloko Hurst sika ababengabadlali unapologetically zobandlululo, kwabokufika, futhi kuphikisane. Sathi insangu ukubhema wenza amadoda abamnyama adlwengule abesifazane abamhlophe ulalele ‘kaSathane-voodoo umculo. “(Wayekhuluma Jazz.)

Herman Oliphant, iseluleko jikelele eMnyangweni kaMgcinimafa, elethula Marijuana Tax Act kuya House izindlela Committee ngo 1937 ngaphandle kokubonisana American Medical Association, (AMA). Izindlela and Kusho Chairman, uRobert L. Doughton, owayeneminyaka (Akumangalisi) uphathina Dupont, masinyane yavuma mthethosivivinywa maduze ngemva kwalokho. UDkt William C. Woodward, ummeli for the AMA wachaza base akakaze bayihlola mayelana umthethosivivinywa bese ukuthi okusekelwe ze namanga. Waphinde saxoxa ambalwa izinzuzo insangu sika lwezokwelapha.

Ngaphandle kokuba ezigxilile ukuhaha nobandlululo, i Marijuana Tax Act wayebuye self-necala, futhi imithetho enjalo nomthethosisekelo ngenxa Wokuchibiyela Lesihlanu. Noma ubani owayefuna ukuba bakhule insangu kwadingeka babe Isitembu Marijuana Tax, kodwa ukuze uthole isitembu kwakho oludingekayo ukuze ifa insangu, okwakuyigama emthethweni ngaphandle isitembu. Ke, noma ubani owazama babhalise imfuneko insangu Kuboshwe yifa. Labo babengenalo insangu azenqaba nje. Lo mthetho nomthethosisekelo kwakwenziwa iminyaka engu-32.

With isenzo sentela endaweni, uhulumeni yayingase Manje inzuzo ukuquleka of insangu nokuhlawuliswa esiyimpahla, futhi babekwazi bekelela isimo esinokuza esibucayi imali nezinye izitshalo onenzuzo intela awazange inganqotshwa Hemp. Isenzo yentela futhi inikwe amandla kuhulumeni okujezisa, incarcerate, futhi xosha ezincane efana izifiki Mexican abasebenza emngceleni futhi African baseMelika ngubani ngabhema insangu. (Ezincane ababelalela umthetho kwakuvame bahlukunyezwe amaphoyisa vele ngenxa ubandlululo okwandile amabutho iningi amaphoyisa.)

Iningi baseMelika akazange amelane isenzo yentela ngoba kwakukhona ze kangaka isakazwa mayelana nensangu. Hollywood wabuye nomthelela ze ngezidakamizwa cishe ngenxa iminikelo yezimali kusuka eWashington. Le ifilimu kakhulu eqanjiwe futhi ziklanyelwa ukuthinta umzwelo mayelana nensangu Reefer Madness, uyisibonelo salokhu. It esenziwa Grand National Studios ngo 1936. Abezombusazwe ze futhi basakaze amanga futhi mayelana nensangu ukusetshenziswa nezinye izidakamizwa in nomthetho. UKhomishana yokuqala Federal Bureau of nezidakamizwa (FBN), uHarry Anslinger, wenza izimangalo ngesikhathi yokulalelwa mthetho on the Marijuana Tax Act ezazingaphansi nesayensi ngokwedlulele kanye ze ngamabomu, njengoba kwenza abanye abaningi ezihilelekile. UDkt Frank R. Gomila, uKhomishana yokuphepha komphakathi, ebizwa insangu siyingozi okwethusayo angaphezu emphakathini kunokuba zonke ezinye izidakamizwa sekuwumkhuba. Harry abanye on ikhomishana futhi babethi insangu kwaholela heroin nokuthi imithi emibili kwadingeka nemiphumela edikibalisayo. Aphinda futhi athi ubuhlanya, ukubulala, ukudlwengula kanye yokuzibulala babengabantu imiphumela insangu. Ukuzihlanganisa phakathi insangu nezidakamizwa eziyingozi kakhudlwana kwadingeka imithelela engemihle eziningi phambili aboshwe ekhubazekile. Labo wasebenzisa insangu athola la izimangalo kungamanga bathambekele ukukholelwa ababephathwa waqamba amanga mayelana izidakamizwa eziyingozi kakhudlwana, okubangela ukwanda kokusetshenziswa kanye umlutha amanani abo.

Ngo-1944 ikomiti of ngabanye aqokwe imeya New York, Fiorello LaGuardia ngo yokuqhuba omunye ku-nokujula nezifundo zokuqala on imiphumela ukubhema insangu e-United States. I LaGuardia Commission wathola ukuthi bonke abasolwa imiphumela insangu sika ingqondo zase angamanga. Ikomidi ithole nokuthi into sibaluleke kakhulu yokwelapha futhi kucishe ngokomzimba ongenangozi. Kodwa Umbiko le khomishana sika yayingakuthinti isitembu Tax. Empeleni, uhulumeni ezisengozini etilongweni yimuphi odokotela abenza nocwaningo enjalo, futhi lesi senzo nomthethosisekelo kwakwenziwa kuze 1969 lapho isishoshovu sezombusazwe, uThimothewu Leary, alwa wayenakho yachithwa. Akekho wajeziswa ngenxa kokudlulisa Marijuana Tax Act emva it waqedwa, noma kwaba ubani sinxephezelwa for aboshwe ongafanelwe, naphezu ubuhlungu engenakulinganiswa nokuhlupheka it kwadala.

Ngaphambi Marijuana Tax Act waqedwa, uhulumeni emuva ngokuphelele isikhundla sawo imiphumela insangu. In the 1960, esikhundleni bethi ukuthi kwaphumela ubuhlanya nobudlova obungakhethi, uhulumeni babethi insangu wenza abantu pacifistic ibuthaka. Ngakho, uhulumeni empeleni wavuma ababe okungenasisekelo izizathu ababenawo kuthethelelwe insangu criminalization. Ngesikhathi “red-uvalo” of the 1950 yabhebhetheleka, uhulumeni owayekhathazeka “zamaKhomanisi” Russia uzosebenzisa insangu ngokumelene baseMelika buthaka amasosha abo. Kuleli qophelo, uhulumeni kubhekwe kobuKhomanisi Russia ukuba babe izinsongo ezinkulu eMelika kunalokho ezincane American, ngakho bamane bashintsha isikhundla sabo on insangu ukwandisa inzondo bolunye labantu.

Nakuba Thimothewu Leary waphumelela repealing i Marijuana Tax Act, Oluphelele Drug Abuse and Control Act (CDACA) of 1970 ukuthi abenqabela it, wenza insangu nje yaphetha ngokungemthetho futhi emuva ngomsebenzi wakhe onzima. Title II sale komthetho wabiza ezilawulwa Act wadala amashejuli ezahlukene ezinhlanu for izidakamizwa. Ngokusho uhulumeni US, izidakamizwa schedule owodwa abe uvundile for ukuhlukunyezwa futhi akukho value lwezokwelapha. Insangu senziwa umuthi schedule eyodwa, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi akusiyo umlutha futhi odokotela ezweni lonke bayavuma ukuthi kuyinto has value lwezokwelapha. Psilocybin amakhowe, mescaline kanye LSD sonke isimiso esisodwa izidakamizwa kanye, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi ayikho kulezi izidakamizwa ziyalutha.

Okungaphezulu ayingozi, izinto eziluthayo futhi ebulalayo, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ezifana cocaine, methadone, oxycodone, morphine, fentanyl, phencyclidine (PCP), hydromorphone kanye methamphetamine sonke isimiso izidakamizwa ababili ngoba nje zisetshenziswe ezinye medical njengoba analgesics. Njengoba kushiwo, akuyona ohulumeni zokuphepha komphakathi awakhatha-. Bayakhathalelana nobani usebenzisa yona futhi bangobani sithonye. Abantu basuke lula ukulawula futhi inzalo evela uma umlutha kuzinto ezithile zilawulwe ezikhungweni ezinkulu. Bafuna imizwelo yethu ubunikazi ukuba alawule yabo, ukuze bakwazi singazuza kulokho esinomuzwa wokuthi ngubani futhi siba.

Impi ngokumelene insangu futhi yonke izidakamizwa ngokucacile isiko kanye ikilasi war ngenhla konke okunye, ngisho namanye amajaji, amaphoyisa kanye osopolitiki cha onakaliswa amandla noma ithonya yenkampani ayaqaphela le. In the documentary War On Izidakamizwa America sika: The Last White Hope, Superior Court iJaji, uJames Gray, wachaza: “85% wabo bonke abantu e-United States of America asebenzisa noma iluphi uhlobo izidakamizwa ezingemthetho ukusebenzisa insangu kuphela. Lokhu kusho ukuthi inani labantu abasebenzisa yini enye ngeke bathethelele le jele omkhulu eziyinkimbinkimbi zezimboni {uma nensangu sebusemthethweni.} “Ngemva uJames Gray waqaphela ubuze kwempi izidakamizwa njengoba umahluleli, wabhala incwadi ebizwa Okwenza Drug Wethu imithetho bahlulekile Yini We Can Do About it.

Governor Ron UPawulu ungomunye osopolitiki abambalwa kakhulu oye waqaphela le nkinga. Ngo-2001 wathi: “Ngokuba yokuqala engu-140 yomlando wethu, sathola ngokuyisisekelo akukho mpi federal on izidakamizwa kanye nezinkinga ezimbalwa kakhulu nge yizidakamizwa Ubulelesi letihlobene njengendlela okuwumphumela. Esikhathini esidlule 30 iminyaka, ngisho ne namakhulu ezigidi zamaRandi bachitha nempi izidakamizwa, okuhle okuncane ufikile kwalo. Siye vacillated kusuka emizamweni ukumisa izidakamizwa at emthonjeni ukuze kakhulu ujezisa abasebenzisi, nokho lutho lithuthukile. ”

Naphezu inombolo kancane kancane elandayo amaphoyisa, amajaji nabanye abasegunyeni abasiqaphelayo impi izidakamizwa akukaze wasebenza, cishe iyiphi yalezi isimiso esisodwa izinto izobe wahlelelwa in esiseduze esizayo. Isizathu ekubeni ukuthi Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 1998 sidinga umqondisi ONDCP noma “isidakamizwa mbusi” ukuvimba abantu beqhuba izifundo yimuphi on into schedule owodwa, (ezifana nensangu) ngenhloso yokunquma ukuthi yini izinzuzo (medical noma ngenye) kungase ube. Lo Mthetho aphelelwe isikhathi ngo-2003, kodwa lokhu mfuneko eyayihilelekile kamuva yezEnzo. Kwaze ngokomthetho onqabela ukuhlolwa is osuchithiwe, ukuqonda kwethu le mithi akasoze ngophelele, futhi akekho in America izobe ngokomthetho bavunyelwe ukuhlola futhi afakazele ngempumelelo wezokwelapha, izingozi ezingaba khona nobe wesikhathi eside imiphumela yalezi mithi.

Emva kweminyaka emithathu CDACA wadlula ngo 1970, i Rockefeller kwezidakamizwa imithetho Kwadlula eNew York. Le mithetho wabiza amandla isigwebo esincane, yize babengekho owokuqala. I Boggs Act ka 1952 kwaba yisenzo sokuqala ukubiza lokho. Lesi senzo edingekayo ubani yicala insangu lefa (ngisho kwaba yicala lokuqala) ukuba bagwetshwa iminyaka okungenani emibili ejele kuya kweyishumi futhi wahlawuliswa kuze $ 20,000. I Rockefeller izidakamizwa mithetho Draconian nakakhulu. Bathi wawufuna isigwebo esiyisibopho iminyaka okungenani nanhlanu ekuphileni for ukudayiswa ababili ngamagremu nje yimuphi kwelashwa futhi isigwebo esifanayo ukuze ifa ezine ngamagremu of lapho kwelashwa, kungakhathaliseki izimo. Zombili lezi zenzo nawo kuchazwa nezidakamizwa njengendlela ezihlukahlukene izinto ezingafanele kuhlanganise cocaine nensangu, engewona nokho nezidakamizwa kumakhemikhali. (A kwelashwa iyi-opioid noma “painkiller” efana morphine.)

Lo Harrison nezidakamizwa Act ka 1914 kwaba yisenzo sokuqala ukuba misclassify cocaine njengendlela kwelashwa futhi kusukela ngaleso sikhathi izishaya eziningi futhi namanje LEOs zibhekisela izidakamizwa ezingekho-kwelashwa njengoba nezidakamizwa, futhi abasebenzisi sihlupheke ngenxa nezijeziso namacala kwelashwa maningi esinzima. Lokhu misclassification ubonisa indlela eshaqisayo abangenalwazi iningi umthetho abenzi nezinye izikhulu kukhona ngezidakamizwa kanye nemiphumela yabo. (The ezilawulwa Umthetho namanje ibhekisela cocaine njengoba lapho kwelashwa.) Calling yonke izidakamizwa “nezidakamizwa” obungemthetho amaqembu ndawonye, stigmatizes kubo, nokuqhubekisa kahle ukuthi zonke izidakamizwa ezingemthetho bayafana futhi kufanele iphathwe kanjalo. Leli gama has kusikisele efanayo engemihle ngokuthi “marihuana,” futhi lisetshenziswa uhulumeni ngezizathu ezifanayo.

I Rockefeller izidakamizwa imithetho base sishintshwe 2004 nango-2005, kodwa kanye neminye imithetho ezidinga amandla isigwebo ubuncane basaqhubeka ephoqelelwe, futhi benza ukulimala okukhulu. Mayelana zonke cala enkantolo njengoba efanayo akwenzi mqondo ngoba akekho cala kuyinto owake efanayo. Njengomphostoli Rockefeller izidakamizwa imithetho, le “iziteleka abathathu umthetho” futhi idinga abahluleli ukuba ashalazele nezimo ezithile esimweni ngasinye. Lo mthetho osanda kushaywa 13 ithi, futhi kudinga isigwebo seminyaka 25 ekuphileni ngenjongo enecala yesithathu yimuphi felony. Felonies iningi kukhona amacala for ifa ngemadlana encane kakhulu isidakamizwa obungemthetho ethenga for ukusetshenziswa siqu. Felonies zihlanganisa ukwebiwa ngebhayisikili (le uyakufanelekela ngokuthi “grand theft auto” ngesizathu esithile), esivulela imeyili okungelona eyakho, ngokubhala on a ibhokisi leposi, futhi ukwephulwa ezithile ukushayela like DUIs (noma OUIs) kanye namacala amancane kakhudlwana. ECalifornia lapho umthetho iziteleka ezintathu siyasebenza, amajele okwamanje ubambe pheze kabili umthamo wabo kweziboshwa. Iziboshwa zingakutholi usizo futhi lapho ededelwa, ngokuvamile hamba ilungelo emuva emikhubeni yabo endala noma abathandekayo zimbi.

Kuyinto ohulumeni sobala bakhathazeka kakhulu kangakanani ne ubunikazi kwezakhamuzi kanye umkhiqizo wabo kuka nokuphepha kwabo ngoba izidakamizwa osopolitiki ngihlehlise olunzima kunalo lonke ngokumelene, ezifana insangu psychedelics, yiwona ayingozi okungenani. [15] Libuye in isithakazelo kohulumeni ukugcina ethandwa kakhulu, izidakamizwa eziluthayo zomthetho ngoba inzuzo intela yabo. Ugwayi kanye notshwala basuke ayehlome intela futhi ukhiqize ezingenayo omkhulu uhulumeni, naphezu izigidi ukushona babangela njalo ngonyaka.

Ngo-2007 e America kuphela, igwayi abulala abantu abangaba 450.000 notshwala abulala 150,000, kungabalwa ephuzile ukushayela izingozi. [Lxxv] Ngisho kwezomthetho izidakamizwa zibulala kadokotela baseMelika abangaphezu kuka 100,000 ngonyaka, nokho cocaine kanye heroin kuhlangene nje ukubulala abantu abangaba ngu 10,000 njalo ngonyaka ngokwesilinganiso in America, kanye insangu, umuthi kunazo wagxeka nguhulumeni, akakaze wabangela yimuphi ababulawa bodokotela.

Cishe ingxenye yabo bonke abasha e America baye wangeniswa insangu ezama, futhi lapho beqaphela basuke kokuba waqamba amanga mayelana nemiphumela yaso, abanye lokucabanga ezinye izidakamizwa eziluthayo kakhudlwana (licit kanye obungemthetho) asalokhu akunangozi njengoba kushiwo, futhi lokhu kungenza ukulutheka kuya izinto eziyingozi kakhulu futhi ababulawa. America Namanje kokuba brainwashed ngemiphumela izidakamizwa uhulumeni namuhla. I ONDCP akakaze wenza isikhangiso ngezingozi ugwayi ukubhema, ukuphuza noma ngisho heroin kanye nokusebenzisa cocaine. Cishe bonke izikhangiso yabo mayelana nensangu. I ONDCP uphinde ngesinyenyela izinhlelo zethelevishini. Phakathi kuka-1998 no-2000, amanethiwekhi ahlukahlukene, njenge WB, wathola amashumi ezigidi zamaRandi ukuze babe okulotshiwe zabo zibukezwa ukufaka imiyalezo anti-kwezidakamizwa. Iningi la zokubhala abangu yabukezwa ekulahleni ukusetshenziswa insangu ngaphezu yimuphi omunye izidakamizwa.

Izinhlangano Anti-izidakamizwa ngokuvamile engasekho qotho mayelana izinhloso zabo kuka ohulumeni. Ngokwesibonelo, i Partnership for a America Drug-Free, (inhlangano esikhiqiza ezinye zalezi izikhangiso ne ONDCP) is uxhaso ngokuyinhloko yizinkampani zikagwayi, utshwala, ezithaka imithi namafutha. Uma ngempela kwaba “anti-izidakamizwa” on simiso, hhayi inhlangano kungathatha le mali.

Ohulumeni nezinhlangano anti-izidakamizwa bagxila kakhulu on insangu ikakhulu ngoba wokungayifuni amasiko bahlanganyele namanye ukusetshenziswa salo, ngazo bona ukuba babe abakhiqizi nobe ngokweqile ovulekile. (Abanye nazo ukushukunyiswa ze noma ukukhathazeka ezingasebenzi nesayensi ngezingane zabo). Kukhona namanje hlazo enjalo elixhumene insangu ukuthi DEA agents ziphikelela on zahlasela yezokwelapha insangu dispensaries lapho iningi odokotela bayavuma ukuthi insangu has value lwezokwelapha. Lezi amanxusa DEA ayengase indiva la dispensaries futhi sigxile izidakamizwa kanzima, kodwa kunalokho Bust dispensaries neziguli ukuboshwa ngokubona kwabo siqu. Ezimweni eziningi, DEA agents asebophe noma iziguli izimo ukuphela.

I DEA inegunya kwezomthetho lokuchitha dispensaries ku zonke wombuso, kuhlanganise uthi lapho insangu yezokwelapha iye kwenziwa ezingokomthetho ngomthetho state ngoba ejensi federal kanti CSA kuyinto umthetho kahulumeni. Imizamo ukuba sihlehlise insangu ukuthi iye yabhuntsha yi-DEA no Food and Drug Administration the (FDA) ngoba namanje abangaphika has value yezokwelapha, nakuba abaningi FDA and DEA nezikhulu ziye baqaphela enkantolo nasezincwadini ukuthi akwenzayo. DEA Administrative IJaji, uFrancis Young, wabiza insangu “omunye izinto ephephile therapeutically asebenzayo ezaziwayo yomuntu. By yisiphi isilinganiso of enengqondo analysis insangu ingasetshenziswa ngokuphephile kungakapheli nesimiso eqondiswa ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha. “[Lxxvi]

Isimo samanje the FDA and DEA sibambelele insangu akusekelwe ukuqonda ezesayensi noma ukukhathazeka impilo yomphakathi. Abazi ukwamukela more lesichubekako izidakamizwa nemigomo ngoba ngokuyinhloko ashukunyiswa nzuzo. I FDA enza lokho kuyabazuzisa kakhulu ezinkampanini ezenza imithi ezinkulu ngenxa yilokhu kuyabazuzisa kakhulu FDA. Izinkampani ezithaka imithi ngokuvamile akhokhe FDA izikhulu ukuvuma izidakamizwa bayazi iyingozi, ngezinye izikhathi ngaphandle ize ihlole nabo. (Abaphathi futhi uzama ukwenza ukudla okunempilo engaphansi etholakalayo ngokwenza zokuqondisisa futhi imingcele kubo ngokuthi “izidakamizwa.”) Uma insangu yezokwelapha wenziwa Federally kwezomthetho, bekuyoba indawo yabo eminingi njengamanje kwezomthetho, FDA-evunyiwe kadokotela, ezinye zazo kungaba yingozi kakhulu futhi ebulalayo.

Ukuhlukunyezwa izidakamizwa nobugebengu amazinga e America baye kwasala ezinzile kunalokho eminyakeni yamuva, kodwa imithetho izidakamizwa American kuphela babe esiqine. America has cishe amabili nanhlanu amaphesenti ejele labantu abasemhlabeni, nokho America has amaphesenti amahlanu abantu abasemhlabeni kuphela. Labantu baseChina imayelana kane amakhudlwana kuka labantu eMelika, kodwa abe ejele labantu aphansi le kanye nezinga kancane bevalelwe. Naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi izinga ubugebengu obungathi sína eMelika kuleminyaka engamashumi amabili uye kancane kancane enqaba, izinga bevalelwe liye laphindeka kathathu ngenxa izidakamizwa imithetho kakhulu, zokuqinisa eqinile, futhi ngezimali nangokwengeziwe counter-izidakamizwa ejensi.

Ngo-1971 kwakunabamemezeli abangaphansi kuka iziboshwa 200,000 eMelika. [Lxxvii] Ngo-2006, irekhodi abantu abayizigidi ezingu 7 ayebhalwa on ukukhishwa kweziboshwa ngokuziphatha kahle, ngemuva imigoqo, noma isigwebo futhi ngo-2010 ngaphezu oyedwa abadala 100 e-United States owayeboshiwe. [lxxviii] Impi izidakamizwa kubiza uhulumeni federal mayelana $ 15 billion dollars ngo-2010 kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni futhi zendawo yachitha $ 25 billion ngaphezulu. [lxxix]

5.7 insangu futhi ukusebenza kwawo njengendlela umuthi

Insangu has a number of izicelo kwezokwelapha futhi iye yasetshenziswa njengesisekelo umuthi izinkulungwane zeminyaka, kanjalo ukusebenza kwawo kwezokwelapha kuwufanele bexoxa. Kwakungeke kube zayingabaza okuningi kangaka ukube ukuhlolwa zomuthi kwakungeyona emthethweni ezindaweni eziningi kangaka. Ngenkathi ukubhema insangu akuyona ingenangozi ngokuphelele wamaphaphu izicubu, izingxenye zalo psychoactive, cannabinoids, kanye zokwenziwa cannabinoids kungenziwa udle ngaphandle ukubhema. Lezi izingxenye babe ukusetshenziswa eziningi ngamanye lwezokwelapha.

Insangu kunemiphumela eqinile analgesic, futhi ingasetshenziswa njengendlela ephephile okuningi, ehlukile non-sibulala opiates for ebuhlungwini okungamahlalakhona ezibangelwa izimo efana umdlavuza, ingculaza, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia nabanye. [Lxxx] Marijuana kungase futhi abulale amangqamuzana omdlavuza kuncishiswe ingozi nomdlavuza [lxxxi] futhi kuba i anti-emetic, owenza kube wusizo ikakhulukazi ukwelashwa umdlavuza ngamakhemikhali yokuthi Ingabangela isicanucanu. Insangu ubuye i ivuselela esesuthi, okwenza kube wusizo ekwelapheni yisiphi isifo kunciphisa inkanuko noma abangele cachexia, le “ukumosha syndrome,” efana anorexia, ingculaza, umdlavuza, ezingelapheki obstructive nezifo yamaphaphu, (COPD) congestive ukuhluleka kwenhliziyo, hormone kokushiyeka kanye nesifo sofuba.

Cannabidol nobe CBD kungaba cannabinoid kunazo kwezokwelapha okuwusizo nensangu. CBD iyi-anticonvulsant futhi i antipsychotic, okuyinto engenza kube wusizo ekwelapheni sokuwa kanye nokuphazamiseka engqondweni. It is ibuye bronchodilator njengokhozi okunanyatheliswayo nesifutho, kanjalo CBD engalapha ehlupheka of somoya kanye COPD.

Insangu kungase futhi aphathe glaucoma. Glaucoma kwandisa intraocular pressure futhi ikhono mbono yalokho, futhi kuyimbangela ehamba phambili yobumpumputhe. Insangu kunciphisa ingcindezi intraocular, okuyinto kunciphisa izimpawu glaucoma, futhi kungaba alibale ukuqala ubumpumputhe iminyaka okubangelwa sifo. Insangu kuye kuboniswe okudambisa spasticity obangelwa ukuphazamiseka zezinzwa futhi motor like multiple sclerosis (MS) kanye nomgogodla inkaba yokulimala. [Lxxxii]

Marijuana zingaba nemiphumela ukudakwa futhi anxiolytic, okuyinto engenza kube wusizo for ukwelapha Zokukhathazeka nokucindezeleka emacaleni athile. Zamagciwane ukuthi kukhona eNkulu CBD ziwusizo kakhulu. Nakuba insangu ayinankinga at amazinga okukhishwa aphansi, akufanele ngabhema ngenkathi ekhulelwe ngoba kungenzeka kuguqulwe izakhi zofuzo DNA kwesibeletho njengabanye izidakamizwa eziningi. Kuye aboniswe ukwandisa ingozi sokuzalwa low isisindo uma ukhulelwe [lxxxiii] Iziguli. Ngayo nezimo ngenhliziyo eziguquguqukayo like angina pectoris kufanele Cishe agweme insangu, nobe nodokotela wabo ngaphambi ukuwusebenzisa ngoba iTHC nobe tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid enkulu insangu, kwandisa kwenhliziyo. Nokho, ngokuvamile insangu ukuba nomphumela ophambene on blood pressure.

Esinye isizathu ukuthi insangu iye engaphansi amukela njengendlela umuthi ngaphandle amahlebezi, ezombangazwe, kanti ze iwukuthi iTHC angabangela psychosis imnene (ngokuvamile ukusangana sokuzwa nobe lesibonwa) at ebulilini. CBD Nokho, i anti-ingqondo njengoba kushiwo. Lezi imiphumela aphikisanayo ngokuvamile ukunikeza balance.

Indima insangu nemidlalo ku yisifo sengqondo liyinkimbinkimbi ngenxa amagciwane ezahlukene insangu amanani angalingani iTHC no CBD futhi ngokuvamile abathengi abakwazi ukukala la amangqamuzana, kanjalo isiguli angase bengazi thola uhlobo okungalungile isimo sabo. Marijuana ingaba wusizo for iziguli iziyaluyalu engqondo basebenzisa, kodwa kusukela iTHC angabangela psychosis kungenzeka khona contraindicated for nalabo iziyaluyalu ingqondo. Nokho, insangu okusho eNkulu CBD nobe CBD iyodwa kungasiza nalabo iziyaluyalu ingqondo. Ucwaningo kufanele yenziwe lokhu afinyelele iziphetho ukhonkolo kakhudlwana.

Kuhle kokusho lokhu psychosis akuyona isesimweni ongemuhle njalo. Psychosis uyingxenye engokwemvelo yokuphila futhi awusebenzi ngaso sonke isikhathi kudingeka ukuphathwa ngayo. (I sizoxoxa it kabanzi kamuva.) Psychosis ukungakwazi ukuhlukanisa ezintweni ezenzeka ngaphandle futhi zangaphakathi. Ngamanye amazwi, kuba isimo sokuthi umuntu eba unaware of siyini ongokoqobo futhi siyini ukudalwa izingqondo zabo. Kungaba yazibonakalisa njengoba ukusangana ezicacile, okungase kuthinte yisiphi of the izinzwa ezinhlanu. Futhi kungase kuphumele ngomqondo othile sokuzihlukanisa qiniso (dissociation). Ukugeza [lxxxiv], bebeletha, nokuswela sezinzwa nezinye izinqubo eziningi ezingokwemvelo kungabangela psychosis imnene. Insangu olubangelwa psychosis nje kwenzeka uma ebulilini kakhulu iTHC babambeke. Abasebenzisi Novice Ulakho mathupha.

Ngenxa yokuthi abantu abaningi nabantu yisifo sengqondo ukuyisebenzisa insangu, abathile abezindaba nge izinhloso ezingabazisayo zithi insangu kubangela la iziyaluyalu. Kodwa akukho ubudlelwane phakathi insangu ukusangana. Cishe ingxenye yabo bonke abantu abane bayasangana ukusetshenziswa izidakamizwa futhi abaningi ukulutheka. Ukusetshenziswa Long-term izidakamizwa kungabangela othanda meth kanye ufa kungaholela psychosis sokunethezeka izimpawu ukusangana. It is kunokwenzeka bayasangana ngokwalo nje ixazululwe psychosis kusukela abaningi kangaka kwatholakala naso ex-imilutha, izisulu ukuhlukumezeka noma kokubili.

Dopamine ukungasebenzi kwekhono kucatshangwa kubangele bayasangana nensangu has cishe awekho umphumela ohlelweni dopaminergic. Cannabinoids sibophezela ukuze cannabinoid mangqamuzana ezinzwa, futhi nemiphumela sakugcina kwamanye neurotransmitters. Abanye abantu nge bayasangana cishe basebenzisa insangu ukubhekana elimazayo, izimpawu of disorder yabo kanye ukuhlukumezeka lwangaphambilini. Schizophrenics iningi futhi ubheme ugwayi, okuyinto nethonya elikhulu dopamine. Kodwa akukho usosayensi noma udokotela esenze bathi kagwayi kuholela bayasangana ngenxa akukaze kuboniswe. (Schizophrenics Abaningi ngempela bakuthola kusiza kagwayi izimpawu zawo, naphezu abaningi engahle, ithuna izingozi zezempilo.)

Osopolitiki eziningi kanye pundits bazame ukudweba ukuxhumana emkhatsini insangu bayasangana ngenxa yezinkolelo zabo siqu, futhi bafuna bantfu engaphansi ukuyisebenzisa. Kodwa izinkolelo zabo hhayi ebambelela ukucatshangelwa ngokucophelela noma isayensi kanzima. Marijuana kungaba ukwandisa disorganization of imicabango, okuyinto uphawu kwengcondvo of bayasangana, kodwa lokhu nje indlela engiye ngakuthola kulandiswa. Harvard Professor and kwengqondo, uDkt uLester Grinspoon, oye waphatha iziguli schizophrenic iminyaka engu-40, akushilo ukuxhumana okuthiwa kukhona phakathi bayasangana nensangu akunangqondo:

“Uma nje uthathe lokuthi … imvamisa of bayasangana imayelana 1% emhlabeni-round, ungase ulindele nge umuthi esetshenziswa njalo njengoba siwukuthi kwakuzoba kancane [ukwanda] kodwa kancane ngeke ushintshe . It akakashintshi. Eqinisweni, ungathola ulwazi okuningi okubonisa ukuthi insangu liyasiza bayasangana kunokuba ungakwazi [ethi] it kuyalimaza “-. UDkt uLester Grinspoon PhD.

Insangu iyisidakamizwa ethandwa kakhulu emhlabeni. Ngo-2011 kwakunabamemezeli abalinganiselwa ezigidini ezingu 220 abasebenzisi, [lxxxv] kodwa engeke njengoba abantu abaningi base unesifo sokuphazamiseka kwengqondo ukuthi nyaka. Ngisho ezimbalwa ezibikiwe izimpawu ukusangana. Izinga kwemibiko nakho bekulokhu okuzinzile eminyakeni yamuva.

Kubalulekile ukuphawula ukuthi intuthu insangu akuyona ingenangozi ngokuphelele emaphashini. Ngamabomu inhaling umusi iluphi uhlobo kuyingozi emaphashini. (Ngisho usebenzisa lighter kuyingozi ngoba byproducts leyakhiwe amandla omlilo of uphethiloli zitholakala imuncwe.) ‘Insangu Street’ singasebenza olufuthwe nobe modified ngezinye izindlela ezenza kube usinde bese kakhudlwana babe ingozi. It is futhi ngezinye izikhathi ayethi kukhona okwengeziwe “itiyela” in insangu kunekhona kagwayi. Lokhu engakaze ngokwesayensi kungase kutholakale, kodwa kungakhathaliseki ukuthi yiqiniso kwalesi isimangalo it isiqhathaniso ezingabazisayo ngoba yonke itiyela uyefana. Ugwayi itiyela paralyzes emaphashini cilia futhi kungaba sibabulale. Kodwa yensangu kuveza ‘itiyela’ ezahlukene kanye nemiphumela ehlukene on emaphashini. Nakuba kungekho ukwaziswa noma nocwaningo efakazela insangu ukubhema kubangela umdlavuza, lokho kungase kubangele imithambo emaphashini cell DNA izinguquko, futhi lezi kungaba ngokumandla kwandisa ingozi nomdlavuza. Kodwa futhi, akekho owake kungase kutholakale ukuthi ubani oye ithuthukiswe umdlavuza kuphela kusuka nensangu ukusetshenziswa. Marijuana Ukubhema nakho akakubangeli ukungasebenzi kwekhono ezinkulu omzimba, noma andise okuchaya kwezifo ezithathelwanayo (njengoba kagwayi ingabe) kuboniswa nezifundo eziningi eziye kulinganiswa akukho izinguquko ababhemayo ‘T-lymphocyte, ama-macrophage, B-lymphocyte, futhi amazinga immunoglobulin, ngisho ne ukusetshenziswa elisindayo . [lxxxvi]

Ukubhema osindayo insangu lingashoshozela amashubhu imithambo emaphashini le iphaphu sika (ikakhulukazi abanenhliziyo ezinkudlwana) ngibenze ukhiqize isikhwehlela ngaphezulu, kuphumele ukucinana kwemigudu yokuphefumula, okwandisa Ukuhamba isimiso, futhi imiphumela ku ukukhwehlela, kwesifuba, kanye nezimpawu ezifanayo. Lezi ngokuvamile imnene, kodwana kungaba kuyacasula. Ukubhema esindayo zingase futhi kancane ukunciphisa wamaphaphu kwabantu kanye nomthamo obalulekile. [Lxxxvii] (umthamo Vital kuyinto inani elikhulu air umuntu angakwazi ukuxosha emva emishinini yokuphefumula esiphezulu.)

Kagwayi umusi ivame kakhudlwana kakhulu obungamcasula imigudu amancane, okwenza kube yimbangela ejwayelekile of chronic ukucinana kwemigudu yokuphefumula, emphysema kanye nomdlavuza. Ukubhema osindayo insangu kungenzeka alengayo exhunywe emphysema, kodwa 2007 esifundweni efanayo nje ekhonjiwe, Kwaphawulwa ukuthi 1 nje out the abahlanganyeli 75 ngubani nje insangu ngabhema kwadingeka emphysema macroscopic, ukuphikisana ukubhema kagwayi abahlanganyeli kuphela, zazo 19 out of 91 kwadingeka emphysema macroscopic.

Okuvame kakhulu Isizathu insangu uyaliwa njengendlela umuthi ngu nelinani lelincane odokotela kungenxa ngoba bakholelwa it has kufanele ngibhema kodwa lokhu akulona icala njengoba kushiwo. Insangu ingagxila nge vaporizer, okuyinto vaporizes izici akhuthele isitshalo (the cannabinoids), turning nabo ibe igesi ngaphandle ushise carbonous material plant ebezingase obungamcasula samaphaphu izindlela. Insangu kungabuye akulungele udliwe, esithathwe iphilisi noma kudliwe ewuketshezi. Pure zokwenziwa cannabinoids kungabuye kudliwe ngaphandle abakucasulayo emaphashini. Ukubhema noma ukupheka nge hashi ubuye ehlukile enempilo ukuze ukubhema insangu. Zonke lezi ezinye izindlela uvumele insangu ukuba kusetshenziswe njengendlela umuthi ngaphandle kwengozi yomdlavuza, ukucinana kwemigudu yokuphefumula, emphysema noma omunye izifo ngisho kuncishiswe ingozi ezinye zalezi izifo.

Cannabinoids ezithile zokwenziwa eziye washayelwa kwandise kusebenta cannabinoids izinkulungwane zezikhathi kuka. Zokwenziwa ezingazodwa, cannabinoids zemvelo ziwusizo kakhulu njengoba imithi nocwaningo okuningi kufanele yenziwe kubo lapho umthetho sivuthwa. Kufanele zisetshenziswe kabanzi ngo zokwelapha ukuthuthukisa ukuqonda kwethu omunye imithi ezibaluleke kunazo okukhona.

5.8 Ibe Ngokomthetho Izidakamizwa Ngendlela Ukuzimela

Abantu abaningi bakholelwa ukuvunyelwa ngokomthetho izidakamizwa zaziyoba andise ukusetshenziswa, kodwa lokhu akusho ukuthi kufanele kube cala. Kwakungase ukunciphisa funa uma benza yavunyelwa ngokomthetho, olawulwa futhi kusakazwe ngezindlela wemfanelo by odokotela ezindaweni eziphephile. Ngeke siyeke abantu abavela ekwenzeni noma ngokusebenzisa izidakamizwa. Asisoze ozosusa bonke izidakamizwa kanye imilutha ngokujezisa ngezinkinga zabo nje kwenza izinkinga zabo ande, kanjalo into umhlabeleli okungenziwa iwukuba ukunciphisa ukuzimisela kwabantu ukusebenzisa futhi badayise izidakamizwa eziyingozi. Bambalwa kakhulu abantu abahlose babe imilutha, (akekho ofaka meth ukuluthwa on kuya-do ohlwini lwabo) kodwa abasebenzisi ngokuvamile kalula abangahle umlutha kwemithi ethile kanzima futhi umlutha kungaholela. Kungakhathaliseki sezizathu, akekho ofanelwe Bajeziselwa ekubhubhiseni ngokwabo.

Uma imithi hard kwenziwa kwezomthetho futhi basakaza ngokuzibophezela, abantu abambalwa kakhulu abangawazi kakade ukusebenzisa izidakamizwa kanzima ongafuna ukuthenga kubo. Ntu okwamanje ukusebenzisa izidakamizwa kanzima, njenge crystal methamphetamine kanye crack, ngokuvamile, Awunandaba ngokungemthetho yabo. Bakhetha le mithi kube zomthetho, kodwa cishe akekho eyeka ngoba ukuphazanyiswa umthetho. Imilutha iningi kungathatha yimuphi engozini ukuze uthole izidakamizwa ngenxa yokuthi umlutha ngokomzimba kungaba namandla kangaka futhi ungaphezu kwamandla. Uma iminwe kwadingeka ngentengo, cishe kube khona isithupha engaphansi-imilutha on wonke ekhoneni lomgwaqo. Ke, kumelwe basondele izidakamizwa ngendlela pragmatic futhi wemfanelo.

Njengoba ngishilo, abantu bavame lengqondo izidakamizwa marketization kanye imali uma becabanga ngokomthetho. Kodwa zikhona izindlela wemfanelo futhi imithwalo zokubhalisa izidakamizwa kanye umehluko phakathi kwabo kufanele kwenziwe kucace. Uma imithi kwakumelwe ngokomthetho futhi imakethwa ngaphandle kokuvinjelwa imiphumela kungaba yinhlekelele futhi enobudlova. Ngakho kulesi sigaba Ngizakudela out kahle indlela izidakamizwa kungenziwa ngokomthetho ngokuzibophezela ukunciphisa ingozi ngenhla konke okunye.

Eziluthayo, izinto obulalayo babe yesikhathi eside, imiphumela engemihle, ezifana crack kanye crystal methamphetamine kufanele kube zomthetho, kodwa hhayi kakhulu itholakale kalula, futhi kufanele kube mahhala. Kufanele isakazwe izikhungo ehlukanisiwe abasakaza izinto ezingabalulekile eziyingozi. Lezi zikhungo kungaba engenzi inzuzo, ezibhedlela eziphuthumayo futhi babekwazi sikhona ikakhulukazi ukuze abayimilutha ilulame.

Abasabalalisi Future kwezomthetho izidakamizwa kanzima zidinga ukuba wayebophekile ukubuza bonke abanentshisekelo kungani befuna lokho abayicelayo futhi uma umlutha kuso. Labo abayimilutha ngokucacile kufanele ikhuthazwe ukuba bayeke wanikela usizo. Babekwazi babe abasabalalisi nemitholampilo nokuvuselelwa, okuyinto kungaba iyefana imitholampilo kakade endaweni. Hard izidakamizwa abasabalalisi kumele adingekayo ukufundisa wonke umuntu onesithakazelo ngemiphumela izidakamizwa kanzima kanye nokuhlukunyezwa kwabo abangahle, kanye ulwazi ngobungozi ngokungemthetho of ushayela noma usebenza ngomshini esindayo lapho ngothathekile on yimuphi izidakamizwa isigwebo eyayizohambisana naso.

Less eziyingozi, izinto okungezona eziluthayo, ngakolunye uhlangothi, efana nensangu psilocybin amakhowe futhi peyote kufanele kube kwezomthetho futhi lutholakale kalula ukuze bonke abantu abadala enempilo. (Ulwazi mayelana nokusetshenziswa kanye kabi le mithi kufanele futhi khona lapho la izinto Bathengisa.) Le mithi akufanele kube nenzuzo kakhulu, kodwa Bangaya inzuzo ngaphandle ukuphila okungcolile kusukela abazi zibangele ukulutheka.

Nakuba abasabalalisi kwezomthetho izidakamizwa kanzima kuyodingeka benze okusemandleni abo ukuze anqande abantu abavela kokuthenga izidakamizwa, kwakuyodingeka ukusabalalisa nabo njalo, ikakhulukazi kubasebenzisi ezikhululekile. Kungenjalo, abashushumbisi ngokungemthetho izoqala ngokuthengisa izidakamizwa ngaphandle kulezi zindawo. Kodwa babengeke bakwazi ukuncintisana kanye nomqondo ‘izidakamizwa free, “ngakho babengeke babe nhlobo aphumelele nobe okwandile. Ekugcineni, intengo kubaluleke kakhulu abayimilutha. Ke, abayimilutha ngeke (nobe akakwazanga) ukuthenga izidakamizwa wabenza owayethengisa umkhiqizo for dollar angamashumi amahlanu a igramu nje ukugwema imibuzo. Lezi imitholampilo ukuhlunyeleliswa bekungeke kudingeke ukukhonza limane izicupho zokungenelela, kodwa kunalokho njengoba ‘amanetha zokuphepha social “lapho abantu ngabanye babengabuyela kubonise futhi wenze izinqumo ezinolwazi mayelana okufunayo zabo kanye nezidingo. Babengeke ikakhulu bakhonze njengamaphayona izikhala sokwahlulela-free ukuba azame ukuba angenze izidakamizwa.

Odokotela kuzodingeka ukunciphisa umuntu oyedwa kangakanani product zazingathenga, okuyinto kungaba ezahlukene yonke izidakamizwa kanye nomuntu, ngekuya potency isihlobo kanye nokubekezelela umthengi ngamunye. Uma akhuthazwa ukuba bahlale emtholampilo lapho bethola isidakamizwa, le wayeyobanika indawo ephephile okumele ngothathekile kanye nodokotela kungaba ukulungele ukusiza kuba nesimo esiphuthumayo. Ekugcineni, iziguli kwakuzodingeka benze isinqumo sokushiya, kodwa kungaba isinqumo lula ukwenza nokusekela kangaka atholakalayo. Odokotela kuyodingeka babe nozwela futhi unozwela futhi uchaze izinzuzo kokuyeka, kodwa kungaba ngcono ukuba ngingabuthinti utshwala ukuze ube lokuzikhethela yize kunjalo. Lezi imitholampilo kuzodingeka sigxile ekwakheni isimo nomqondo ovulekile lapho abantu babekwazi izibopho nibone indlela ibe nendlela yokuphila enempilo.

Ukuze laba imitholampilo yaphumelela kakhulu, kwakuzodingeka ukusabalalisa nje isilinganiso esifanele izinto futhi kwakuzodingeka iqhutshwe odokotela lithembekile futhi enolwazi. Imitholampilo akakwazanga kuqashwe abantu ababeyoba bamukele ngemali ngaphansi kwetafula bese adayise wonke umuntu kungabikho imibuzo ebuzwa. Lokhu kwakuyoba anqobe injongo eyinhloko yale izikhungo. (Babeyokudinga futhi abasebenzi abaningi nokuvikeleka ngaphambi izidakamizwa cartels wanyamalala.) Yiqiniso, ungadinga odokotela ukuba vetted lobuqotho, kuwumthwalo siqu, nobubele. Lokhu kwakuyoba ukuvimbela inkohlakalo zangaphakathi.

Kungathatha isikhathi ukunquma indlela engcono ukuthengisa izidakamizwa, kodwa kungaba usikhalele it ukuvimbela imilutha, futhi ekugcineni inani imilutha kuleli lilincane kakhulu. Izinkulungwane zezigidi zamaRandi yentela wayeyosindiswa, futhi le mali basindiswe babengase zabelwe abampofu ukusebenza namakilasi emhlabeni wonke. Lokhu kwakuyoba enze ubugebengu ezingavamile ngisho non-akukho ezindaweni eziningi. Kodwa osopolitiki iningi ngikwazi ukuqonda ukwenza into enjengale. Abanye abantu abasoze baqonde ukuthi ezinkulu ubugebengu rate ukuncishiswa kwenziwa ngokwenza ngcono izimpilo, hhayi uvala abantu emangqamuzaneni. (Kokunye, decriminalizing bonke izidakamizwa kwakuyoba nomphumela ofanayo, kodwa izidakamizwa ezingemthetho emakethe uzoqhubeka khona.)

Izinto ezingafanele akufanele ebizwa izinto elawulwa, ngenxa njengoMahluleli James Gray wathi, “Uma nje kukhonza okuthile uyeke konke ukulawula, futhi manje abantu kuphela control kukhona emthethweni kwezidakamizwa nabathengisi futhi abafuni wakho-wo- nane indodakazi endala ukuze uthole ukuluthwa cocaine. “In eminingi imizi empofu nezingane kalula kakhudlwana ukuthola cocaine kanye heroin kunalokho abangakwenza utshwala nogwayi ngoba obedayisa izidakamizwa iningi futhi bangayiboni into embi ngokuqamba kokuthola abantwana wezidakamizwa.

Yiqiniso, abasabalalisi zomthetho izidakamizwa kanzima ngeke adayise ezinganeni, kanjalo ukusetshenziswa kwentsha ayeyoba nakho lincipha. Nokho, izidakamizwa ukuvunyelwa ngokomthetho ngeke ngokuphelele ukuxazulula inkinga yezidakamizwa emhlabeni ngenxa eziningi yamanje nokuvuselelwa imitholampilo endaweni akuzona kuphumelele. Imitholampilo Methadone ngokuvamile ibe high nempumelelo rate, kodwa enikeza iziguli isidakamizwa ehlukile ngokuvamile akuyona indlela engcono. Methadone ukuhoxiswa ingaba okukhulu ngaphezu heroin ukuhoxiswa futhi sihlala isikhathi eside ngenxa yokuthi methadone has a eside isigamu-ukuphila. Ngezinye izikhathi, methadone ubuyisela nje heroin ukuluthwa noma abangele bawela ebuthakathakeni emuva heroin.

Ukunika Ukweqiwa iziguli ezincane kanye ezincane of zomuthi efanayo basuke umlutha ngokuvamile isixazululo ephumelela kakhudlwana futhi kubiza mayelana efanayo ukwelashwa methadone. Ngikholwa lena engcono ngoba sethula umuthi omusha efana methadone kuya owayewumlutha olungabubangela neendakamizweni ezintsha ngoba nje abayimilutha bangase basibheke “sikhalo ekhethekile” noma izimfanelo inoveli in isidakamizwa omusha ahlinzekwa. Eminye imitholampilo e Amsterdam anikeze heroin imilutha imijovo oyinyumba kanye heroin (kuyilapho bona kokulunyulwa off isidakamizwa) ukuqeda amathuba yokusakaza izifo, futhi babe nempumelelo rate okuningi ephakeme kunaleyo emitholampilo American. Ngokuvamile owanelisa kakhudlwana imilutha kukhahlela umuthi ngokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwabo siqu bayanda aze zihlanzekile kunokuba kokudabula methadone nobe ukwelashwa isidakamizwa multiple kukhona.

Imitholampilo Rehabilitation kufanele ugweme ezidlulayo isahlulelo abasebenzisi nobe ukuguqulela abantu ukuba izinkolo ezithile zenkolo (okuyinto ngokuvamile ukwenza) futhi ugxile okwengeziwe ekuthuthukiseni izimpilo bese enikeza isiqondiso ukucabangela. Abaningi kakhulu abasebenza emitholampilo ukuvuselelwa babe izisusa zenkolo ezingabazisayo. Abanye nje bafuna ukuguqula olwisana abantu kanye le kuyinkinga engathi sína. Kungakhathaliseki izinhloso zabo, inkolo akusebenzi for wonke njengendlela nekhambi.

Welithi “uNkulunkulu” iye yasiza abantu abaningi alulame ekubeni umlutha, kodwa lokho kungenxa yokuthi umlutha bangazizwa devastatingly inesizungu futhi ungenathemba futhi nikholwe awuwedwa, (ngisho noma wena) bangazizwa okuhle. Kodwa uNkulunkulu akayena imithi futhi ekugcineni uthembele kakhulu kuNkulunkulu (kwangempela nobe cha) kungaba ukuzoqhubekisela ngabodwa kanye lutho. Imitholampilo Rehabilitation kufanele run by odokotela imilutha zangaphambili okwathi baqonde isayensi eyisisekelo yezokwelapha, neuropharmacology, Neuroscience, neurotoxicity kanye lethality ezingase zibe of nokuzila osheshayo ezidakamizweni. Lezi kufanele kube prerequisites eselulekweni ubani.

Kunamaphuzu izidakamizwa khetha ezimbalwa, ezifana crystal methamphetamine bese crack cocaine, okungaholela udlame nje ngokwemvelo of yemiphumela yabo kwengqondo, okungaba kanzima ingqondo. Lezi izidakamizwa eziluthayo kakhulu ukuthi ukubhubhisa engqondweni, kodwa abayimilutha ngokuvamile nje babe enobudlova lapho bebona khona usongo, futhi uma ukulutheka kwabo akukho emthethweni anesizathu esihle kakhulu ukuzizwa ezisengozini futhi qaphani. Amaphoyisa yonke indawo emadolobheni abampofu nabantu abaningi uhlangothi yezidakamizwa, ngakho uma ungumuntu umlutha, kulula ukuzizwa sengathi izwe ngokumelene nawe. Imilutha angalahlekelwa amakhaya abo, imisebenzi yabo, inkululeko yabo, futhi kungaba ezikweletini (nobe ejele) izimpilo zabo wonke. Amazinga aphezulu yabangela nokucindezeleka kungabangela imilutha ukuba enze ngobuwula futhi ngobudlova bazivikele kulezi emiphumeleni, ngisho nalapho kungekho usongo ephawulekayo. Le mithi ingenza abasebenzisi bazizwe ungumninimandla sokuzivikela ebuhlungwini, futhi uma okuncane kakhulu ukulahlekelwa, ekubeni obunobudlova ukusabela cishe. Lokhu yikho okwenza ngokomthetho kanye umthethonqubo kunesidingo kangaka.

Parolees iningi enecala heroin kanye cocaine abasebenzisi ngoshwele eMelika ubuyele le mithi kungakapheli izinyanga ezintathu ukukhululwa kwabo. Imisebenzi eminingi ngokuvamile ziphendukela ubugebengu lapho Bayakhululwa ngoba cishe ngeke zithole umsebenzi ohloniphekile nge amarekhodi lobugebengu, futhi ubuncane amaholo musa akhokhe cishe ngokwanele ukumboza izindleko eziphilayo, ingasaphathwa umuthi umkhuba ebizayo.

UMike Ruppert, owayengumfundisi LAPD nezidakamizwa iphoyisa kanye whistleblower on the Iran Contra Affair, kusho kuxoxwa, “Ukusebenzisa kabi izidakamizwa kumane inkinga yezokwelapha, ezenhlalo nezingokomoya, hhayi umuntu lobugebengu.” Uma umlutha wezidakamizwa enza ubugebengu oshayelayo ngenkathi sebedakiwe, yena kufanele kushushiswe njengoba yimuphi umuntu ephuzile kungaba. Kodwa iningi yezidakamizwa ukulimaza bona kuphela. Laba bantu ne in ukuvuselelwa ngenxa ejele kwenza nje uyalulama bonke nzima.

Ngaphandle ubugebengu ezingadingekile nokuhlupheka okubangelwa impi izidakamizwa, kuphindze sidla imali yabakhokhi bentela izigidigidi zamaRandi. Lapho kuxoxwa for Nexus Magazine ngo 2001, uMike Ruppert ngempela ngokufanele uthe impi kwezidakamizwa akuyona impi on izidakamizwa, kodwa “impi kubantu … Ngo 1972 lapho uRichard Nixon waqala iMpi on Izidakamizwa, lonyaka isabelomali federal isabelo kwaba $ 110 million amaRandi ngonyaka zokuqinisa umthetho. [Ngo-2000] engu-28 kamuva, lo Ukwabiwa isabelomali kwaba $ 17 billion zamaRandi ngonyaka, futhi nokho, ngonyaka ka-2000, kukhona izidakamizwa ezingaphezu kuleli lizwe, ishibhile, futhi maningi elinamandla kunalokho babenjalo 1972 That has engakutshela ukuthi kukhona ezinye ajenda kwenzekani lapha. “[lxxxviii] Mike kuyinto ngokuphelele sokunene lokwabiwa isabelomali impi izidakamizwa ngisho ephakeme namuhla. Nokho, Nixon akazange ncamashi aqale impi on izidakamizwa, kodwa kwaba uMongameli wokuqala ukuba zithi kwakudingeka simemezele “impi on izidakamizwa.” In ikheli lakhe ukuze umphakathi on June 17 1971, wathi, “Inombolo womphakathi America sika isitha elilodwa e-United States izidakamizwa. Ukuze kuliwe futhi lesi sitha kuyadingeka ayebhekene, bonke-out ecasula esisha. ”

Nakuba ohulumeni, izikhungo ezizimele kwezimilo kanye namabhizinisi amaningi big inzuzo ngokwezimali futhi ngokuvamile imibono yabo kusukela aboshwe futhi ukuhweba izidakamizwa, le kulowo ozobe ekhokha yentela athwale umthwalo. Ngokwesilinganiso, it kubiza mayelana $ 36.000 ngendlu futhi ondle Isiboshwa, kanti supply lonyaka ka methadone kubiza kuphela $ 4.100 nalabo abayimilutha ngokuvamile bakhokhele it. Abanye kuthathe izinyanga ezimbalwa noma amasonto ukuba zilulame kuphela. Kukhona ezinye izindlela eziningi kangcono methadone abiza mayelana efanayo noma ngaphansi like heroin ngokwayo, opiates emvelo kanye ezithile opioids Semi-zokwenziwa like buprenorphine.

Uma zonke njengamanje aboshiwe, ezasuswa izidakamizwa non-enobudlova ezinhlelweni ukwelashwa esikhundleni ejele, izigidigidi tax-lokukhokha komunye oyedwa dollar ebiyosinda. Lokhu kwakuyoba kuvumele ezasuswa kudedelwa ukuthola imisebenzi emva ukwelashwa bese neqhaza emphakathini kunokuba abolile emangqamuzaneni. The ngokomthetho izidakamizwa eziyingozi ezingabalulekile like insangu ayeyoba nakho kunikeza boom emnothweni (ezinye izidakamizwa ezinamandla kakhudlwana akufanele inzuzo) futhi kudaleke izinkulungwane emisebenzi emisha.

Udlame sizala udlame ngaphezulu kuphela, ukuze asikwazi ilwe impi wezidakamizwa noma kwabantu abawasebenzisayo. Lapho amaphoyisa (noma izinhlangano ayizimbangi) angenelele bashaqe izidakamizwa noma ukubulala Cartel nobe gang amalungu, kukhona cishe njalo ukuziphindiselela, futhi ulwazi, amaphoyisa, ofakazi, amalungu gang, izakhamuzi, abahluleli kanye ubani ubanjwe kule Crossfire kungaba bonke baba bamatshe. Bezidakamizwa futhi ngiqale ukuthengisa izidakamizwa for amanani noma aphezulu ukuze bakwazi ukuqhubeka uphenye nzuzo, kanye abayimilutha abathembele kulezi abaphakeli kukhona cishe ahambe Kwagqashuka baphendukele ubugebengu ukondla ukulutheka kwabo kube phakade ezibizayo. Izidakamizwa Ibe Ngokomthetho kungaletha konke lokhu kuphele.

Uma izidakamizwa Kwenziwa kwezomthetho, ukuhweba izidakamizwa babengase kulawulwa futhi ilawulwe. Bonke abantu ababedinga kwakungase bathole usizo for ukulutheka, futhi nezidakamizwa kanzima ayengase enziwe ngenxa Izindleko kancane kakhulu. Awuboni ubani ukubanjwa Kushone phezu izinkukhu izimpahla, ngoba inkukhu akuyona ngokungemthetho, futhi uma izidakamizwa zase kwezomthetho kumphuce iloli eligcwele heroin kungaba nje njengoba kusize ngalutho ngoba kwakungase wawungezwakali eyigugu ngaphezu izinkukhu.

Izidakamizwa Ibe Ngokomthetho babengeke nje ukwehlisa ubugebengu. Kungenzeka futhi ukunciphisa isibalo sabantu abasebenzisa izidakamizwa. Insangu Ibe Ngokomthetho kungaholela nokwanda kancane ekusebenziseni ekuqaleni, kodwa ekugcineni asebenzise kwakuyoba yehle ngoba sasiyolahlekelwa izinga walo ukukhuluma ngocansi. E Holland abadala bangaba ngokomthetho ukuthenga insangu njengoba kushiwo, futhi njengoba yalokho eHolland has nje uhhafu ukusetshenziswa insangu lengenako kuka America enza ngenxa njengoba uNgqongqoshe wezeMpilo Dutch uthé ngokucacile: “Siye aphumelela ekwenzeni embizeni kuyisicefe.” Ukudla izidakamizwa kanye umlutha nakho nezinkinga ezincane okuningi khona. Abantu abangewona imilutha nakhona yazi izingozi nezihibe izidakamizwa eziluthayo ngoba abafundile ngezidakamizwa. Izidakamizwa eNetherlands kuyinkinga ezincane okuningi khona kunalokho eFrance, i US noma UK.

Obedayisa izidakamizwa iningi abadayisa izidakamizwa kanzima abakwazanga ukunakekela esingaphansi mayelana imilutha abathenga izidakamizwa abo, futhi lokhu esinye sezizathu esenza abantu abaningi kangaka kunzima okunjalo kokululama ukulutheka kwabo. Kodwa uma abasabalalisi zomthetho of izidakamizwa kanzima benza okusemandleni ukuze akholise bantfu hhayi ukuthenga mkhiqizo wabo, futhi wawanika ngosizo uma kudingeka, ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa kanzima kanye nobugebengu kuzoncipha ngokushesha.

Ibe Ngokomthetho izidakamizwa kuyingxenye edingekayo ikhambi. Ohulumeni abanalo ilungelo asitshele asikwazi ukwenza okuthile uma engenzi kungithinte abanye ngendlela engakhi. Ohulumeni iningi umphumela kithi ekwenzeni izinqumo siqu ngemizimba yethu kanye nendlela esiphatha ngayo kubo, (ikakhulukazi kwabesifazane.) Kodwa kufanele sibe ukulawula imizimba yethu siqu ngabanye, ngisho noma sifuna esababhubhisa. Singakhululwa bazokhuluma futhi wathonyelwa ukuba senze izinqumo ezinhle ngokusebenzisa uzwela. Kumele bakholelwa ngobuqotho ukuthi ukuze kwenzeke. Kodwa uma ohulumeni bazame ukuphoqelela us, ngokuvamile zibe nomphumela okuhlukile kubantu. Asidingi ohulumeni bethu ukuthi kuyaqabukela abe nesithakazelo umphakathi engqondweni ukuba babysit us. Ohulumeni akufanele bakwazi ukwenza imithetho mayelana yokuphila ukukhetha. Bazenzele iziphakamiso, nokunikeza imininingwane free, ukufinyelela zivulekele imithi, nezinkonzo zezokwelapha, okuyizinto isihluthulelo impilo ende emphakathini.

5.9 ukubuyekezwa Ukuvuselelwa Izinhlelo efana “The Izinyathelo Twelve”

Enye yezinkinga ezinkulu kanye imitholampilo zelashwa wukuthi abaningi babo namanje ukusebenzisa uhlelo nambili-step, uhlelo ithuthukiswe ngo 1939 Eziningi zalezi zinyathelo ukuhilela uNkulunkulu ngandlela-thile, okuyinto eyenza abangakholelwa kuNkulunkulu futhi abantu abangewona zenkolo madolonzima ukungena nobe ngihlale ukwelashwa. Ukwamukela UNkulunkulu akayena imbala ozikhethela ohlelweni. Awukwazi ugcwalise izinyathelo eziyishumi nambili ngaphandle kokwamukela futhi nikela impilo yakho kuNkulunkulu. Empeleni, ingxenye izinyathelo zihilela uNkulunkulu noma ingokomoya ngandlela thile. Okulandelayo uhlu lwalabo zinyathelo:

Isinyathelo 2: Efika ukukholelwa ukuthi Power mkhulu kunathi angambuyisela ukuba ongaphilile engqondweni.

Isinyathelo 3: isinqumo ukuguqula intando yethu nokuphila kwethu phezu ukuba unakekelwe kaNkulunkulu njengathi wayeqonda kuYe.

Isinyathelo 5: wangeniswa kuNkulunkulu, kithi, futhi omunye umuntu ekubeni isimo esiqondile izono zethu.

Isinyathelo 6: Were ngokuphelele ukulungele uNkulunkulu asuse zonke lezi zamehlo of mlingiswa.

Isinyathelo 7: wacela Ngokuzithoba kuYe ukukhipha amaphutha ethu.

Isinyathelo 11: ngomthandazo nokuzindla ukuthuthukisa contact bethu bayazi noNkulunkulu njengoba senza baqonda kuYe, ngithandaza kuphela ulwazi intando yakhe kithi namandla ukuthwala leyo out.

Isinyathelo 12: ngibé Awakening ngokomoya njengoba umphumela lezi zinyathelo, sazama ukuthwala le myalezo yotshwala, nesokugcina ngalezi zimiso kuzo zonke izimo zethu.

Bethandazela ukuba uNkulunkulu asuse “zamehlo of uhlamvu” akusho kudambise izimpawu alcohol ukuhoxiswa obubangelwa ukwehla ngo ekukhiqizeni gamma-aminobutyric acid (naseGeba) emzimbeni, okungaba yingozi uma singelashwa ngumuntu agonist naseGeba. Almost lutho mayelana nezidakamizwa ukuhoxiswa esaziwa lapho lezi zinyathelo abangu owasungulwa futhi abalobi balo bakholwa indlela engcono utshwala kuyinto elula ngokushesha nokuphila-eside nokuzila. Abantu abaningi balandela ngubani lezi zinyathelo e yotshwala Anonymous (AA) labulawa. Zazingekho mithi itholakale kalula ukwelapha zokuqaleka ngo 1939 [16] nendlela yabo yokusondela ukwelapha umlutha babengenaso sekelo ngokwesayensi. Iqiniso lokuthi emitholampilo namanje ukusebenzisa lezi zinyathelo kuyinto angenakuqhathaniswa uma sazi okuningi mayelana isayensi ngemuva umlutha. Kuyini ekhathazayo noma ngaphezulu wukuthi abakhona ukuba yotshwala Anonymous, (iqembu ukuthi lisebenzisa-izinyathelo eziyishumi nambili ngaphezu yimuphi omunye) kungaba kwenkantolo yayala, okuyinto ukwephulwa ethafeni ukuchitshiyelwa lokuqala somthethosisekelo, odinga ukuthi esontweni futhi isimo kube ahlukene.

Enye inkinga eyisisekelo kanye hlelo nambili-step wukuthi abantu abaningi ababa sihlele imihlangano AA bakholelwa yotshwala kuyinto eyichilo noma “esinesono” ukudla, inkolelo ehlanganyelwe yizinkolo eziningi. Imilutha eminingi kanye imilutha kakade kakhulu ukuzenyeza kanye into yokugcina badinga ukuzwa siwukuthi baye ‘babehlala esonweni. “Yotshwala noma imilutha yanoma yiluphi uhlobo akudingeki ukuba banamathele version inkolo sika wokulungile nokungalungile ukuba zilulame kusuka ukulutheka kwabo futhi akudingeki ukugxila kuphela kulokho abasenzele okungalungile.

Omunye kusondela ephumelela kakhulu ekutholeni ehlanzekile ukuthola futhi sihlaziye lokho kwaholelaphi kuya izidakamizwa kanye ukuhlukunyezwa, ukuxazulula ngalezo zimpikiswano futhi sithuthukise ukuzethemba kwakho futhi uyazihlonipha. Kodwa imitholampilo abaningi benza okuphambene. Ngokuvamile abathethise bese ehlisa iziguli zabo by njalo bebakhumbuza amaphutha abo futhi kanjani bayizehluleki. Empeleni, abayimilutha iningi akuzona “enguvumazonke.” Abanye abantu uqine kakhulu zinganqotshwa umlutha ngenxa izinhlekelele ezingalindelekile nezinhlekelele ukuthi zenzeka kwesizathu eziphawulekayo. Akekho ogonyiwe kuya umlutha. Imilutha iningi bangabantu abavamile ngubani nje bananela ezimbi ezimpilweni zabo. Uma singase ukushintsha misperceptions ezivamile mayelana abayimilutha, kwakuzoba ukucasula okungaphezulu mayelana nokubopha nokusebenzisa kabi nabo.

Isinyathelo eziyisishiyagalombili isinyathelo hlelo nambili “enziwa uhlu bonke abantu esasikade balinyazwe, futhi waba uzimisele ukulungisa izinto kubo bonke.” Akukho lutho olungalungile lesi sinyathelo, kodwa akukho Isinyathelo parallel mayelana nabanye abantu abangase babe elimaza the umlutha. Neendakamizweni ngokuvamile ukwakha aphume izindawo caustic lapho kukhona icala ukuba ahambe azungeze futhi abanye abantu ubuhlungu ngu owayewumlutha kungenzeka futhi ubuhlungu lo umlutha kanye kuyo ecaleni zombili izinhlangothi babe yinto ukuxolisela. Kungaba eyakhayo ukukhuluma nalabo bantu ku yokwelapha, hhayi babe imilutha cabangela igunya inani izinkinga zabo.

Ngenxa yokuthi iningi labantu ababa ugijime imihlangano AA bakholelwa ukusetshenziswa mere (hhayi ukuhlukunyezwa) oludakayo kuyisono, ngokuvamile ukugqugquzela nokuzila yokuphila-eside utshwala futhi lokhu kungaba zaphazamiseka okungenampilo. Ukuhlala osangulukile ukuphila kungaba esihle abanye, kodwa lokhu kumele bakhethe esenziwe ngamanye, hhayi ukubusa nqumela. Imitholampilo eminingi ukuba ungasebenzisi uhlelo nambili-step ukutshela iziguli zabo ukuthi kudingeka babe izidakamizwa-free ngokuphelele ukuphila kwabo, kodwa lokhu nokulindela ongenangqondo futhi ekugcineni Akulona usizo. A into akuyona kubi nje ngoba ingasetshenziswa kabi. Liphinde Kuthatha isikhathi ukusebenza ngokusebenzisa izinkinga ezaholela umlutha futhi uma yotshwala zangaphambili bangafunda aphuze ngokuzibophezela, le kungenza kokwehluleka cishe. Nokho, uma owawushade wotshwala uhlala bakwazi ukubuyeka ukuphila, utshwala kungase njalo uhlupho lowo muntu.

Abanye izinhlelo zenkolo efana izinyathelo eziyishumi nambili baphike nokuzila ukuphila-eside ngoba bakholelwa yotshwala yiyona nkinga, kodwa inkinga yangempela yilokho kwaholela ukuhlukunyezwa. It akwenzi mqondo imilutha wasimama ukuzonda noma ugxile kuphela imithi bona kabi kusukela avamise ukusetshenziswa njengoba izithikamezo ezivela ezicashile, izinkinga ezinkulu nakakhulu.

Imilutha zangaphambili kufanele nje ahlale bakwazi ukubuyeka ukuphila uma isifiso siqu ukuba ahluzeke. Lapho imilutha batshelwa ukuba ungalokothi uthinte omunye izidakamizwa ukuze ukuphila kwabo futhi, lokhu kungaba nemiphumela engathi sína, ngoba isifiso sokuba izidakamizwa kukhule phezu kwesikhathi kanye lokubuya kwesifo singenzeka, ngisho noma beye basebenza ngezinkinga zabo. Uma abayimilutha zangaphambili sinike ngokwabo ukhetho nsuku ukusebenzisa izidakamizwa futhi namanje akhethe ukungasho, lokhu kungaba ukugxilisa nabo ngokuqiniseka, igunya, futhi uyazihlonipha. Bangakhombisa akudingeki izidakamizwa njengoba kwakuke. Ngezikhathi ezithile, ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa wemfanelo abangaba leyo njongo. Nokho, nokuzila kungaba ifomu kakhudlwana esitebeleni of ukuthethelelwa kwabanye. Utshwala kungaba umuthi yingozi kakhulu, futhi neminyaka ukuhlukunyezwa kungazilimaza on emzimbeni.

Njengoba abantu abaningi bazi, utshwala ikhono ekubamba ngengcondvo kanye motor function, ukusabela kwesikhathi, kanye nemizwa nobuhlungu. It has usetshenziswa zezokwelapha ezimbalwa kuphela njengoba isidambisa-zinhlungu futhi avala ukhwehlela. Utshwala ngokweqile kungabangela isifo sokusha kwesibindi kanye nokulahlekelwa umsebenzi kwesibindi. Lingase ukwandisa cholesterol kanye ingozi senhliziyo kanye nomdlavuza ezithile. Ethanol ngokwayo ayinikeze yimuphi umsoco. Kodwa notshwala kungaba uhlobo igrisi social ngokuba disinhibiting, okuyinto ingenye ukusetshenziswa kwayo ezimbalwa. (Uhobhane in ubhiya futhi kusizuzise zokwelashwa.) Kubalulekile kokukhuluma abantu abaningi abaye baphila waqopha babengabantu abaphuza ngokulinganisela. Nokho, ngokulinganisela utshwala babo kwakulandelwa yokuphila umzimba, ukudla okunempilo, ibhalansi, njalonjalo.

Ukwamukela UNkulunkulu empilweni yakho noma ekubeni yenkolo kungasiza abanye bathole ngaphesheya ukulutheka kwabo, kodwa akenzi lutho ukubhekana impande umlutha futhi kungaba njengoba okungenampilo ngoba ithi ayifane ngiphakamisa esinye isidakamizwa. Kuncike nje kuNkulunkulu imilutha bangaba njengoba ayesendleleni izidakamizwa, futhi iningi ekugcineni athole esingaphansi abayenza lapho abazange basebenzisa izidakamizwa, okuyinto eyenza lokubuya kwesifo cishe. Drug nokuvuselelwa indawo yokugcina izinganekwane zenkolo kungokwalabo. Kudingeka kube nemfundo kwangempela ngezidakamizwa emitholampilo ukuvuselelwa. Odokotela, osonhlalakahle, abeluleki, kanye zengqondo kudingeka babe nelwazi nangobuqotho izidakamizwa ezingekho emthethweni kanye nemiphumela yabo futhi awubheke njengento efanayo bonke. Abantu izinikele yezimo abhekene nentando ekwelashweni ziyeke ukukulalela ngokushesha nje kumeluleki uyabatshela bonke izidakamizwa babi. Abanye mithi bangcono kunabanye futhi kudingeka achaze isayensi ngemuva imiphumela izidakamizwa. Ohulumeni amanga kithi ngezidakamizwa. Kudingeka Ekugcineni babe zingxoxo eziqotho ngezidakamizwa kanye nemiphumela yabo. Kungenjalo, izigidi zabantu zizoqhubeka kabi izidakamizwa futhi bahlupheke.

Ngaphandle ongokwenkolo eziningi imitholampilo nokuvuselelwa, esinye ukwelashwa isizathu ngokuvamile kungaphumeleli iyona sezulu kwemvelo isidakamizwa, emise yimithetho bezidakamizwa. Imigoqo kanye oludakayo izitolo uyazi abangagcini ukukhonza futhi ngokuvamile izindawo ihlanzeke kakhulu kunesizungu isilinganiso lomgwaqo noma umhubhe lapho izidakamizwa angathengwa. Ukuthenga izidakamizwa ezimweni enjalo kungaba isithunzi, futhi uma abantu ekululameni ahlale kulezi zindawo ezinobuthi, bayohlala ukhunjuzwe izidakamizwa nsukuzonke kanye zonke nakho kwabo nabo, okwenza alulame nzima. (Lezi zibizwa ngokuthi “ashaywe.”) Ngokuvamile kunzima ukuba alulame kusukela mkhuba emthethweni kunokuba umuntu wezomthetho like utshwala ngoba kukhona ukwesekwa esengeziwe yotshwala kanye ababhemayo nogwayi. Simply ukuba umlutha kuyicala emazweni amaningi, ngakho lokhu kunikeza imilutha ugqozi ukugcina izinkinga zabo ebumnyameni

Osopolitiki iningi akakwazanga sikhathazeke kancanyana iNguquko of izikhungo nokuvuselelwa noma emajele, futhi babengeke okuningi kunalokho bazibophe imilutha kunokuba azame ukubasiza. Umqondo izidakamizwa ukuvunyelwa ngokomthetho ngokuvamile usulu by osopolitiki iningi. Emhlanganweni uthayiniholo ngoMashi ka-2009 lapho Barack Obama (owayeneminyaka okuthiwa ozobhapathizwa ushintsho) wabuzwa yini noma cha uyocabangela ukuvunyelwa ngokomthetho insangu ukusiza ukuthuthukisa umnotho, yena Bamhleka umbuzo. Akukona kuthathe i genius kwezomnotho ukuze uqaphele le yayiveza izigidigidi imali yentela, futhi lokhu akufanele kube ngemali nobe amakhemikhali silly. Izigidi impilo yabantu yenziwa libhujiswe yimpi izidakamizwa. Zibalulekile kunazo.

5.10 The inzuzo yezomnotho ukuboshwa

Usuku lwanamuhla ejele sokubeletha equatable nge nceku yezabasebenzi ngoba kuyinto esiyisibopho emajele amaningi aholele cishe lutho. Kwamanye amajele, ngempoqo enza akhokhe lutho, ngakho kuba ubugqila lobuchwepheshe. African baseMelika nabantu America bangenisa imigubho nazo akha iphesenti ongalingani labantu ejele eMelika ngenxa imithetho zobandlululo kanye nokugcizelela. Ngokwe-US Census Bureau ubika kusuka 2010, 12.6% abantu kwaba omnyama noma abantu abangaba 38.929.319. Lo nyaka ngo-June, iU.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics yabika ukuthi 4,347 kuzo zonke 100,000 black non-America bangenisa imigubho baseMelika baboshwa, (noma abantu abangaba izigidi ezingu-1.687). 1.775 zonke 100,000 America bangenisa imigubho baseMelika of yimuphi umjaho nazo beboshwa kanti 678 nje aphume zonke 100,000 abamhlophe baseMelika babesejele. (Amaduna futhi bakha iphesenti elikhudlwana le labantu ejele ngenxa olutheni enkulu zabasebenzi kanzima.)

Lezi zinombolo akuzona akumangazi ejele ucabangela zabasebenzi kwekucala esetshenziswa ukuqhubeka ebugqilini America emva kukhululwa Isimemezelo ngo 1863. Ngalesi sikhathi, ejele labour wakhonza njengephayona uhlobo izaba engokomthetho bavumela abantu abacebile ukuqhubeka ngokomthetho ekubeni nezigqila. Benza lokhu ambeke icala yizigqila abasanda sikhululwe of ngamacala abangazange bawenze, (efanayo ngezinye izikhathi okwenzeka ezincane abampofu namuhla kanye) ngakho kungaba ‘waqasha-out “for yezimayini, ukwakhiwa kwezitimela, ukotini ukukha nezinye izinhlobo kanzima zabasebenzi. Naphezu ngokungemthetho yobugqila ngalesi sikhathi, 93% wabo bonke ‘eqashiwe-out “abasebenzi e Alabama babekhona abamnyama. [lxxxix]

Ejele zabasebenzi namuhla namanje zokubasa imikhakha kweminotho njengoba ubugqila nakanye. Iziboshwa ayaxhashazwa cishe wonke amazwe ngenxa umshikashika wabo, ngoba kuyinto kuyabazuzisa kangaka ukwenza kanjalo, yingakho imithetho kukhona engenangqondo kangaka emazweni amaningi. Iziboshwa e America banesibopho okwenza okuningi izimpahla ezisetshenziswa wezempi US, kuhlanganise izigqoko ezempi, amatende, nezinhlamvu amabhande, ibhulukwe, uwumnikazi wenkampani bullet-ubufakazi, ID tags kanye okuningi. Iziboshwa nazo ukwenza izitofu, upende, isidumbu zempi, nemithi, ekhaya Imishini, ehhovisi ifenisha, headphones, imibhobho, izikhulumi kanye izingxenye ngendiza. Iziboshwa noma aphakamise izinja kokubona-iso kubantu abayizimpumputhe. [Xc] Iziboshwa nazo ngezinye izikhathi zikhokhwe noma baphoqwa ukuba emayini for izinsimbi eziyigugu, lima, futhi ukwakha izakhiwo ezinkulu.

Amajele awekho kuncike emithethweni ubuncane amaholo, futhi kukhona abambalwa kakhulu izinhlangano amalungelo esintu ukuthi avunyelwe ukuqapha kubo for ukwephulwa kwamalungelo kanye nezimo zokusebenza. Iningi yokuxhashazwa Isiboshwa-ezibikiwe nazo go indiva futhi federal kanye nesimo izikhungo iningi kwezimilo eMelika uvule inzuzo ngenxa yalokhu. (Ezinye izikhungo state izimilo mancane enenzuzo ngoba ngaphansi-uxhaso. Lokhu ngokuvamile kwenzeka lapho abanye abasebenzi emihle ezinhle of amajele aqale ukusingatha engaphansi mayelana inzuzo futhi kabanzi mayelana nezinhlelo kutenhlalakahle ewusizo.) Amajele Iningi kwangasese inenzuzo noma ngaphezulu ngoba umvuzo wabo iziboshwa esingaphansi. Amajele ezizimele kungokwakho nebasebenti bangasese hhayi abasemaqenjini uhulumeni. I Geo Group ungomunye izibonelo eziningi. Lokhu kwenza corporation zezigidi minyaka yonke ngoba akuyona kuncike nezimfuneko ezingokomthetho efanayo njengoba emajele zikahulumeni noma isimo. The wangasese Imboni ejele uye olwaqubuka kule minyaka eyishumi edlule ngenxa inzuzo yayo. Ngo-1998 kwakunabamemezeli amajele abahlanu kuphela kwangasese eMelika. Ngo-2010, kwakunabamemezeli 100 kanye 62.000 iziboshwa, futhi leli nani liyaqhubeka likhula exponentially. Iziboshwa kwezinye izikhungo ezizimele eMelika kuphela bakhokhelwa 17 amasenti ngehora zabasebenzi yabo kuyilapho abantu free abenza imisebenzi efanayo ezikhokhelwa kuhle ngenhla zamaholo ubuncane. Uma zenqaba ukusebenza, zingase waphika isitsha sesosha noma umkhempi sokuphatha amanzi amalungelo, PUK bavalelwa bodwa noma unikezwa ejele imitjho eside. (The efanayo kwenzeka ezindaweni zikahulumeni kanye nesimo.) Ubudlova nezifo ezisongela ukuphila nazo ngokuvamile evame kakhulu emajele zangasese ngoba emajele zangasese usike izindleko nomaphi lapho kungenzeka.

Esikhundleni Outsourcing zabasebenzi ezishibhile emazweni ampofu efana China, izinkampani eziningi waseMelika manje basebenzisa iziboshwa American ngoba umvuzo ngisho esingaphansi ukwenza imisebenzi efanayo. Imikhiqizo zikhiqiza akudingeki ukuba aliyise aphesheya noma yonkana amabanga amade noma, okuyinto usindisa izinkampani izigidi. Kokunye mikhiqizo zenziwa elishibhile kangangokuthi abelwe ukuthekelisa emazweni efana China. Uma umkhiqizo ngeqholo uthi kuwo ‘owenziwe eMelika, “kukhona ithuba elihle it senziwa Isiboshwa.

37 uthi e America baye wakwenza zomthetho wezinkampane angasese ungenwa ejele zabasebenzi kanye ezinye izinkampani ngobukhulu futhi enza nje ukuthi okwenza inzuzo enengi.IBM, Motorola, AT&T, Verizon Wireless, Shearson-Lehman, Lucent Technologies, Allstate, Dell, Compaq, Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Merrill-Lynch, American Express, Nordstrom, Revlon, Macys, Pierre Cardin, Target futhi abaningi abengeziwe baye konke izimali.

Enye indlela amajele uvule inzuzo iwukuba kokuzincisha iziboshwa ‘ukusetshenziswa kwemali. A isamba ezinhle imali yabo ngokuvamile uya ezimakethe abamnyama ejele, ezivame elilawulwa onogada kanye nonogada ngokwabo. Iziboshwa nazo bephoqeleka ukuba bachithe imali yabo ezintweni ezibalulekile kunazo okusinda kanye kahle etilongweni canteens, ngoba ngaso sonke isikhathi ngokukhululekile olunikezwa amajele. Izinto ejele canteens kungaba ngaphezu kabili eqolo njengoba babeyoba yisiphi isitolo, namajele iningi federal enze owawudinga imali kubo. Ohulumeni inzuzo izimali abizayo enkantolo, ngisho yokupaka bezungeza indlu enkantolo ukuya kwecala kuyinto ngokungenangqondo eqolo. The amamitha ngokuvamile zidinga ushintsho okuningi ngaphezu kwamamitha ezivamile, futhi kukhona inhlawulo ezinzima for yokupaka in endaweni engafanele.

Iziboshwa kuphela avunyelwe ukwenza izingcingo ligcogce ejele futhi kunjalo kabili eqolo njengoba izingcingo Kugcogca ababengaboshiwe. Ngokusho intatheli okuphenya, Alix M. Freedman, “A ejele phone olulodwa kungaba inzuzo $ 15,000 ngonyaka, kahlanu ngaphezu ibhokisi phone emgwaqweni.”

Ngisho nangemva iziboshwa ziye zakhonza ngesikhathi sabo futhi wadedelwa bona on ukukhishwa kweziboshwa ngokuziphatha kahle, ohulumeni bangakwazi namanje kuthathe iphesenti emali yabo njengoba Ukujeziselwa. One bayaqagela lapho konke lokhu mali iya ngoba ngeke eyabangela. Iningi ophethe kulezi izimpahla abakwazanga ukunakekela esingaphansi mayelana izinga, ukugcinwa noma ukuphepha emajele, kanjalo iningi it cishe padding ekhukhwini Abaphethe iziceku.

Abezombusazwe, abahluleli, abashushisi federal, nonogada, kanye osomabhizinisi ngubani ungumnikazi stock (noma zitshalwe ngenye) emajele zaziyoba esikhundleni ikwazi ukufuna ejele imisho eside ngenxa ezasuswa izidakamizwa okungezona enobudlova futhi abagcine ejele for ukwephulwa technical on ukukhishwa kweziboshwa ngokuziphatha kahle yabo kunokuba abanike ukwelashwa ukwakha kangcono, umphakathi obusebenzayo kakhudlwana. Iningi amaphoyisa komthetho bafuna impi isidakamizwa ukuphikelela kahle, ngoba noma Angikuthandi amaqembu abantu ezisebenzisa izidakamizwa noma ziyazuza izidakamizwa nobugebengu isibalo komthetho amaphoyisa kanye nezinye izikhulu zikahulumeni phezu kwabasebenzi of izinhlangano obugebengu ukuba ancike ukuhweba izidakamizwa kuyinto eshaqisayo high. Abaningi bakholelwa nobugebengu kuyohlale ingxenye yomphakathi, futhi ngakho ukhunjulwa.

Ngikholelwa akukho nkampani ezizimele noma umuntu unaffiliated nohulumeni kufanele bakwazi etilongweni ubani, futhi ohulumeni akufanele bavunyelwe ukusebenzisa iziboshwa amathuluzi njengoba nje zabasebenzi noma. (Ohulumeni Izikhulu kungaba okungenani ozoba balandise yokungalihloniphi iziboshwa ngezindlela abanikazi zangasese of izinkampani abakwazi. Sinenkosi ukwelapha iziboshwa ngezindlela umphakathi kanye nemithetho babheka njengoba ezifanele.) Emajele kufanele isebenze ngokuyinhloko njengoba izimilo izikhungo ukuba anikeze iziboshwa ithuba nemfundo kudingeka bashintshe ukuphila kwabo. Ngabodwa kusukela lonke izwe Kwanele isijeziso. Ukube bonke abantu bavunyelwa ukufinyelela izinsiza efanayo kwasekuqaleni, amajele ngeke kudingeke zikhona kusukela kungaba cishe awekho intando for ubugebengu lapho. Kodwa kuze sithola khona, amajele okudingeka ngokuphawulekayo ngilunge.

5.11 Imiphumela ezenhlalo of Emajele nokuthi singaba kanjani ukushintsha nabo

Amajele ngokucacile engakhonzi imisebenzi yabo ahlose. Iziboshwa kungenza ukuxhumana nezinye izigelekeqe emajele. Basuke ngokuvamile bephoqeleka ukuba ujoyine lezigebengu lokusinda, futhi lezi ezigebengu ngokuvamile zihlukaniswe uhlanga noma ezinye ukungezwani ezingasho lutho, eliphumela ezimpini ubuhlanga nokuqothulwa izinombolo esikhulu ezincane.

Ukudlwengula ejele isakazeke, kodwa hhayi ngokuvamile kuxoxwe. Ezinye iziboshwa bayadlwengulwa ezinye iziboshwa kanye nabaqaphi nenzondo yabo uhlelo kwandisa ngokuvamile kuphela emva zezinto ezinjalo. Abaningi baba cishe ubugebengu enobudlova noma ngokocansi. The American Civil Ukukhululeka Union (ACLU) wathola 550 ukudlwengula izinsolo ezivela Texas amajele wedwa 2004 8 kuphela kwaphumela kushushiswa., From 1999 kuya 2005 i Special nekushushusa Unit nje ziphenye 232 umlindi-on-isiboshwa nokudlwengula izinsolo ku lonke US kuphela 43 umthofu ekushushiselweni. [xci]

Life in yimuphi ejele kungaba isijeziso esibi kakhulu ukwedlula isigwebo sokufa. Kuncane kufanele kujatshulelwe lapho ukuphila kwakho olawulwa futhi nawe abavaleleke esitokisini nabantu abahlala the enyinyekile, khona efanayo bahlukunyezwa. Abanye abantu ezibhekene nokuphila ejele bacele sokufa esikhundleni kwesikhathi ejele. Ezinye iziboshwa babulale ngokwabo nje izinsuku zibe isinqumo sabo ngoba ejele liyindawo enjalo ezimbi eshintsha njalo abantu. Lokhu akwamukeleki, njengoba kuyinto isigwebo sokufa. Ohulumeni abakwazi banelungelo lokunquma ohlala futhi uyafa. E Greece Ancient isijeziso lokubulala kwaba ngokuvamile ukwenza futhi lokhu kwaphumela kuphela imijikelezo engapheli zodlame, okuyinto kumele sifunde, esikhundleni abhebhezela.

NgeNkathi Ephakathi uhulumeni asebenzelana ngayo nobugebengu usebenzisa lokho manje esiyibiza kwezijeziso enonya futhi engavamile. Kodwa ukuphila ejele kuyinto ukujeziswa ononya futhi engavamile lapho ukudlwengula nokushaya kwamukelwa imikhuba emajele, futhi ngezindlela eziningi ukuhlukumezeka ngokomzwelo interminable, ngokwengqondo nangokomzimba kubuhlungu nobuhlungu ngokomzimba odalwe kubulawa kakhudlwana futhi unonya kuka okukhulu, kodwa emfushane, ngisho umuntu ngesihluku. Abanye abantu ejele bangaba ndikindiki ubuhlungu ngokomzimba futhi laba bantu bangaba kakhulu enobudlova.

Ukudlwengula ejele kuvame babenza ku media waseMelika, kodwa kuyinto neze funny for izisulu. Kukhona namahlaya ethelevishini ngaphezu documentaries ezenziwe mayelana emajele eMelika. Kodwa bambalwa abantu ejele bayakufanelekela ngempela ukuze bajeziswe. Abezindaba ezivamile- ngokuvamile linikeza isithombe yesintu ukuthi sihlukaniswe ngu ‘okuhle’ futhi abantu “okubi”. Isigebengu angeke kube babantu kanye nezisusa zabo kungukuthi iyahlaziwa. Abazi ukukhombisa shades of gray, futhi ezivamile- izintatheli njalo biases yabo, naphezu bambiso yabo kanye wemfanelo babe njengoba nomgomo ngangokunokwenzeka. Uvala up zonke izinhlobo isigebengu ejele kulula kunalokho yenza imizamo aqonde laba bantu, yingakho abaningi kangaka nje sizishaye eceleni kwabo.

Uma senza bashukunyiselwa ukuba bacabange ngokujulile nomthelela womuntu nezenhlalo amajele, ayengeke cishe kushintshe. Kodwa uma sibona iziboshwa njengoba izimbangela elahlekile futhi akukho mzamo enziwa ukushintsha kubo kube ngcono noma ukuwenza uvumelane ukuthi kusho ukuthini ukuba isigebengu ke siyobe ukulahlekelwa izigidi zabantu abangase babengase kuba nomthelela omuhle kakhulu kangakanani emphakathini.

Kwamanye amajele babe amakilasi kanye nemitapo, kodwa bambalwa abe nemfundo esemthethweni on ezihlukahlukene academic nokufundwa is hhayi bakhuthazwa ncamashi. The best ejele izinhlelo akuvamile izimali nguhulumeni kodwa yizinhlangano amalungelo esintu esizimele ukuthi obakhathalelayo iziboshwa.

Iningi olujwalekile Izindaba Izitolo nazo ithengise nengozi nokuthi yini uhulumeni akwenzayo ukuze siqhubeke ‘ephephile “ukuze nathi evikelekile futhi izingilazi futhi sigcine ukusihlukanisa njalo ekwazini futhi njalo abesaba ngaphakathi ezindonga ejele. Basenze sesabe kakhulu bonke, ziphuma line futhi laphoqeleka ukuba ngaphesheya.

Abaningi bethu bakholelwa we ngabe wenza ukukhetha ezahlukene uma efakwa izimo izigebengu. Kodwa abaningi bakholelwa nje lokhu ngoba sifuna abantu ezahlukene. Sonke imibundu ezahlukene nobuhlungu nokudumazeka. Labo abaye okuhle ngaphezu okubi ezimpilweni zabo ngokuvamile kalula ukubhekana Ukushikashikeka ezimpilweni zabo. Kodwa uma umuntu owazi ukudumala, ukungafunwa, ukwesaba, ukwehluleka, ukulahleka, izinhlungu, izifo, ukuhlukumezeka, ukona, amakhaya kanye destitution, kuphela ke umbundu lwabo ngaphezulu nguyena ephansi ngaphambi kokuba ingabe revert ebugebengwini noma ekuziphatheni ngokungafanele.

Nakuba singekho ngokuphelele onesibopho ngubani siba, singazi kudingeka ozoba ngezenzo zethu. Kodwa sinakho ukukwenza umsebenzi ongcono yalelo kunokuba amajele zethu wamanje Kuye ngokwenza. Uma senza mzamo baqonde ukuthi kungani abantu abathile ubugebengu izimo abawanikwe futhi kulungiswe ukungalingani okuhambisana nezenhlalo ukuthi ukudala ubugebengu nobudlova wombuso ke lezi zinkinga kuyohlale zikhona.

Iziboshwa isikhathi esiningi ukuze seethe futhi cabanga yokuziphindiselela ejele, futhi abaningi bafuna ukuziphindiselela lapho bekhululwa ejele ngenxa squalor of amajele iningi. (Ngisho nalabo ekhonza nokuphila ejele ngezinye izikhathi abantu bangaphandle uzimisele ukubulala ubani kwaba obhekene ukuqiniseka kwazo.) Abanye bathole revenge yabo, kodwa ngokuvamile umphumela lingcolile futhi okubulala kwabaningi. Uhlelo yakhelwe ukuzoqhubekisela ubugebengu. Sonke ababoshiwe ngumthetho ngandlela thile. Ngaphandle noma ngaphakathi ejele, akekho ngempela free, ngaphandle kwalabo abaphila ngaphandle kubabusi, amajele, noma izinhlobo nokuphoqwa.

Exile elinye ekuboshweni eye yasetshenziswa zeminyaka, kodwa ngikholelwa ukuthi uyiphutha khulu kanye. Kuyinto imithwalo wadingiswa nabantu eziyingozi kwamanye amazwe futhi bakholelwa kunjalo izinsongo ayisekho. Exile kuphela “wasebenza ‘izinkulungwane okwesikhashana zeminyaka edlule ngenxa yokuthi imiphakathi zazincane futhi yokuhamba kwakuhamba kancane. Kokuxoshwa kwezithunywa amalungu gang Mexican namuhla liye labhuntsha ngenxa yekhono abo ukuwela libuyiselwa US. Abanye futhi athole amalungu angaphezu nobe zokuthumba abantu futhi umngcele ngokungemthetho emuva zingene United States nabo. Ukuvimbela le nkinga, eMexico kanye zonke Ephakathi neseNingizimu kudingeka banikezwe amathuba xaxa, kangangokuba amazinga ubugebengu ngeke ziwohloka futhi engaphansi baseMexico nabanye okunye eningizimu uyozizwa isidingo eze eMelika ngokungemthetho. Liphinde kufanele kube lula kakhulu ukuba eze eMelika ngokomthetho futhi isicelo lobuzwe. Imingcele ukudala nje izithiyo phakathi kwethu futhi ukuvimbela ukubekezelelana, imibono, nokulingana ingasabalali.

Ohulumeni akufanele ucabangele force noma usongo force izindlela zabo kuphela deterring ubugebengu. Force kumele asetjentiswe njengendlela yokugcina uma usongo osemthethweni angeke kuthikameze nganoma iyiphi enye indlela. Uma nje kunabantu abazizwa asinalutho ulahlekelwe, kuyohlale kukhona ubugebengu. Thina kufanele anikeze amathuba (ngesandla abadala, hhayi esandleni-nasemigwaqweni) kubantu abangenalutho ukulahlekelwa.

Iningi njengamanje abantu abampofu ngofuzo ububha. Bakhulela engenayo ephansi-omakhelwane ngokuba khona amaphoyisa ezinobutha nobugebengu ezindaweni eziningi. Izingane eziningi in ghettos sengathi benza ongakhetha ezimbili kuphela babe: noma ukuzikhandla ngaphansi-uxhaso izikole zomphakathi kanye imisebenzi ubuncane zamaholo, uthole beat up waphucwa, athole ekolishi futhi ekugcineni yenza nemali eyanele ukuba baphile ngokufaneleyo NOMA bangakwazi ujoyine lezigilamkhuba futhi okungenzeka azuze kakhulu enkathini esifushane, kanye azizwe enamandla. Abanye abantu abampofu beze kanye emakhaya ephukile, ngakho abanalo izibopho eziqinile emikhayeni futhi amaqembu ngokuvamile ngithembise ukunikeza uhlobo olufanayo ukwesekwa nobuqotho ngokuthi umndeni enempilo anganikeza. Lokhu kwenza gang yokuphila kubonakale kukhanga ngokwengeziwe, nakuba kuvame ukugcwala nengozi nobuhlungu.

Ngikholelwa izigebengu zangempela kumele bathole ukwelashwa efanayo yezidakamizwa. Kufanele avuselelwa. Abantu abanokuqonda baqonde yisigebengu (ezifana esicatshangelwe, izigebengu zangaphambili) kufanele ukhulume neziboshwa mayelana kwabo esidlule futhi asebenze ngokusebenzisa izinkinga zabo. Zokusebenza kwengqondo Ejele kufanele wenze lokhu, kodwa abaningi kanjalo. Abaningi abaqondi izigebengu enempilo ngokwengqondo, kancane kakhulu nalabo abanezinkinga zempilo yengqondo eziphawulekayo. Iziboshwa ngokuvamile musa ukubethemba nobe ngokungathí sina noma ngoba azikwazi balandisa. Izikole ezifundisa wamacala obugebengu naso ngaso sonke isikhathi ukuqonda ezinhle Bezobunjiniyela kwesimiso ukuthi bacindezela abantu ukuba nobugebengu.

Abanye abantu obugebengu akusoze kushintshe ngoba abanaso isifiso sokwenza kanjalo. Kodwa lokhu akusho ukuthi kufanele give up on wonke oye ababoshwa. Amajele kudingeka izici ukuthi kuyojabulisa. Kumele ahlakulele isithakazelo esinamandla kwezemfundo, yokufunda kanye nokucabanga esibucayi. Kufanele anqande ubuhlanga nokukhuthaza ukubekezelelana zenkolo secularism. Amakolishi ezinikeza izinhlobo ekhethekile degree zingase bamisa emajele. A kolishi degree ovela ejele kungenzeka kungabi njengoba esiningi ababalulekile eyisiboshwa njengendlela degree ovela ekolishi elivamile, kodwa kwakuyobonisa ibonise abaqashi esizayo benza ukuba imizamo, ngisho nangaphambi kokuba kokudedelwa, ukuthuthukisa ngokwabo. Iziboshwa kumele inikelwe izindlela ukuze kuqondiswe intukuthelo yabo ngezindlela akhiqiza ezigebengu kube kufanele ehlukanisiwe ezingxenyeni ezihlukene ejele. Iziboshwa ayeyoba bayazuza i ukunwetshwa izinhlelo for Ezemidlalo, futhi iziboshwa besilisa nabesifazane ayengase nawo ahlanganyela ngokulondeka emajele ubuncane, ukuze iziboshwa ezingaphezu babengaba kusadingeka ubudlelwane ngesivumelwano. Gang ubulungu kufanele kuthikameze ngenkathi inzuzo ngoba zonke iziboshwa is ucindezelekile. Kungaba futhi kunengqondo ukuba ahlukanise non-esebenzisana nayo, iziboshwa ezintsha kusukela izingxenye emajele namalungu gang esebenzayo, kanye ahlukene amaqembu ehlukene kusuka nomunye.

Amajele kufanele futhi siqashe zokusebenza kwengqondo abangongoti nezindaba efana psychopathy, ukusangana, ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo okuguquguqukayo, ukuzehlukanisa, nokuziphatha anti-social, ukuze bakwazi aphathe iziboshwa nezinkinga zezempilo yengqondo futhi udlulise abanhliziyo nezinkinga nedangalisayo aphume emajele. Balinganiselwa 16% wabantu ejele abaphethwe eyodwa noma ngaphezulu disorder ngengqondo futhi kukhona kakhudlwana engqondweni Abantu ngingemnandi emajele kunokuba ezibhedlela. [xcii] uRonald Reagan lenyuka ngale Iphesenti ngesikhathi sakhe njengoba ngumbusi lapho wavala ezibhedlela engqondo ehlukahlukene buyisela nabantu ngingemnandi ngengqondo okudinga ukwelashwa zawo esifundeni amajele. Lokhu cishe kwenziwa ukwandisa ejele inzuzo, futhi kuwumkhuba ovamile.

Kusukela 1990, amasudi ahlukahlukene action class komthetho ziye zaletha ngokumelene emajele ku US by iziboshwa nge yisifo sengqondo ababika wathuka ukuba yimbi izimo zabo. Nokho, ngisho nalapho abantu abane iziyaluyalu sína ngengqondo kahle waphambukela ezibhedlela ngengqondo, basuke ngokuvamile baphathwa akukho kangcono lapho futhi kwezinye izimo baba ziphathwa mubi kakhulu iziboshwa avareji.

Izingane abaxhwale efana Down syndrome kanye IQ aphansi kakhulu nabo institutionalized nezingane nge iziyaluyalu kakhulu engqondweni amashumi eminyaka. Aye bashiya futhi ukhohliwe ezimweni osabekayo ngenxa ugqozi lwezimali abagcine khona. Wezifo zengqondo azilungisele indaba ngokuthi ajezise Kusobala elinye nje umshini control kwezenhlalo nezomnotho.

Inhloso zokuthi wezifo zengqondo uwukusiza abantu abane nezindaba engqondo, kodwa kuba nzima sasivumela ukusungula ukwethembana nesineke uma eba ‘usizo’ kusukela bantu ngubani abajezise. Awukho umehluko ocacile ngokwanele emkhatsini ukujeziswa nokuhlunyeleliswa. In the ambalwa izigaba ezayo, I sizokhuluma ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene ukuze benze umehluko nokuthi singaba kanjani uguqule embonini zempilo yengqondo.

5.12 The yengqondo Imboni yezempilo kanye Ukuzibophezela abaphoqelelwe

Izikhungo iningi ngokwengqondo Namanje sasivumela ephakathi in izindlela zabo futhi ukwelashwa. Pre-engaphelele cortex lobotomies basaqhubeka lwenziwa ezindaweni ngengqondo embulungeni yonke. (Lezi ezihilela nokunqamula ukuxhumana noma ukhipha izingxenye zobuchopho yokuveza “efiselekayo” Ukusabela indlela yokuziphatha.) Kukhona futhi inkohlakalo okwandile ezikhungweni ngengqondo ikakhulu ngenxa sikhuthazo ngezimali adalwe yizinkampani ezithaka imithi futhi ngenxa yenzuzo yengqondo izikhungo zezempilo ukugcina iziguli ezibophezele isikhathi eside ngangokunokwenzeka. Iziguli kufanele akhokhe izinkulungwane zamaRandi ezimweni eziningi ukuhlala ngokumelene nentando yabo futhi kunqunyiwe wemithi yakamuva “ukwelapha-zonke.” (Okungenani jele free futhi awudingi imithi.)

Noma yimuphi umuntu osolwa psychosis (ngisho ngaphandle bophezela ubugebengu) kungenziwa abopha amaphoyisa ngemibuzo futhi izinikele yosizo yezempilo yengqondo on isicelo esiphuthumayo (obizwa futhi ngokuthi Section 8 e-US) ngemvume kadokotela. Amaphoyisa nje badinga “izinsolo ocabangelayo” ukuthi umuntu ummangalelwa usongo ngokwakhe (nobe yena) noma abanye, kodwa chaza lokho kunengqondo. Ukwahlulelwa kwabo kanye odokotela ‘ayivunyelwe ukuba ngemibuzo kuze kwecala kungenziwa ahlangana emva kwezinsuku eziyishumi esibhedlela Sekudlule. Abanye balabo uzibophezele akakaze afike kwecala. Ziyafa elinde yokunivivinya esitokisini noma esibhedlela.

Amaphoyisa bopha ngabanye ezisolisayo noma abantu abasolwa ngokuba amaphekula noma izinsongo ngaphandle kwamalungelo, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni abaningi kakhulu, efana izitimela eziteshini, zemidlalo kanye zezindiza. Scanner Body ukuba angabona ngokusebenzisa izingubo kanye nabantu ngaphakathi kanye nezinye izinhlobo technology koda kwamukelwa nje izinkampani bathi wababeka endaweni ukuba ‘alwe nobuphekula. “Kodwa usongo eliqondile lobuphekula akaqinisekisi intrusions ezinjalo lobumfihlo kanye nenkululeko. Njengoba Benjamin Franklin wathi, “Indoda owayeyoba ukuyeka inkululeko yakhe ngenxa a security elengeziwe ufanelwe kungoni.”

Noma ubani angakwazi icala ubani omunye yokuba ingqondo noma usongo, futhi amaphoyisa yedwa babe nekhono zomthetho ukubamba abasolwa amahora 48 kuya 72 kuye ngokuthi ngomthetho wombuso. Labo kwekuba Kuboshwe babe Miranda amalungelo, okuyinto babanike ilungelo ukuhlala athule futhi ukuphendula imibuzo ngesikhathi ukuphenywa samaphoyisa, kanye ilungelo iseluleko, ngisho noma abanalo imali ukukukhokhela. (Kulokhu, abantu amiswa abavikeli zomphakathi.) Lamalungelo aqinisekisiwe by izichibiyelo lesihlanu nelesithupha, okuyinto ukuvikela abantu abavela self-incrimination uqiniseke ilungelo iseluleko. Ukungasinaki Miranda amalungelo komuntu njengendlela iphoyisa noMthethosisekelo. Nokho, abantu ngabanye esithathwe ngenxa nokuhlola ngengqondo abanawo la malungelo, yize basuke bakhunyuliswa inkululeko yabo, njengoba nje labo aphethwe esifundazweni ejele. Ngabanye alethwa for an nokuhlola abanalo ilungelo ukuhlala ithule noma seluleko free futhi uma benza athule, odokotela angasebenzisa le ngokumelene nabo enkantolo ngokuba athi lokhu lwalesi ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo.

Ukuba ‘ingqondo’ akusho enobudlova, yize izwi isetshenziswa ukuba ndlela colloquially. Psychosis kuyinto nje ukungakwazi ukuhlukanisa zangaphakathi ezintweni ezishukumisa zangaphandle njengoba kushiwo. Kuyinto kude ubugebengu, nakuba ngokuvamile kuphumela ukuvaleleka, bephenywa ngamacala esibhedlela nobe aboshwe. Psychosis yisimo sesikhashana nalabo esehlele akuzona ingozi bona noma abanye njalo. Inhloso okusolakala ingozi ngaso sonke isikhathi kudingeka zinsolo uma umuntu yezimo abhekene izimisele ngenxa yezizathu “protective”. Uma ubugebengu iye hhayi uzinikele, kudingeka kube bufakazi yekwenta abonise ukuthi umuntu ngeke ubuhlungu ngokwakhe noma abanye uma kungekhona ehlukanisiwe kwabanye. Kodwa yini eyenza nzima le ukuzimisela wukuthi ubani kungashiwo abe usongo. Noma ngubani ingacosha isibhamu noma into obukhali usongo kokuphakelwa kwabanye futhi ngokwabo, futhi kuyinto engenakwenzeka ukuba babikezela ngokunemba okuphelele lokho abantu bangase benze bona noma abanye. Kunezinye izigidi zabantu emhlabeni wonke ukuba abe oqeqeshwe usongo kwabanye kungaba ezivikela, yicala, noma ngenxa ukuzijabulisa, ngakho kusobala umuntu angeke esibhedlela amane nje ngokuba usongo. Izimo kufanele ihlolisiswe.

Lapho umuntu wavuma yezimo abhekene Ekugcineni uthola enkantolo, uma ijaji kuyavumelana odokotela (futhi ngokuvamile) abakwazi ngokumandla ubamba lowo muntu unomphela. Akukho lutho kungaba Orwellian kakhudlwana, futhi kungaba kwenzeke ubani. Michael A. Jones, indoda esolwa bayasangana futhi yokweba ibhantshi futhi yalaliswa esibhedlela iminyaka engamashumi amabili eMelika. Wathatha ecaleni lakhe eNkantolo Ephakeme ngoNovemba 2 ka 1982 futhi balahlekelwa. Inkantolo ayethi kwaba ngokomthethosisekelo ukugcina othile esibhedlela isikhathi eside ukwedlula esiphezulu esejele ngoba ubugebengu yabo, okwaba isinqumo esiyingqopha-mlando. Zazithi isikhathi ezidingekile alulame is ngempela hhayi correlated kuze avelelwe isikhathi. Kodwa ezimweni eziningi it has ngalutho ekululameni. Abantu agcinwa nje eside ukuze yenzuzo. Akazange iNkantolo Ephakeme mehluko ocacile phakathi sijeziso nge yokwelapha, futhi abazange babone isidingo wekuvuma abekezele therapy ephumelelayo.

Uma inkantolo ikholelwa odokotela kanye namaphoyisa ezihilelekile wenza iphutha, ummangalelwa free ukuya khona. Kodwa ngisho kuleli cala esinjalo okuhlangenwe nakho zingahlukumezana, kanye finically yizindleko. Kokuhlala A ngenyanga-eyodwa in egumbini labagula ngengqondo ungabiza amashumi ezinkulungwane zamaRandi. Kukhona futhi akukho yokulungisa umonakalo ezihlinzekwa kulabo ukumangalelwa (okufanayo kusebenza iziboshwa) ngaphandle uma ngempumelelo amangalele okuyinto kubiza imali eningi.

Uma umuntu yezimo abhekene uzibophezele kuphela ngenxa yalokho yena wathi, noma wabhala, lokhu kuwukwephula ukuchitshiyelwa yokuqala kanye, ngoba lesi sichibiyelo unika bonke baseMelika ilungelo enkulumweni free. Uma lokho sibhala ingasetshenziswa ngokumelene nathi, kufanele imicabango yethu kufanele futhi kubhekwe zobugebengu? Le “wezempilo yengqondo” Imboni kuyindlela lemisiwe ekudaleni ukufana nokulalela kanye aqhubekisela imibono ethandwayo. It is a indlela of control futhi ucondza le ESIKHONA isimo.

Kunamaphuzu therapists ambalwa emangalisayo, abanezinhloso ezinhle futhi eziphumelelayo abangawazi nje ukusebenzela imali kodwa therapists enjalo ngokuvamile ukusebenza ngaphandle kwalezi zikhungo ngengqondo lapho edingeka kakhulu, futhi kunzima ukuthola. Ngokuvamile gravitate ekufezeni ngaphezulu imikhuba lesichubekako noma umsebenzi ngokuzimela.

5.13 The Rosenhan Experiment

Le Experiment Rosenhan olwenziwe ngo 1973 zabonisa nje kangakanani kalula ngabanye abangenacala futhi unempilo kungenziwa ayevalelwe esibhedlela ngokwengqondo ngaphandle kwesizathu esizwakalayo. Kule sokusebenza kwengqondo yomzamo, uDkt David Rosenhan, futhi eziyisishiyagalombili ozakwabo okunempilo ngengqondo wazama ukuzuza ukungena ezibhedlela zengqondo ngokuhlela aphoyintimenti bese ezishaya sengathi ziyasithanda ukusangana sokuzwa. Eziyisithupha Rosenhan sika eziyisishiyagalombili ozakwabo ayengabantu ochwepheshe bezokwelapha. Amathathu zokusebenza kwengqondo; one kwaba Psychology graduate; esinye kwaba udokotela ucingo wokugcina kwaba wezifo zengqondo. None of the ngabanye waba nomlando nezindaba zezempilo yengqondo.

Ngesikhathi nokuhlola kwabo kokuqala, base sengathi ukuzwa amazwi bethi izinto efana ‘eyize’ futhi ‘ayize. “Odokotela owabonisa ukubaluleka kwabo abakwazanga ukutshela laba base wayenza sengathi, futhi bonke wavuma. Rosenhan nozakwabo bayiswa ingqikithi ezibhedlela ezahlukene nambili ka. Emva kokuba bavuma, benza evamile futhi yabika abazange babe nawo ukusangana ngaphezulu, kodwa naphezu le ayisikhombisa kubo abangu unesifo sokuphazamiseka kwengqondo kanye nalowo ukwenama psychosis bacindezeleke. Baphoqeleka ukuba kuthathe antipsychotics futhi oluphethwe ngokumelene nentando yabo amasonto. Abanye yayiqhutshelwa izinsuku 52. Base nje kudedelwa emva odokotela zibhedlela babekholelwa bayasangana kwabo ‘kwakuyize ukuthethelelwa. ”

Rosenhan ngokwakhe waphoqeleka ukuba ahlale izinyanga ezimbili; Kamuva yena wanyathelisa akhawunti yakhe ye-ukuhlola ngokuthi “uMuntu Sane e Insane Izindawo” kumagazini i-Science. Lapho exoxa ne-BBC emva yomzamo, Rosenhan wachaza ukuthi indlela okuwukuphela wayekwazi ukuphuma kwaba ukushweleza le zengqondo by ‘ukuvuma’ wayengumuntu lokusangana futhi uzimisele ukushintsha:

“Ngatshela nabangane, ngatshela nomndeni wami, ‘ngiyakwazi ukuphuma lapho ngingakwazi ukuphuma. Yilokho kuphela. Ngizoba khona ukuze umbhangqwana of kwezinsuku mina ngizobe ukuphuma. ‘Akekho wayazi ngizosala khona izinyanga ezimbili … The kwendlela out kwakumelwe aveze ukuthi baba [le zengqondo] lesifanele. Ababekushilo ngase lokusangana, ‘Mina nginguye udidekile ngokomqondo; kodwa ngikhuluma ngcono ‘Lokho kwaba kusho umbono wabo ngami “-.. Dr.David Rosenthal.

Okwenzeka Rosenthal sika namanje evame kakhulu. Lapho iziguli ezibhedlela ngokwengqondo bafuna ukudedelwa ngoba bezizwa abawugubhi ne khona, (kungakhathaliseki izimo) odokotela ongathi le siyefana an “kokugula.” Okuwukuphela kwendlela ukutjengisa ‘ngcono “kwezinye izimo is ukuze avumelane nodokotela on zonke daba bese azenze definition abo ‘alulame. ”

Kuyilapho abasebenzi esibhedlela akakwazanga ukubona Rosenhan nozakwabo njengoba abakhohlisi okunempilo uqhuba UCWANINGO, amaningi iziguli benza. 35 out of iziguli 118 in izibhedlela ezintathu zokuqala babekholelwa base faking izimpawu, futhi abanye babo base beqhuba waqaphela UCWANINGO. Rosenhan waqaphela ukuthi uphethwe ngengqondo kuyinto latikhetsela nokuthi iziguli engqondo kaningi silahlekelwa ubuntu ngenxa yenhlamba linamathele yisifo sengqondo kanye “ukugula ngengqondo.” Ucwaningo abaningi baye kusukela kwenziwa kanye nemiphumela efanayo, nokho bekulokhu Yezinguquko okuncane kakhulu ezibhedlela yengqondo emlandweni wamuva.

Asikwazi ukukhohlwa izikhungo ngengqondo bangabantu amabhizinisi big njenganoma yimuphi omunye. Yangasese izibhedlela zengqondo ukwenza imali eningi isikhathi eside iziguli zabo bahlale futhi unquma uma ushiye. Ayikho eminye yebhizinisi kwezomthetho has ikhono ukubamba abantu ngokumelene nentando yabo, ngaphandle emajele zangasese, okuyizinto nakho izinkinga ezinkulu engiye kuxoxwa. Yiqiniso, abantu zokudlela ayikwazi ngokusemthethweni eboshelwe phansi. Nokho kamuva wezifo zengqondo azilungisele indaba ngokuthi ajezise nje kuthinta bayingcosana lalolo ekusithekeni futhi abantu abaningi nakho sokungabaza lokuqala ngesandla out akhawunti kusuka kakhulu abahlukunyeziwe iziboshwa engqondo zangaphambili nomsinga, lokhu kuhlukunyezwa ziyaqhubeka.

Ngikholelwa an “esibhedlela okungalindelekile” kuyinto i tisho. Izibhedlela kufanele asize abantu, kodwa lapho izibhedlela zengqondo yizindawo ukujeziswa kanye iziguli kokuba amhudula in ukukhahlela nokuklabalasa, lokhu kuwusizo neze. Akuwona wonke umuntu odinga therapy abayofuna it kodwa therapy has njalo ibe ngesivumelwano. Amathuba ushintsho elihle iziguli mkhulu kakhulu uma isifiso ukushintsha. Imithi ngenkani kufanele futhi ungalokothi zisetshenziswe, futhi akekho nge ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo kufanele agcinwe ngokumelene nentando yabo ‘esibhedlela “uma abazange ebugebengwini.

Abantu abane yisifo sengqondo abenza ubugebengu onobudlova kufanele ozoba isikhathi ezithile kwisethingi kanye kodokotela nabanye ochwepheshe bezempilo baze babone ngcono, kodwa lokhu kufanele kube ‘ngokujezisa’ isici kuphela. I therapy kusafanele kube ngesivumelwano futhi mayelana nesineke udinga kuqala. Kungenjalo, akuyona therapy. Uma iziguli obugebengu bengafuni ukwelashwa okunye futhi baye bakhonza linanikhulu kuvumelekile nobugebengu lwabo ngabanye enempilo ngokwengqondo, kufanele nikhululwe. Izibhedlela yokuzithandela kungashiwo futhi ehlukanisiwe ezibhedlela abaphoqelelwe. Lokhu kwakuyoba enze ukujeziswa kanye ukwelashwa zibe izindlela ezimbili ngokucacile ahlukene. Uma iziguli zithola kabi ezibhedlela njengendlela sijeziso, kuba kakhulu amathuba bayoba njalo uthemba odokotela noma udondolo ngokwanele ukwenza noma iyiphi intuthuko yokwelapha, noma ngeke esibhedlela kube cishe ukusiza.

Usebenzisa ukuboshwa indlu noma izilungiselelo bomphakathi kanye nodokotela kungaba ezinye izindlela ezingcono izibhedlela azilungisele indaba ngokuthi ajezise ngokwengqondo ekusetshenzisweni namuhla. Ukumane behlukanisa zonke iziguli ngengqondo ndawonye akuyona ngaso sonke isikhathi esakhayo ngoba ngokuvamile bonke ekubhekaneni nezindaba ezahlukene. Ngabanye abaphethwe efanayo nezindaba zezempilo yengqondo kungaba ngokuqinisekile bayazuza ukukhuluma omunye nomunye. Nokho, izibhedlela zamanje bathathe wonke umuntu, kuhlanganise nabantu abanezizinda zinkinga kanye imilando, futhi lokhu kungaba nje adale chaos. Njengoba nje izigebengu kungaba band ndawonye ukuze abe ngcono at ubugebengu, iziguli kungaqinisa ukuziphatha nomunye ezingezinhle.

Nalabo nezindaba zezempilo yengqondo zingazuza ezungezwe abantu bajabule kungabikho eziphawulekayo nezindaba zezempilo yengqondo kanye. Therapy emakhaya naso singase siphumelele kakhulu, (kanti ukuphela kwesixazululo elingokomthetho kulabo eboshelwe endlini). Kungakhathaliseki lapho therapy senzeka, inqobo njengoba isetshenziswa ukuba aphishekele imigomo ezuzisayo kuvunyelwane by odokotela kanye neziguli, cishe okuningi ukuze asize iziguli baphile izimpilo obujabulisayo ithele.

5.14 Imithi zengqondo Kanye kuka-imithi

Yiqiniso, imboni yezempilo yengqondo akusho nje kuthinte iziguli ngokwengqondo. Kuthinta imindeni yabo, futhi amakhulu ezigidi zabantu ngubani okwamanje bathathe elilodwa noma ngaphezulu imithi ngengqondo noma in therapy. Abanye abelaphi abasebenza abazimele ingaphumelela kakhulu nonozwela kodwa ngeshwa abaningi baqhutshwa ngemali hhayi uzwela noma izidingo nesineke. Iningi imithi ethengiswa kakhulu kunazo nazo kwenziwa nje eminyakeni edlule bese bengazange ihlolwe ngokuphelele. Ngokwesibonelo, Alprazolam (Xanax), lo antidepressant ngokuvamile ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ngo 2005, 2009 no 2011 [xciii] senziwa ngo 1969 ngu Upjohn, (manje Pfizer). It is a benzodiazepine elinamandla ngezinye izikhathi asetshenziswa yokuzijabulisa futhi kungaba sekuwumkhuba.

Citalopram (Celexa) kwaba eyesibili ngokuvamile basebenzisa anti-depressant ngo 2011 nge million 37,7 nemiyalelo ezibhaliwe ukuthi nyaka. It senziwe noma muva ngo 1989 ngu Lundbeck. (Izidakamizwa ilebula sabo sokuqala sabonisa ukuthi izilinganiso of 60 mg kwakudingekile ukuze abanye, kodwa kamuva wathola ukuthi kungabangela normal isigqi enhliziyweni at nje kuka-40 mg ngosuku.) Pfizer ezikhishwe Setraline (Zoloft) ngo 1991, okwakuyigama wesithathu evame ukusetshenziswa anti-depressant eMelika ngo-2011 The wesine ngokuvamile kusetshenziswa kwaba Ativan (Lorezpam), esinye benzodiazepine, okuyinto yethulwa 1977 by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. Lokhu izidakamizwa liye imakethwa ngaphansi amagama brand ahlukene 70 ngenxa ukuthandwa yayo okwandile kanye nemiphumela zokungcebeleka. Ngo-1998 emva Mylan wathola izivumelwano kwamalayisense okukhethekile on izingxenye ezithile izidakamizwa, benza wakwenza izikhathi 26 kuya 32 more eqolo. [Xciv] (Bathukuthela kamuva wamangalela futhi sazinza for $ 147 million.) Prozac, owesihlanu ngokuvamile zasebenzisa wokulwa nokuthandana depressant ngo 2011 senziwa ngo 1977 by Eli Lilly Company. Kwathatha okuncane engaphezu kweyishumi ukuze FDA ukwamukela lesi sidakamizwa. Lezi zinkampani izidakamizwa ezenza le mithi enza izigidigidi ezingenayo.

Amaphesenti seminyaka baseMelika nambili noma ngaphezulu Eleven abangu ebekiwe esisodwa noma ngaphezulu tricyclic kusukela 2005-2008 [xcv] nezakhamuzi US kuyabekwa imithi zengqondo ngaphezu izakhamuzi namanye amazwe. (Ngithathé ezahlukene anti-phasi.) Kusukela 1988 bekulokhu jikelele 400% ukwanda kokusetshenziswa antidepressant. Eziningi zalezi imithi kungukuthi anqunyiwe ukuthuthukisa kwempilo yengqondo, kodwa kunalokho elibekelwe ukwenza abantu benze “ngokuvamile” futhi banamathele kwezinkambiso zemiphakathi, okuyinto izinkampani ezithaka imithi, odokotela, ohulumeni, abaholi ezinkampani nezinye izibalo igunya sonke basize chaza ukuba kuzuzwe awabo ajenda ahlukene.

Zonke anti-phasi okukhulunywa kukhona teratogens engahle, okuyizinto izidakamizwa ukuthi kungabangela iziyaluyalu azalwa naso nobe sokuzalwa kwezinso. Kumangala Abaningi baye bafaka by omama ababekwa enqunyiwe Prozac nezinye SSRIs ngesikhathi ukhulelwe futhi ababenolwazi izingane kwasekuzalweni yalokho. (Abaningi baye azinza aphume enkantolo noma kuthathwe ngokuphelele.) Citalopram, Setraline, no Prozac sonke serotonin reuptake inhibitors abakhethayo. Bathi zivimbela reuptake of serotonin in the Zokuxhumana Zobuchopho by luvimbe khetha serotonin mangqamuzana ezinzwa. (Nokho, abanye bafundisa “abakhethayo” ngaphezu kwabanye.) Le mithi kuyabekwa for ukucindezeleka ngenxa esithebeni umbono serotonin lokucindezeleka speculates ngokuthi serotonin ongaphakeme kubangela ukucindezeleka. Nokho, izifundo eziningana bathole ukuthi nokwanda okukhulu serotonin musa ngokuvamile khulula ukucindezeleka futhi eyenga kwezokwelapha serotonin Ukuwohloka akusho ngaso sonke isikhathi zibangele ukucindezeleka noma. [Xcvi] SSRIs njengalawo okukhulunywa kungaholela ukwenyuka ideation ukuzibulala nokuzibulala, ikakhulukazi phakathi ngabanye 15 kuya 25 -years ubudala, kodwa lesi group yobudala namanje enqunyiwe kubo. SSRIs futhi kungadala serotonin ubuthi (kusuka ukweqisa izidakamizwa), ukufa, ukungasebenzi kwekhono ngokocansi (efana libido encishisiwe, anorgasmia kanye izinzwa noma zokuzalana). Futhi kungadala serotonin discontinuation syndrome uma wayiyeka abruptly.The isibalo kungenzeka imiphumela emibi meds eziningi ngengqondo likhudlwana ukwedlula inani izinzuzo zabo engahle, nezikhangiso kubo namuhla babone ngisho ukuthi ngezinye izikhathi ngenxa yezizathu isithiyo. Nokho, abanye odokotela bezama ukugculisa iziguli zabo le mithi ayinangozi ngenxa yilokhu betshelwa kusuka, izinkampani ezinkulu ezithaka imithi abangathembekile. Naphezu imiphumela yabo emibi, SSRIs kanye benzodiazepines zibonakala njengoba ‘yokwelapha standard “for ukucindezeleka eMelika nezinye countries.There ezicebile amakhambi amaningi emvelo ukuze ukucindezeleka like Saint John sika wort (Hypericum perforatum), Rhodiola rosea, chamoline, Ashwagandha, itiye eliluhlaza , insangu (ngokulinganisela), nezinye izitshalo eziningi kanye namakhambi, ukuzivocavoca (ikakhulukazi ukuzivocavoca ngokusesilinganisweni,) yoga, travel, imigomo, zokuphila ekuthuthukiseni nokuningi. Lezi kungaba nemiphumela engcono kunokuthi izidakamizwa zengqondo. Kodwa lezi zinkampani izidakamizwa ezikhangisa izidakamizwa zabo njengoba izimpendulo yedwa. I tricyclic enenzuzo kakhulu futhi izinkampani zemithi okwamanje naleyo iningi imakethwa futhi ngempumelelo langempela has nomphumela omncane on inzuzo. Ayobusa esigcawini zomuntu ngoba imali ukuze agcwalise airwaves nge advertisements.As yabo nje abantu ngokwanele batshelwa a imithi izosebenza, imithi kuyoba nenzuzo.

Abanye abantu ukuthatha la imithi babike ukuphuculwa kwezimo zabo, kodwa kukhona kudingeka testing okuningi kwenziwa imiphumela yesikhathi eside izidakamizwa ezinjengalezi ngaphambi kokuba avunyelwe ukuba enqunyiwe. Yesikhashana kusebenta tricyclic ngokuvamile ukuvivinywa, kodwa wesikhathi eside ngempumelelo ludinga ihlolwe ngokujulile kanye. Iphinde kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi omunye izidakamizwa akawona impendulo yedwa. Ukube imithi zase free emhlabeni wonke, siyobe sibone imithi ephumelelayo okungaphezulu esetshenziswa futhi enqunyiwe.

Over-umuthi ubuye luvame ezibhedlela ngengqondo emhlabeni wonke. Odokotela ukwenza lokhu ukuze agcine umsebenzi neurochemical iziguli njengoba ongaguquguquki ngangokunokwenzeka ukuze igweme ukuziphatha abathathela, kodwa ngokuvamile adale emotionless, nokuziphatha zombie-like kule nqubo. Okunjalo overmedication budedengu ingadala osemthethweni iziyaluyalu ngengqondo, ukulimala kobuchopho, izifo nokufa. Lokhu can futhi kwenzeke njalo, abantu ephelele abangenacala basolwa ngokuba ngokwengqondo ‘ukugula. ”

5.15 Rethinking evamile, “Ukungaphili engqondweni,” Nobungqabavu ngokwengqondo

I okuxilongayo and Manual Statistical for Mental Kwemizwelo (DSM) ubala iziyaluyalu ngengqondo kuka 500, kodwa engenzi nakanye zichaza yezempilo ngengqondo noma achaze nendlela yokuyithola. Lokhu kuyinkinga enkulu kulabo babheka le DSM salolu lwazi. Ezempilo yengqondo sishintshashintsha futhi ezahlukene ukuze wonke umuntu. Kodwa bhukwana akulona nezimo. It nje inikeza amagama ofanele zonke ezivame kakhulu, ukuziphatha okungavamile. It lugxile kakhulu kangangokuthi on kokugula akwanele kwezempilo, njengoba therapists amaningi enza.

Psychology iwumkhakha abancane asathuthuka zokutadisha. Psychology nezwi lisho “Ukutadisha komphefumulo ‘kusukela ψυχή yamaGreki noma psukhē, okusho” umphefumulo “noma kwengqondo λογοςor ema-logo, okusho” Ukutadisha. “It akazange uqale njengoba insimu lwesayensi yokutadisha kusukela izinqubo esiyisisekelo kwemizwa ukuba adale ukwazi yayingakaqondakali ngalesi sikhathi, kodwa namuhla kugxilwa eshintshashintshayo kulezi izinqubo kanye isayensi ukuthi ushayela kubo.

Psychoanalysis kuphela eyasungulwa eminyakeni engaba ngu-100 edlule Sigmund Freud nemibono yakhe base nhlobo ezigxilile kuyisayensi. Wahlakulela mbono eziningi zasendle mayelana nokuziphatha yabantu abangu okusekelwe yezinto phezu ababecabanga zakhe siqu efana “Oedipus Complex ‘theory wakhe, okuyinto wasikisela ukuthi phakathi’ esigabeni sobulili sowesilisa” yentuthuko, izingane bafuna ukubulala oyise futhi ocansini nonina. (Wayekholelwa le ikakhulu ngoba bacabanga izinsana webele fed ngenxa inkanuko, okuyinto akulona icala.) Freud wagxila kakhulu kangangokuthi phezu esesimweni sokungaphili ngokuphelele, amaphupho kanye nezinye izinqubo ukuthi yayingakaqondakali ngokwesayensi.

Evamile ngumqondo latikhetsela kakhulu. Odokotela abaningi ngokuyisisekelo balwela ukususa imizwelo enamandla evela iziguli zabo ngoba anesizotha elawulwa kalula uma lithambe futhi emotionless. Ukudabuka, uthukuthele, ukhathazeka noma ngisho happy kungenziwa kubhekwe angaphilile noma ahumushe njengoba mania nobe ezinye isimo iwubuphukuphuku. Kodwa la mizwelo izici esingenakugwenywa impilo enempilo. Ukudabuka futhi ethukuthele kungaba imizwelo enempilo. Konke kuncike umthombo mizwelo futhi kanjani ngabanye basabela kubo.

Yini kubhekwa evamile futhi uphile saka ekhanda nje uyini othandwayo, futhi siyini othandwayo ebizwa ngokuthi amabutho ukuba usibuse. “Okuvamile” Abantu nokweseka uhulumeni wabo. Ayakugwema igunya ngemibuzo; bephishekela imisebenzi obungenangqondo ukuze athenge izindlu ezinkulu, izimoto kangcono futhi lutho izinkampani zisitshela esiyidingayo. “Okuvamile” Abantu bayasonta futhi bathandaza kuNkulunkulu wabo njalo ebusuku. Babuye benze like abantu bebona kwabezindaba futhi ngo ithelevishini ukubabela abe nabo. Lolu umcabango of normality ikhuthaza sameness ukuze kuzuze abantu abambalwa ngubani usibuse. Kodwa lokho ngokuvamile ngeke kubhekwe sina wukuthi izinkolelo ezivame kakhulu futhi ethandwayo engenangqondo, futhi lokhu yingakho radicals abaya ngokumelene iningi basuke lelikhishelwe cishe njalo futhi kubhekwe udidekile ngokomqondo noma ebonisa ukuthi awuphilile engqondweni. Kodwa imibono ewusizo kunazo ngokuvamile okokuqala singathandwa kunazo.

Wezifo zengqondo azilungisele indaba ngokuthi ajezise iye ezisetshenziswa kobushiqela kanye “democracies ‘ngokufanayo ukuze ajezise futhi kuthule abaphikisi bombuso zezombusazwe. Therapists Abaningi abasebenza ezigcemeni zengqondo kanye isimo ezibhedlela ngengqondo, kanye namandla kakhulu kwezombusazwe corporate bheka wedwa njengendlela disorder ngengqondo. Uma ngabanye abeke izithakazelo izihambi ngaphambi siqu sabo, bavame kubhekwe udidekile ngokomqondo. Yingakho abaphikisi bombuso self-esingaphansi sezombusazwe bafakwa emakamu okuhlushwa futhi izikhungo engqondo ngenkathi Soviet Union naphakathi nezinye kobushiqela eziningi.

Akunakwenzeka ukwazi ukuthi kunjani ukuba kube nomuntu uthathwa lokusangana uma kungekho omunye ubuza umuntu. Yilokhu therapists kufanele ukwenza. Kufanele afunde iziguli ngengqondo hhayi nje into ubanqophisa. Odokotela abaningi ngengqondo ukwelapha iziguli zabo like izilwane. Bazama ukuhlaziya esintwini futhi bazizwe zingabantu sihlukile kulo. Kodwa ukuze siqonde ukuthi ubani, kumelwe uqaphele le sameness in esintwini. We baba ehlukene, kodwa uma sizalwa unempilo futhi beqinile, singa pheze izakhamuzi zaseBosnia.

Iziguli eziningi ngokwengqondo enza ukusekelwa nesiqondiso, kodwa eziningi zingakutholi it ngenxa yemali zenziwe on esibhedlela okungadingekile. Iningi lemali ezikhiqizwe ezibhedlela yengqondo iya kubanikazi yabo kanye izinkampani zomshuwalense uBill nabo. Odokotela zengqondo ngisho osonhlalakahle bavame incentivized ukugcina abantu isikhathi eside kunokuba kudingeka ezokuba kanye nabahlengikazi ngokuvamile Kuyaqondakala ukulandela indlela yabo. Abanikazi izibhedlela izinkampani zomshuwalense, nabo bathole pay ukuphela kwesitokwe ezivela ezinkampanini ezenza imithi ezinkulu for igcizelela ukuthi izindlela, kanye ezizosiza kuka-kadokotela of imithi yabo. Iziguli eside ahlale, imithi ngaphezulu bakwazi khetha. Babuye amanga ngemiphumela yalezi mithi ezigulini zabo. Abamele ezinkulu ezenza imithi ngokuvamile ahambele izibhedlela ethokomele kuze odokotela ukuze ibenze whatever basuke ukuthengisa, sifana abashushumbisi bezidakamizwa obungemthetho, futhi odokotela abaningi ukuthenga kubo. Lezi izinhlobo Odokotela abonakele zande kakhulu ezikhungweni ngengqondo engaphansi-uxhaso.

Izikhundla eziningi ezithandwayo babengase babhekwe okunezimpawu elokugula xaxa zengqondo ukwedlula okubizwa ngokuthi “iziyaluyalu” abaningi esibhedlela. Ngokwesibonelo, abaningi nabaphathi enamandla kunazo bafanelekele njengoba psychopaths on ukuhlolwa ezahlukene for “psychopathy.” Osopolitiki Abaningi benze kahle, ngoba ukuphendula imibuzo efana “Uma kwenzeka abanye abantu okuningi, okuningi ngaphezu kwabanye?” Kanye “Absolutely. Kungani? “It Ngeke kusimangaze uma ezishisekayo kunazo pro-impi futhi ngabanye amahlelo futhi uyafaneleka psychopaths on ukuhlolwa eziningi ngoba. Capitalism uphendulela yokuphila ibe ezothando zero-sum futhi kuba ke Psychopathic ngomqondo noma okungenani misanthropic.

Izinkolelo zenkolo ngokuvamile kwandisa zobugovu kanye, yize ngokuvamile basuke wazifihla njengoba kwabaswele. Abaningi isimangalo bayazi inkolo yabo iyona umhlabeleli nokuthi basuke “ekusizeni” Abantu ngokuguqulela nabo, futhi abaningi bakholelwa le. Labo kithi abathandaza nazo ngokoqobo bakholelwa uyisidalwa esibhakabhakeni kungaba ukuzwa imicabango ethu futhi asinike efisa. Iningi lezinkolo zethu kungukuthi kubhekwe crazy ngoba lukhulu yomlando. Kodwa wafaka nesimongcondvo nalokho singabonisa kuyiqiniso kusuka isayensi, izinkolelo zethu ivame yinqaba, ezingasebenzi, bakudala, hhayi efanele khulu. Siphila esikhathini samanje kufanele sifunde nezinhlupheko kukhokho wethu kanye amaphutha bese uzama njengoba umhlabeleli esingakwenza ukugwema ukuphinda amaphutha abo.

Abantu abaningi ukubekezelela yesigodi zenhlalo ukuthi basuke ebekelwa sigweme ongemuhle yezenhlalo noma esisemthethweni imiphumela ezingase zivela eziphikisanayo kubo. Kodwa emikhulu eminingi evamile musa zikhona izizathu evumelekile. Ezinyanyekayo nukukhahlabezeka efana yobugqila kanye nokudlwengula bangaba evamile emiphakathini. Ebabuza kubhekwa lokusangana abanye abakholelwa abantu zingamathuluzi kanye nezidalwa engalingani kanye namalungelo alinganayo. Abantu abaningi abengeziwe bacabanga ngale ndlela emlandweni lapho ubugqila kwakuvamile kakhudlwana futhi lokhu yadonsa ukusetshenziswa kwawo.

Ukuziphatha Normal womuntu engase alinganiswe njengoba isilinganiso zonke ukuziphatha abangabantu noma ukuziphatha ezivamile. Kodwa uma bonke yokuziphatha kwabantu ihlanganiswa, imikhuba ezivamile cishe kuzwakale kuyindida abantu abaningi. Abantu babe nezinkolelo zabo siqu ezahlukene mayelana normality, futhi abezindaba Izitolo, ohulumeni, izinkampani kanye izinkolo basize balolonge nabo. Ukuziphatha Normal asivamile kulinganiswa for umthelela walo omuhle social ngoba amabutho ukuba balolonge normality ungenzi kanjalo okuhle xaxa.

Belinganisa normality kanye ubuhlanya Futhi kunzima yokuthi ukuziphatha ezithandwayo futhi izitayela ziyashintsha njalo. Njalo isinyathelo sithatha kuyinto technically ukusabela okungokwemvelo ngenxa siyinxenye yemvelo. Umsebenzi izinzwa kubangela konke izenzo, futhi banikezwe ilungelo umfutho yimuphi yokuziphatha (kungakapheli nokuzabalaza imithetho zesayensi) kungenzeka. Abaningi bahlukane umcabango yabo ngokwabo kusukela izinqubo yemvelo kubangele imicabango nezenzo zethu, kodwa akufanele ngoba kuhlukanisa abantu abanobuntu ethile futhi ukuziphatha. “Ukungaphili engqondweni” uba ezididayo, scary “izifo.” Ezinye Kodwa yisiphi yokuziphatha ebone lokusangana enesizathu kobuchopho. Kungaqondakala futhi wachaza. Ubuhlanya babengase kuchazwe njengento irrationality kodwa irrationality ingaba latikhetsela kahle.

Enye inkinga nge ekuzameni ukuchaza ubuhlanya wukuthi ngabanye ungaba futhi benze ngezindlela ebone lokusangana umphakathi nje ukuba okucatshangelwayo lokusangana, kodwa abe ubuchopho ephelele. Ubuhlanya kungenziwa wayenza sengathi kodwa umdlavuza can hhayi kusukela kukhona kwegazi ukuthi ukukala amangqamuzana umdlavuza PET (positron ekushayweni tomography) scan okungabonisa ukuthuthukiswa izimila anomdlavuza. Nokho, kukhona akukho mishini nokuhlolwa kwegazi limane lifakwe for ubuhlanya,. Ukuziphatha lalingabafanele lokusangana kungenziwa abangelwe yizingqinamba of ezishukumisa ezahlukene, ngaphakathi kanye nabangaphandle. Psychosis kuyinto ulinganiseke, kodwa “ukungaphili engqondweni” akulona. Ubani bangenza izinto ‘udidekile ngokomqondo’.

Ngokuvamile “ongaphilile engqondweni ‘zomthetho enkantolo kunqunywa isimo bugebengu in mbuzo hhayi isimo yengqondo ummangalelwa, eliphumela verdicts akwemukeleki. Le ubuhlanya gama is hhayi eyayisetshenziswa odokotela ezimweni zezokwelapha abafanelwe diploma. Abanye zobudokotela, ikakhulukazi labo abase-Psychology forensic ukusebenzisa izwi, kodwa kumane nje lisebenza kwezomthetho ukuthi ususa yecala. Odokotela, juries nabahluleli unquma ngubani lokusangana ngaphandle okuvunyelwane, sencazelo universal of “ukungaphili engqondweni.” Laba babe biases zabo siqu mayelana normality kanye ubuhlanya futhi kalula kungaba abangasiqondi abantu kanye ukuziphatha kwabo ngenxa. Ukuziphatha eqhathanisa kungabuye esetshenziswa abelaphi ekuhlonzweni iziguli yisifo sengqondo futhi ithethelele institutionalization yabo.

Albert Einstein kuchazwa ubuhlanya ngokuthi “ukwenza into efanayo kaningi futhi elindele imiphumela ehlukene.” Lesi isiqalo esihle, kodwa abantu bangenza lokhu ngoba kuyizinto inyufomu, ingqondo noma ube ukulimala kobuchopho ngokomzimba noma izimpawu esilawulayo disorder abayimilutha. None of lokhu kusho “ukungaphili engqondweni.” A ncazelo more okuphelele kungase kube ukuthi ubuhlanya uphinda into efanayo futhi silindele okwehlukile ngenkathi kokuba ulwazi ukwazi ukuthi umphumela kuyoba okufanayo. Kulo mongo, ubuhlanya kusho irrationality ezedlulele.

Izwi uthola sane kusukela elithi Latin Sanus, okusho “uphilile.” Ngakho-ke, ubuhlanya, lisho okungenampilo, ikakhulukazi, ibhekisela kwezempilo abampofu engqondweni. Kodwa kungaba nzima ukuchaza kwempilo yengqondo. Kobukhulu ukulimala kobuchopho futhi umphumela wawo kwezempilo yengqondo kungenziwa ngokungenzeleli ahlolwe ngokunembile. Kodwa lapho izimpikiswano zengqondo ngabanye babe mancane ephathekayo, kuba nzima kakhulu ukwenza ukuhlolwa inhloso impilo yabo yengqondo. Ingqondo enempilo babengase babhekwe nengqondo ojabulayo noma nengqondo ukuba ngalokufanele oqondayo lokho kuyinto engokoqobo futhi siyini cha. Kodwa ezimbili kulabo ithi kungukuthi njalo correlated. Eyodwa njalo kungaba bajabule kakhulu futhi unqamukile kakhulu qiniso noma kabi ngaphandle kokuba nhlobo ingqondo namtjhana kokudumazeka. Kusukela kukhona kangaka sibe esisazokufunda ngezwe lethu, Izincazelo ehlukene kakhulu ngokoqobo kungase futhi kucatshangelwe ngokulinganayo ozwakalayo, elibuye ephambanisa impikiswano.

Naphezu kwakho konke lokhu, ubuhlanya usalokhu lisebenza kwezomthetho osemthethweni futhi koke. Amazwi athi “ingqondo” futhi “psychosis” baye balisusa uhlanya ezimweni iningi yezokwelapha futhi ngokuvamile la mazwi asetshenziswe synonymously nge bayasangana, okuyinto nje unezela ekudidekeni mayelana migomo.

Psychosis lisuselwa lesiGreki engikhulume, ψυχή noma “psyche” kanye ωσις noma “osis.” Psyche kusho umqondo noma umphefumulo kanye osis lisho isimo okungavamile, kanjalo psychosis nezwi lisho isimo okungavamile ingqondo. Uma umuntu ukusangana zangempela, lokhu akusho abayikho ngempela ukwenza ngokuhlakanipha noma ngokuthula, ngakho akufanele ukususa ngaso sonke isikhathi engekho enkantolo. Lokhu ukuzimisela kufanele sithinteke ngu ezahlukene zici. Psychosis kungaba isukela kakhulu kuya emnene, futhi psychosis kungenziwa esibangelwa ezahlukene izimo ezingahlobene kanye netinchubo zemvelo (efana esikhathini njengoba kushiwo), ngakho kwakuqabukela kudinga njalo esibhedlela. (Ngenhlanhla, abesifazane kungukuthi kokuba institutionalized for osesikhathini.)

Inhloso ingqondo ukuqoqa imininingwane ezintweni ezishukumisa zangaphandle, inqubo it ngokuhambisana nangokuhlangana azale, ukusabela ezifanele nokunenjongo. Psychosis kwenzeka lapho okuzenzakalelayo yangaphakathi (okubangelwa elilodwa noma ngaphezulu izimo okukhulunywe ngazo ngenhla) ezindaweni primary sezinzwa zobuchopho is kabi by izindawo secondary sezinzwa zobuchopho njengoba imininingwane ezintweni ezishukumisa yangaphandle. Uma lokhu kwenzeka ingqondo bayokubona izinto musa ngokwenyama zikhona.

Ukusangana kungabuye esibangelwa izidakamizwa njengoba kushiwo, ezinye zazo kwandiswe okuzenzakalelayo cortical futhi bahlule imininingwane real babuthana kusuka ezintweni ezenzeka ngaphandle emhlabeni wangempela. Ukusangana kungukuthi Nokho kubhekwe ingqondo njalo,. Uma umuntu ukusangana sezinzwa kodwa baqaphele ukuthi bangabantu ukusangana adalwe izingqondo zabo hhayi ezintweni ezenzeka ngaphandle kwangempela ke lowo muntu ngeke kucatshangelwe ingqondo. Lokhu kwesinye isikhathi ngeke kucatshangelwe enkantolo.

Elinye igama kuyadingeka futhi ukuchaza isimo lapho umuntu engaqinisekile ngabe ezishukumisa Uqaphelile kukhona kwangaphakathi noma nabangaphandle. (“Quasi-ingqondo” kungenzeka efanelekayo.) Ngokuqinisekile, umuntu wayengase namanje enze ngokuhlakanipha emanqikanqika ezinye mayelana umthombo womsebenzi sezinzwa, ikakhulukazi ngokuqondiswa nabanye ababekwazi asize Ground umuntu ngokoqobo.

Ilebula of psychosis livame ukusetshenziswa pejoratively odokotela ukuba brand ukuziphatha bona babheka okungafunwa, ngisho nalapho la ukuziphatha akuzona ingqondo futhi wayefisa yisiguli. Le psychosis elithi kwaba busho okufanayo ngobuhlanya nobe ubuhlanya kuze kuze kwencazelo kwahlukaniswa ukuchaza bipolar disorder ne bayasangana ngokwehlukana. Kodwa zihlukanise kwencazelo psychosis ukuchaza iziyaluyalu ezimbili ezahlukene kwakungeyona konke ezinengqondo ngenxa nje wadala amalebuli ezimbili ezahlukene amaqoqo ukuziphatha ukuthi odokotela abakwazi ukuchaza ngokugcwele noma ngesilinganiso usebenzisa izindlela zesayensi noma ngisho ukuqonda ezimweni eziningi. (Ngokuvamile ukuxilongwa axutshwa up.

5.16 ngemibuzo umahluko phakathi Amafomu Okwamukelekayo futhi Ingamukeleki Kobudlova

Izibhedlela engqondo futhi amajele okufanele ‘ukuvimbela ukulimala, “kodwa izibhedlela, izinkantolo, amaphoyisa namajele kukhona sibakhethe kakhulu ngazo engase nabantu yingozi bona incarcerate. Kuyinto engenangqondo ukulimaza abantu, kuhlanganise ngokwakho, ngaphandle kwesizathu. Kodwa Izıhlabane ngezimali ilungelo lokufuna ukukuchaza ukuthi kuyini esizwakalayo sokuba nje kubangele for force and aboshwe. Kunabantu inala abantu abanobudlova abenza ukulimaza ngenxa yezizathu engenangqondo abaya bengajeziswa ngenxa futhi abanye babo baze wabhekwa. Umehluko emkhatsini amafomu neyamukelekayo akwamukeleki zodlame senziwa ngokuyinhloko yilokho luyasiqhubezela kanye nezinkolelo ezithandwayo bagcina. Akusiyo umehluko esenziwa kucabanga ngalokujulile mayelana yokuziphatha noma kwamalungelo esintu. A khetha ngabanye abambalwa ilwe izimpi futhi unquma iziphi izenzo zobudlova zamukeleka futhi athwala ukujeziswa, kodwa abantu zansuku zonke balwe nabo futhi athwale babekezelela umonakalo.

Abantu abaningi abenza izenzo abanobudlova akuzona ingqondo. Bayazi abakwenzayo. Ziyakwazi ukulawula motor kwabo imisebenzi futhi babe ngenhloso ukumlimaza. Iningi alingise of intukuthelo noma ukudabuka okukhulu, futhi kukhona owamukelekayo, izinhlobo zomthetho zodlame emhlabeni wonke.

Isifiso sokuba ezinobudlova noma ngisho Kill akuyona isifiso okukhethekile kubantu “crazy”. Iningi labantu sesixoxile ngokubulala omunye umuntu noma okungenani ukuba nobudlova. Into kuphela ukuthi ohlukanisa labo nje ucabange ngalokhu nalabo ngempela ukukwenza ngokuvamile umehluko kobukhulu sezigigaba kwaholela kulabo imizwelo. Pain iqoqa. Uma abantu bakholelwa asinalutho ulahlekelwe futhi akekho uyabakhathalela kubo, kuba lula ngabo ukuzehlukanisa humanity ubuhlungu ingozi.

Izigidi lihlatshelwe by izimpi eziqashelwa uhulumeni futhi izinkulungwane zibulawa ngamaphoyisa ekhohlakele njalo ngonyaka. Abanye abantu empini ngenxa nje yokuthi bafuna ukubulala noma ukulawula abantu. Lokhu akusho laba ngabanye babe yezifo zengqondo noma ingqondo, njengoba nje bonke ababulali serial kukhona ingqondo. Abaningi nje babe intukuthelo okukhulu. Kodwa amasosha kungukuthi efakwa ezibhedlela ngengqondo noma emajele efana ababulali serial kukhona, yize lokho abakwenzayo ngokuvamile ezahlukene akukho. It is imane okucatshangelwayo ehlukile ngenxa yokuthi amanye amasosha babe nezinhloso ezinhle futhi ukuthenga phakathi amanga omkhulu isidingo kwempi. Amasosha avamise kubhekwe heroes, kuyilapho labo ababulala ngaphandle kwemvume kahulumeni, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi inkolelo ngezenzo zabo, ngokuvamile wabheka phansi njengoba Villains zethu.

Ngisho isosha obulala amakhulukhulu empini walwa for uwoyela, ukuziphindiselela noma ezincane umehluko ngemibono ngokuvamile namanje kubhekwe iqhawe. Njengoba filmmaker edumile Charlie Chaplin wathi, “Izimpi, ludvweshu, kungcono konke ebhizinisini. Eyodwa ukubulala kwenza Villain. Izigidi a hero. Izinombolo angcwelise. “Ohulumeni kungaba yenza lokubulala mass sokuziphindiselela noma imali futhi ujabulele amasosha omzimba ephelele. Kodwa asikwazi ukuvumela lokhu. Ohulumeni abakwazi banikwe ilungelo lokunquma ohlala futhi efa noma ukunquma yiziphi okubulala kukhona zokuziphatha noma ngisho ukusebenzisa amandla iluphi uhlobo ngaphandle kwakukhona usongo ecacile futhi ayikho enye indlela. Kuyinto kuphikisana for ohulumeni ukuvuza amasosha ngenkathi ngokujezisa abanye ngabanye okungenzeka kuye kwadingeka umsindo xaxa kanye nezizathu ukuphokophela ukuthatha izenzo nolaka.

Lokhu nomehluko black nomhlophe zokuziphatha okukhona phakathi udlame kukahulumeni-oluvunyiwe nobudlova ngaphandle kwemvume kahulumeni akuyona okunengqondo, ngoba izimpi amaningi engenabulungisa futhi amaphoyisa ngokuvamile basebenzisa eqile. (Babethola ukusebenzisa izindlela ngaphandle force ukuvimbela ubugebengu like amagama, umqondo inoveli.)

Ngabanye abaningi efakwa ejele noma ezikhungweni engqondo ukuvimbela ubugebengu noma ingozi umphakathi, futhi lezi ngokuvamile izikhungo eziningi nomphumela okuhlukile kulezi ngabanye. The lokuhlushwa yokunakekelwa ngengqondo zibe izibhedlela ezinkulu kanye nodokotela kancane kanye nabasebenzi abenze ukunakekela engaphansi mayelana nokusiza abantu futhi kabanzi mayelana ukuthola Iholo. Uhulumeni United States ubiza amajele yayo ingxenye retributive nobe azilungisele indaba ngokuthi ajezise system yabo ubulungiswa ngoba nokuziphindiselela ngokusebenzisa sijeziso umgomo walo oyinhloko.

Ngenkathi self-bulala kumele kungavinjelwa, le issue ubuye mayelana lenkululeko siqu. Wonke umuntu unelungelo ukwenza noma yini zikhetha ngomzimba yabo siqu, ngisho uma bekhetha ukuzilimaza bona noma bafe. Kufanele senze konke esingakwenza ukuze kuvimbele ngabanye ekubeni ngowakho ngokusebenzisa amazwi ethu, izenzo kanye nesihawu, kodwa hhayi ngamandla kanye nomthetho. Isijeziso ukulimala wokuzilimaza ngokuvamile ushayela ngabanye ukuba babe ngisho nangokwengeziwe ngowakho.

5.17 Lo wezokuVikela Ukungaphili engqondweni futhi Ukwakha Alternative obugebengu zokuzivikela

Njengoba ubuhlanya okukhulunywa akulona ukuxilongwa futhi abekho criteria ezingokwengqondo ukunquma ubuhlanya. Zikhona ukuhlolwa ezingokwengqondo ngenxa ubuhlanya eziye ithuthukiswe kancane, kodwa ekugcineni abahluleli kanye juries banqume ubani sane futhi ongeyena, futhi abakwazi ukukhiqiza yisiphi sinqumo bangathanda ukuba eside kangaka njengoba kungekho ukwengamela. Laba ngabanye kungukuthi vetted ulwazi lwabo elokugula yengqondo, “ukungaphili engqondweni” noma psychosis. Eqinisweni, kwezinye lithi, akukho emthethweni wazise amajaji walokho ubuhlanya kusho. Ukwenza kanjalo kungaba ukubuswa njengoba amajaji ukuphazamisa kanye Chile in a mistrial. Uma le zokusebenza kwengqondo forensic okuhilelekile a kwecala akuzona amaqembu hlangothi (kungekho ubuhlobo zezimali kuya ukuzivikela noma ukumangalela) ke sencazelo yabo ubuhlanya kuyoba kakhulu oluthambile ezimweni zonke ngenxa nesithakazelo sabo ukunqoba. Ubuhlanya futhi ngokuvamile lingavumelani omubi kakhulu, ngakho uthuka nabantu ebone lokusangana emagumbini enkantolo. Ngokombono wami, kufanele baphathe isisindo esiningi kwezomthetho njengoba efanayo, ngokoMthetho inane efana ‘bonkers “noma” ubhanana. ”

Esikhundleni sokuzivikela ubuhlanya nge kakhulu ecacile psychosis wezokuVikela obanzi, izivikelo ezimbili nezimo kakhudlwana kulabo abane iziyaluyalu engqondo nalabo ukuntuleka engqondo kungaba isixazululo omuhle ukuvimbela izinkinga leyakhiwe ‘osangene sokuzivikela “kanye nokuntuleka ehlukile kwezomthetho amakhambi kubantu ngingemnandi ngengqondo. Ukuzivikela psychosis ingasetshenziswa yinoma ubani, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi impilo yengqondo yokuthi ubani kungaba ingqondo, kodwa ubufakazi obanele kuyodingeka babe khona kulesi ukuzivikela ukuze siphumelele. The engqondo disorder wezokuVikela ingasetshenziswa by abamangalelwa ababengebona engeyena ingqondo ngesikhathi ubugebengu sabo, kodwa ubani bazizwa ubugebengu kwabo kwabangelwa noma okungenani Ukuthonywa disorder. The engqondo disorder wezokuVikela okukhona Australia naseCanada, kodwa ngokuyisisekelo ethemini kakhudlwana kwezombusazwe lelifanele ubuhlanya babo nezokuvikela, futhi akusho ukumboza ezintweni eziningi kangaka zinkinga ukuthi kungathinta yecala. (Bahlale ngokuyisisekelo ilingane US ubuhlanya yezokuvikela.)

Lapho eziphendulela ubuhlanya ephumelela, (okuyinto eyivelakancane) ummangalelwa ngokuvamile uthola isinqumo esithi akanacala ngenxa ubuhlanya, (NGRI). A yimpumelelo psychosis ukuzivikela kungaholela isinqumo esithi akanacala ngenxa psychosis. Nokho, ezimweni kuyo abamangalelwa bagwetshwa esibhedlela amandla (kwezinye izimo ukuphila) futhi ke, bancishwa inkululeko yabo, it namanje akwenzi mqondo okuningi ukubiza kubo “akanacala.” Yecala lokungemaciniso Kubalulekile futhi NGRI verdicts bavame ukudida abantu ngoba njalo ziveza lokho abasolwa ngempela kwenza. Ngakho-ke, verdicts ezimbili ezingase kunengqondo kakhudlwana babeyoba “usho izinto njengoba zinjalo, kodwa unecala ingqondo” futhi “usho izinto njengoba zinjalo, kodwa unecala ngingemnandi engqondweni.” Lezi verdicts ababeyobona nethonya yezifo zengqondo zingaba on zobugebengu kanye nesidingo ukwelashwa Nakuba sivuma iqiniso ukuthi abamangalelwa akazange emzimbeni ubugebengu.

Lezi izivikelo ehlukile (noma ngisho abanhliziyo lesichubekako ngaphezulu) ayadingeka ngoba ezivikela ubuhlanya kunephutha kangaka. It angasetshenziswa malinger (zizenze nobe bazikhulise ubuhlanya) futhi ngokungafanele ukushushisa nabantu ngingemnandi ngokwengqondo futhi kuhle ngengqondo ngokufanayo, njengoba nami ngiye kuboniswe. Umuntu kungatholakala ukuba abe ingqondo kodwa sane ngesikhathi ubugebengu sabo, futhi umuntu nakho akudingeki kube ingqondo ukuze uthathwa udidekile ngokomqondo. [Xcvii] Lokhu akusho Akunangqondo. Akukho congruency in ubudlelwane phakathi psychosis kanye ubuhlanya ezinkantolo. Ubuhlobo is hhayi okuvunyelwene phezu ezingaphandle ezinkantolo noma. Psychosis kanye ubuhlanya avame ukusetshenziswa synonymously enkantolo, futhi ezimweni eziningi, iziqephu ingqondo ngokuthandana ezinkantolo njengoba iziwombe “ukungaphili engqondweni,” kodwa le ephambanisa nje izindaba ngaphezulu.

Psychosis akufanele ukususa ngaso sonke isikhathi engekho. Umuntu sane babengase conceivably yenza isinqumo oqotho ukuba abe ingqondo futhi benza konke abangakwenza ukuze kuzuzwe lokhu state ngengqondo nje ngenxa yokuba sokuzivikela emthethweni. Umuntu onjalo ayifanele ozoba esingaphansi ngezenzo zabo, kodwa uhlobo psychosis lomuntu okufanele ahlale efanele. Nakulokhu, imithetho ngengubo nobe ukuhlukana ayakhiwa ngenxa wonke cala kuhluke kangaka.

Izivikelo Alternative engiye okuxoxwe kungase kube ethandwa ngaphezu ayiveli ubuhlanya wezokuVikela endaweni ukube sonke uyazi migomo kanye nemiphumela yabo esemthethweni. Akusikho ngaso sonke onzima ukufakazela umuntu kwaba ingqondo ngesikhathi ubugebengu sabo. Lokhu kungenziwa enqunywe uma umuntu esikalini udokotela onolwazi ngokushesha emva ubugebengu yabo. Uma umuntu uthi baba ingqondo kusuka ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa, ukuhlolwa kwegazi kungenza lokungenani ukuqinisekisa noma inselelo le isimangalo. Kobuchopho lungasetshenziswa ukuthola ukuthi umuntu usanda wazibonela isiwombe ingqondo.

Psychosis akayena ubugebengu, kodwa uma kunomthelela yobugebengu, ithonya lawo kufanele wahlola ngokucophelela. Ukunquma yecala kuyinqubo eyinkimbinkimbi uhlukile esimweni ngasinye. Iziyaluyalu engqondo kungaba ngokuphawulekayo konakalise amandla wethu usebenze. Schizophrenia nobe wesikhathi eside izidakamizwa hard ukuhlukunyezwa kungaphumela kulokho ngezinye izikhathi obizwa ngokuthi “ixazululwe ubuhlanya.” Ukungaphili engqondweni yalungisa empeleni ixazululwe psychosis nobe izinkolelo obuhlala nesayensi nobe imicabango yokuzakhela ezakhiwe aphikelele yisifo sengqondo kanye nemiphumela yabo on nenkolelo systems, cognition kanye inkumbulo. Verdicts ezihilela kufanele ngokuyinhloko enqunywe nochwepheshe ezingokwengqondo, hhayi abahluleli, noma juries ukuvimbela izinqumo ezingenabulungisa. Ezimweni lapho umuntu enza ubugebengu ngenxa yezinkolelo kokudumazeka ephikelelayo nobe ukungakhuli okuphawulekayo ekucabangeni kwabo nekunoma okubangelwa disorder wabo, lowo muntu kumele kubhekwe esingaphansi ngokungenhloso.

Ngisho iziyaluyalu evame kakhulu zengqondo like ukucindezeleka kufanele ufanelekele ngokwengqondo disorder yezokuvikela. Ukucindezeleka okukhulu kungaba sina ezithinta izinqumo zomuntu, futhi kuphumele khona kanye ngowakho nokuziphatha obhubhisayo. Uma umuntu esilawulayo disorder abayimilutha (OCD) uphinda umkhuba futhi enza ubugebengu ngephutha ohlelweni, lowo muntu kungenzeka futhi feasibly asebenzise ngokwengqondo disorder yezokuvikela. A ekuvikeleni angeke ukuqeda yecala, kodwana nje ukwehlisa it.

Ezine zithi (Kansas, Montana, Idaho, no Utah) ziye wakuqeda nya ukusetshenziswa ukuzivikela ubuhlanya impela. Nokho, izinkantolo zabo ngokuvamile bayehluleka babone ngisho psychosis nobe yezifo zengqondo ezinzima njengoba ukunciphisa nezici. Kulezi ithi, ngisho noma zonke ubufakazi bubonisa abamangalelwa zase ingqondo, basengaba kube ababoshiwe esikhundleni esibhedlela. Lokhu cishe uye saphumela ukuboshwa ezinkulungwane zabantu yisifo sengqondo abadinga ukwelashwa zingakutholi. Idaho, Montana no Arizona uvumele ngenjongo sinqumo “unecala, kodwa lokusangana”, okuyinto self-ziyangqubuzana ngenxa yokuthi “ukungaphili engqondweni” by ncazelo yayo siqu kwezomthetho eqeda yecala.

A Isinqumo of unecala kodwa ezizwa engaphilile engqondweni okwamukelekayo ezimweni ezithile ngoba abantu ngingemnandi ngengqondo ziyakwazi ngamabomu ukwenza okungalungile, kodwa asenawo izidingo ezikhethekile ngenxa yesimo sabo angeke kubhekwane ejele. Iziyaluyalu engqondo bangaba nedangalisayo emajele futhi kuyadabukisa nokuzibulala.

Kukhona iqiniso ovamile wokuthi NGRI kuholela enkululekweni inani. Kodwa lokhu never icala. Labo abathola NGRI verdicts bephoqeleka zibe ezibhedlela ngengqondo, okungaba ngokujezisa ngaphezu emajele, futhi unquma uma iziguli ushiye. Ngezinye izikhathi umuntu zingahlala isikhathi eside e-esikhungweni ngengqondo kunaleyo ukube enecala ngokuphelele futhi ngaboshwa. Endabeni iNkantolo Ephakeme Michael Jones vs-United States ukuba engikhulume ngasekuqaleni kwatholakala komthethosisekelo futhi wasekela. Esinye isiqephu lesishayamthetho yamuva kuthiwa ukuvimbela lokhu, kodwa ngokuvamile angenakho.

Ubudlelwano phakathi premeditation nokuphazamiseka engqondweni ubuye eyodwa eziyinkimbinkimbi. Ngabanye kungaba methodically ukuhlela ubugebengu ngenxa imicabango yokuzakhela ezinzima athuthukiswe by psychosis esiphikelelayo noma izimpawu nezinye of yisifo sengqondo. Empeleni, ezinye iziyaluyalu singathuthukisa ikhono abo ukuhlela. Umqondo bophezela ubugebengu kungaba ukwakha ezingqondweni zabantu ngingemnandi ngengqondo isikhathi eside, kodwa isiqephu ingqondo kungaba yini edingekayo ukuze ibenze phezu onqenqemeni.

Ngaphambi kwecala kaDaniyeli McNaughton ngo 1843, isiphi Ummangalelwa ababenolwazi bengazi ngenhloso lobugebengu lalibhekwa enecala e-United States. Ngalowo nyaka McNaughton wazama ukudubula Robert Peele ke British uNdunankulu, kodwa kunalokho yena wadubula wabulala nonobhala wakhe Edward Drummond emhlane. Team McNaughton sika kakhulu kahle ikhokhwe defense babephikisana wayenza ephuma ideation Paranoid. Lapho amthethile ngenxa yesizathu of ubuhlanya, kwakukhona backlash okukhulu kusukela umphakathi, ekugcineni okwaholela ekusungulweni imithetho McNaughton (noma “M’Naghten” imithetho). Lezi mithetho isho ukuthi ubani omela ubuhlanya ukuzivikela has ukufakazela ababenakho isifo ingqondo eyayibenza engakwazi ukwazi okulungile nokungalungile. [Xcviii] UDaniyeli akazange ukuhlangabezana nalezi. (Uma ezama namuhla abameli bakhe cishe bathi wayengumuntu “ngaphansi kokucindezeleka okukhulu.”) Ngenxa ukukhululwa kwakhe, umahluko senziwa ukuvimbela acquittals of abamangalelwa ezifanayo esikhathini esizayo. Imithetho M’Naghten namanje zakha Federal Ukungaphili engqondweni Defense Test.

Amabili nanhlanu ithi namanje ukusebenzisa namuhla M’Naghten Rules (noma version modified kubo), okuyinto baye criteria standard for ubuhlanya kusukela kwecala McNaughton sika. It is a yeTestamente kuya ohlelweni lwethu lomthetho onjalo umcabango endala ubuhlanya yayingase namanje kube ukusetshenziswa. 21 lithi sebenzisa Model Penal Code Rule (MPC) noma inguqulo modified, no 35 lithi ashiye umthwalo ubufakazi ubuhlanya on ummangalelwa, kanti endaweni umthwalo bokuthi on the wombuso 11 nje kuphela. [Xcix] Umthwalo bokuthi kufanele ukuze abe on isimo zonke izimo, kungakhathaliseki izimo ngoba umuntu uhlale elingenacala kuze kungase kutholakale enecala. Oyobhekwa kuyinto eyisici esibaluleke kwabaningi wobulungisa izinhlelo futhi kwahlanganiswa Magna Carta ngo 1215.) Kukuyo futhi cishe akunakwenzeka ukufakazela ubuhlanya lakho siqu ngenxa ubuhlanya ayiyona inkulumo yezokwelapha.

The American Law Institute basungula Model Penal Code (MPC) Ukubusa ngo-1983 The MPC kungacishe lesichubekako ngaphezu imithetho M’Naghten eyisisekelo futhi ebanzi. Iqala gradations ezinhlanu yecala. Ngabanye kungenziwa enecala ngamabomu, ngamabomu, ngokunganaki noma ngobudlabha ukwephula umthetho. Bathi lungatholwa ngokucophelela akhokhe, okusho kunjalo benecala, kungakhathaliseki isimo sabo sengqondo. Ingxenye okuqhubekayo MPC ukuthi ubheka isiphi isinyathelo hhayi ngembaba bungavunyelwe njengoba zomthetho, okusho ukuthi abantu abakwazi ukujeziswa nje ngokuziphatha kuxaka noma esingavamile. Nokho, ngokuvamile basuke vele.

Imithetho M’Naghten futhi abaningi nezinye ukuhlolwa for ubuhlanya abuze imibuzo emibili eziyinhloko: Ingabe abasolwa olawula nemisebenzi yakhe futhi abasolwa uyazi isenzo kwaba ngokokuziphatha namtjhana ngokusemthethweni engalungile. Nokho, lawa imiqondo ngezigodi. Ongalindelekile ngamazwi noma motor yokuziphatha esetshenziswa njengendlela ukuzivikela lobugebengu kubizwa automatism, nakho ezimweni kubangelwa psychosis. (It kungabuye okubangelwa ebuthongweni walking, REM sokulala, uyaquleka nabanesithuthwane, nezinye izimo eziningi. Lokubulala kanti ubuthongo ukuhamba sekwenzekile futhi yasetshenziswa njengendlela ukuzivikela.) Nokho, ukwazi okulungile nokungalungile angaba okuncane zihlobene psychosis. Imibono yethu wokulungile nokungalungile akhiwa phezu sokuphila kwethu, futhi akufanele ngaso sonke isikhathi ngempela kuthinte yecala. Kwezinye izimo, akanandaba uma abamangalelwa bakholelwa base okulungile noma okungalungile ngokuba inkolelo yethu zinhlelo kakhulu ezihlukahlukene futhi latikhetsela, futhi abantu bangase bakholelwe baqinisile kakhulu enza izenzo ngokuthi iningi umphakathi kwakuyoba sicabangele okwakonakele kakhulu. Njengoba sivame wathi, “amaphekula Enye yomuntu Patriot yomunye umuntu.”

Lapho abantu alahlekelwa ukulawula ukuziphatha kwawo ngamazwi noma yikhono nobe babe ingqondo bese ukulimaza abanye ngephutha, akanandaba uma bekholwa abakwenzayo kulungile noma akulungile lokhu abanakho ukulawula. Nokho, automatism, asivamile wasebenzisa ezivikela, nakuba kwenzeka. Kwezinye ithi, isinyathelo abaphoqelelwe is hhayi ngisho kubhekwe ukuzivikela osemthethweni.

Imiqondo emibili ehlukene imithetho M’Naugten kudingeka baphathwe ngokwehlukana. Ukuvikela ‘zingayazi senzo akulungile’ kufanele nje usetshenziswe izingane (abangakwazi kubhekwe lokusangana, nje ongakasetshenzwa) kanye nabantu abane ukuntuleka sína zengqondo efana Down syndrome noma umonakalo abalulekile ebuchosheni. Kodwa umcabango umuntu omdala onempilo of okulungile nokungalungile kunqunywa eziyizungezile. Wonke umuntu ‘izizathu’ lwabo ubugebengu. Whatever ugqozi ababenakho babengase conceivably kusetshenziswe njengendlela ukuzivikela.

Iningi labantu abangakholelwa izinto ezesabekayo kunazo bakholelwa abayikho ngokokuziphatha right.But kufanele abantu ababili abenza ubugebengu efanayo ezishaqisayo kufanele wazama ehlukile yokuthi omunye babecabanga wayeqinisile kanye nezinye babazi wayengumuntu akulungile? To izisulu, it shouldn ‘t wenze okuningi umehluko ngoba ukulimala efanayo osekwenziwe.

Ukuzivikela ubuhlanya nobe ukulivikela lobugebengu angeke kuchazwe ngolwazi komuntu wokulungile nokungalungile ngenxa imiqondo lawa latikhetsela too. Abantu musa konke bevumelana nokuziphatha okuhle nokubi. Inhloso senkantolo ukushushisa kusekelwe emthethweni, hhayi zichaza ukuziphatha, futhi imithetho eminingi ngokwabo akuzona zokuziphatha. Ukube ubulungiswa kwakufanele ngakhonza ngokugcwele, zonke nethonya lwezenhlalo kwakuzodingeka kucatshangelwe kuzo zonke ecaleni lasenkantolo.

URobert Sapolsky, a neurobiologist at Stanford uthe kuxoxwa, “Ungaba ubuchopho horrendously owonakele lapho othile owaziyo umahluko phakathi kokulungile nokungalungile, kodwa noma kunjalo ayikwazi ukulawula ukuziphatha kwabo. Ngaleso sikhathi, ubhekene ekubhekaneni nomshini eliphukile, futhi imiqondo efana ukujeziswa nokubi nesono baba kwashunqa shu. Ingabe lokho kusho umuntu kumele achithe emuva emgwaqweni? Absolutely hhayi. Uphathiswe imoto ne amabhuleki ayisebenzi, futhi akufanele bavunyelwe ukuba babe seduze ubani kungaba ubuhlungu. “[C] Lona umnyombo engalungile nemithetho M’Naghten. Ukuba khona Mens Rea (ngenhloso lobugebengu) akunandaba emacaleni ahilela automatism. Yiqiniso, esimweni ngasinye enkantolo, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi isimo ubugebengu, isimo ngengqondo of ummangalelwa kudingeka kucatshangelwe. Ukuqonda ukuthi kungani ubugebengu zenzeka kungasisiza ukuvimbela nabo kusuka reoccurring.

Yimuphi ngabanye elihunyushwe unecala kodwa ezizwa engaphilile engqondweni kufanele athole ukwelashwa okwanele okusekelwe ecaleni yabo, futhi akukho muntu ngingemnandi ngengqondo kufanele bakhonze esele musho kwabo ejele emva yokwelapha. Amacala azihileli psychosis, kodwa kuhilele yezifo zengqondo kufanele wahlola ngokucophelela. Isimo sengqondo, imicabango, obhubhane kusilela, nomlando ezithile ummangalelwa kufanele sonke sibe nezici iyabhekwa. Kalula nje singabantwana ubuchopho bethu, ngakho uma umuntu uzalwa nge ukuntuleka okukhulu noma Azuza ukuntuleka kusuka endaweni echaphayo noma engenandaba, lokhu kufanele kuyithinte yecala.

Ubuchopho bethu kukhona lapho bonke ezishukumisa kusingathwa, lihunyushwe futhi yaphenduka okuthile okunenjongo, futhi ubuchopho bethu aphendule la ezishukumisa nithumele amasignali emuva ezingxenyeni ezahlukene zomzimba ukukhiqiza impendulo. Sithola isibalo babone ezishukumisa in sokuphila kwethu ithinta ubuchopho bethu, futhi lisenze. Kodwa singathola ukulawula okukhulu phezu ngubani siba ngokukhetha ahumushe ukwaziswa ngendlela ehlukile, ukuthuthela ezindaweni ezintsha nokwamukela amaqoqo ezahlukene ezishukumisa ikakhulu akuqinisekile, futhi uyasilandela kulezi ezishukumisa ngenqwaba ngezindlela. Kunezici nongalawuleki kwemvelo kuyaqabukela kuxoxwa ezimweni eziningi enkantolo, noma ngabe i ukuzivikela ubuhlanya noma ukuphazamiseka ukuzivikela ngokwengqondo odluliswayo.

Ifilosofi determinism ungasebenza ohlelweni lwethu kwezomthetho. Determinism umane uthi ikusasa liyoba eyodwa yezindlela, kodwa lokhu akusho ukuthi akekho free-intando noma ukuthi asikwazi lilolonge ezingokoqobo ethu. It nje kusho kukhona esisodwa intambo isikhathi. Akusisusi umthwalo kubantu, kodwa kudala gradations yecala. Nakuba konke ukuziphatha nemicimbi kukhona ukusabela hhayi izenzo ngomqondo, singakwazi namanje sizindla ukusabela kwethu phambi sibenza. Determinism akususi choice womuntu. (It Empeleni has kancane ukuyenza nalo, ngisho noma ngokuvamile imiqondo emibili kuxhumene.) Izinga ngalo kunezici ezahlukene lwezenhlalo iholele abantu ukuba ubugebengu kufanele abathinte umthwalo wabo wemfanelo ezingokomthetho zonke izimo, ikakhulukazi ezimweni ezihilela ukuzivikela psychosis noma yamanje “ukungaphili engqondweni” sokuzivikela.

Lapho umuntu ezizwa engaphilile ngengqondo eWits abo ekupheleni enza ubugebengu nobudlova, kuyinto ebuhlungu for wonke umuntu ohilelekile, kodwa visceral, nokukhala reactionary for ukujeziswa musa ukukhonza inhloso okuningi. Umuntu washiya ziphila (lowo ngingemnandi ngengqondo ezimweni eziningi) kufanele lokungenani babe ithuba aphile impilo enhle futhi nabantu abathintekayo inhlekelele kufanele bagxile kabusha izimpilo zabo siqu, esikhundleni ekuzuzeni zempindiselo ezincane ngokusebenzisa uhlelo enkantolo. Abantu ngokujezisa akusho umnyombo zobugebengu noma ingabe phakade lokulungisa amanxeba angokomzwelo, noma ngokomzimba. Lapho ababulali mass abulale ngokwabo emva umbhejazane yabo, abezindaba ivame namanje vilify kubo futhi sigubhe ukufa kwazo. Kodwa lokhu nje udlale energy eyayingase ubeke emizamweni emihle. The akahlanye media ukubikelwa nje kwenza ababulali kanye nabantu ngingemnandi ngengqondo elidumile, ezishukumisela ngabanye sengozini ukuzilingisa kwezinye izimo. Liphinde kugcina bantu abanovalo ukubukela, odala imali conglomerates enkulu abezindaba.

Uhlelo Inkantolo udinga nozwela futhi enolwazi forensic zokusebenza kwengqondo, zengqondo namajaji abathathi hlangothi ngokuphelele futhi lizinikele impilo nenhlalakahle yabo bonke abathintekayo. Sinenkosi ukuba babe nabantu abanesimilo akunakuthengwa umshushisi noma ukuzivikela. Lokhu kufanele kube njalo zonke izimo enkantolo, kungakhathaliseki isimo sengqondo ummangalelwa. Ukuze kuzuzwe lokhu, mthetho kuyodingeka abe ibhizinisi non-nzuzo. Abameli, abahluleli, amaphoyisa, bonke abahilelekile ohlelweni enkantolo kuzodingeka abe amavolontiya nobe exhaswe ohulumeni nezinhlangano ezingenzi nzuzo ukuze uthole iholo ephilayo. Lokhu kungase kubonakale like “olukhulu,” umqondo, kodwa kuyindlela nje ngiyakwazi ucabange yisiphi isilinganiso ehloniphekile ubulungisa oyoke kabanzi kube ukukhonzwa .

5.18 Ukucindezeleka okuguquguqukayo, engeza, ukusangana, kwasebuntwaneni wezifo zengqondo kanye Antipsychotics

Kanye iziyaluyalu iningi ngokwengqondo, bipolar disorder ne bayasangana zitholwe ngokuvamile kakhulu. Kusukela 1994 kuya 2003, inani elilinganisiwe lezingane kwatholakala nabantu okuguquguqukayo lenyuka ngamaphesenti 4000 e-United States ngokusho amarekhodi nesineke kusukela National Ehambayo Medical Care Survey. [CI] Lokhu engakaze ibonwe. Isibalo lezingane unesifo ukunakwa kusilela disorder (ADD) futhi uye lakhuphuka exponentially eminyakeni yamuva. Izingane bayehluleka esigxile esikoleni zivame ngaphansi-wayeshukumisa futhi asinalo ugqozi nomfutho kusuka kothisha. Izingane ayeyoba cishe babe nobunzima engaphansi ngokugxila ukube babengahlanganiswa ukujikijelwa ne umfutho njalo abezindaba ezingaphandle esikoleni. Futhi ngokuvamile izingane alingise yisiphi isizathu basuke pathologized ngandlela thile by therapists abangamazi enye indlela ukwedelela ukuziphatha kwabo.

Izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi abanalo kokungabaza mayelana kokuthola izingane umlutha amphetamine, izidakamizwa kanye okuguquguqukayo antipsychotics, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi bayayidinga noma cha. Kunezindlela eziningana zokuziphatha child zengqondo, kodwa izinkampani zokwenza imithi nethonya kuzo kanye. Abakwazi siqinisekise odokotela kanye neziguli a umuthi kuphephile izingane uma bayazi akuyona futhi wamukele little Sokuzivikela kwezomthetho.

Wonkana, kwengqondo yomntwana ingase ibe ngisho nangaphezu ekhohlakele kuka wezifo zengqondo omdala ngoba izingane lula ukuxhaphaza. Imibono yabo ngokuvamile abalutho engaphansi odokotela, abazali kanye nezinkantolo ngoba abanayo amalungelo afanayo kwezomthetho njengoba abadala. Kwengqondo yomntwana Ubuye ukuthambekela babe azilungisele indaba ngokuthi ajezise kakhudlwana lapho abazali ahlukumezayo futhi ukungathembeki. Abazali basuke in control futhi kulindeleke ukuba wenze lokho okungcono kakhulu izingane zabo, ngakho abazali eyihlazo ngezinye izikhathi hamba ababanjwa by therapists, othisha kanye namajaji. Izingane kabi nazo ngezinye izikhathi zibizwa ngokuthi “kids nkinga,” okuholela Ukujeziselwa nokushintsha emibi yokuziphatha.

Ukuthuthukiswa kwezingane eziningi ngezinye izikhathi ukubheka esiphambene kuya abadala. Kodwa kuyasiza aqaphele iqiniso lokuthi sonke on imikhondo yethu siqu, futhi ngezinye izikhathi izingibe nangezikhathi zokucindezeleka noma ngokuvukela ingafakwa okwakhayo. Nezigaba iningi bafunda nakho ukuba beze uhambe. Izingane Namanje asathuthuka kanye ubuchopho babo basengozini, kanjalo imithi ngengqondo kumele kube yinto yokugcina ngo zonke izimo. Kufanele kuphela wumgomo uma azisiwe ngakho futhi anikeze kwemvume.

Azikho ukuhlolwa kwezokwelapha for bayasangana nobe ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo okuguquguqukayo, ngaphandle latikhetsela, izivivinyo zokuziphatha, futhi akukho yimbangela elisebunyeni organic for noma yimuphi ukuphazamiseka ngengqondo. Udokotela single eyodwa kuphela edingekayo ukuze senze uphethwe, ogxile biases zabo siqu futhi ngezinye izikhathi imibono yezinye staff. Lokhu Ihlahlubo ngokuvamile kuthinta abanikwe khona ngenxa ukuphila kwabo. Ezinye izingane ziye branded njengoba schizophrenic ngaphambi baze bafinyelele eminyakeni eyishumi ubudala.

Ngenxa yokuthi bayasangana and bipolar disorder ungaveza izimpawu eziningi kangaka ezihlukene, kungenzeka ukuthi ababona iziyaluyalu leyehlukene kodwa kunalokho iziyaluyalu amaningana noma nje amaqoqo ukuziphatha. Abantu abaningi abane bayasangana babe esingaphansi gray daba ubuchopho babo kuka abantu isilinganiso, kodwa lokhu kungase kube nje ngenxa imithi kabanzi antipsychotics, okungenza kakhulu ukunciphisa gray daba.

Esinye isici phakathi kwabantu abane nezimpawu schizophrenia abaningi baye kuboniswa ukuthi umsebenzi xaxa okuzenzakalelayo kule Nenkabazwe sokunene ubuchopho babo kuyilapho abantu bipolar disorder abe umsebenzi enkudlwana Nenkabazwe ngakwesobunxele ubuchopho babo [cii]. Abantu-ze abakholelwa kule Paranormal, babe izinkolelo eziqinile ezingokwenkolo noma kokubili, kanye ngabanye creative kakhulu ngokuvamile babe umsebenzi xaxa okuzenzakalelayo kule Nenkabazwe sokunene ubuchopho babo. Ilungelo nenkabazwe umusa ngokwenza ukuxhumana “okubi” ngaphezulu, ukuphikisana Nenkabazwe kwesokunxele okwenza begxile kakhulu, ukuxhumana zezibalo. Zombili izindawo zobuchopho abe nenjongo yabo njengoba enza ukucabanga imilingo. Kodwa uma umuntu hhayi lusekelwe ngumuntu, bezibona oqinile zesayensi of engokoqobo, kubonakala sengathi umsebenzi omningi okuzenzakalelayo in Kunoma Nenkabazwe zobuchopho kungaba luphenduke yisifo sengqondo noma ukuziphatha uqobo okungafunwa.

Izikhungo iningi ngokwengqondo ukwelapha ukucabanga imilingo njengoba uphawu lokugula ngengqondo. Kodwa izinkolelo zivamise nje kubhekwe ukucabanga imilingo uma extreme kakhulu noma loya muntu owayezicabangela emvelweni, (isib izinkolelo ngokuba nobe ezinezici umprofethi noma Nkulunkulu). Nokho, lapho abantu enezinkinga ngengqondo kuthiwa indoctrinated nenkolo, abaningi expectedly bathathe izinkolelo zabo kulezi izinhlobo ezeqisayo. Lezi ukweqisa kakade ezikhona kanye ezincwadini zenkolo, ngakho lokhu akumangalisi. Angiziboni kungani ukugcwalisa amakhanda iziguli engqondo nge more ukucabanga imilingo (yenkolo nobe cha) kungaba okwakhayo. Abanye Abasebenzi enkolo nodokotela yenza imizamo beqiniso ukwethula enkolweni njengendlela ukusiza, kodwa kuyaqabukela awusizo yesikhathi eside.

Schizophrenia in practice yilona catchall term esetshenziselwa abantu therapists bengayi ngenye ilebula, kodwa abantu ababonisa izimpawu bayasangana sonke ezahlukene. Izimpawu schizophrenia avamise okubangwa iminyaka ukubheduka nokuhlukunyezwa, kanye nezixazululo kudingeka kuxoxwe nodokotela, abathandekayo, futhi kuhle nabantu abaye banqobe nakho okufanayo.

“Mania” yisona uphawu lokucindezeleka okuguquguqukayo ohlukanisa it sokucindezeleka. Mania livela egameni lesiGreki, μανία, okusho “madness,” futhi yisimo energy ephakeme, isimo semizwa, ukuyaluza nobe drive ngokocansi. Iziqephu bacindezeleke akudingeki ukwethula ngesiqephu ukwenama ngenxa isifo okuguquguqukayo okufanele senziwe, okungase kube esinye isizathu lo uphethwe senziwa ngokuvamile kangaka. Ngabanye kungaba Ngokuqinisekile ahlupheke ngesikhatsi iziwombe mania ngisho babe ingqondo, kodwa mania akuyona ngaso sonke negative ngoba kungandisa nobuqambi komuntu nemikhicito ngisho uzizwe ukudakwa. Isimo ngokwayo ngokuqinisekile akudingi njalo esibhedlela.

Wonke ukuphazamiseka ngengqondo uhlukile ngenxa wonke umuntu uhlukile, futhi lokhu kufanele kubhekwe odokotela zengqondo. Iziguli kufanele sibonakale njengabantu abahlukene futhi nezidingo zabo kufanele kubaluleke kakhulu abelaphi. Lapho kungekho ilebula ekhona ngoba izimpawu therapists bona, ngokuvamile ukuxilonga la iziguli ‘esingashiwongo disorder ingqondo “nje ukugcina isiguli institutionalized, medicated noma kokubili. Esingashiwongo disorder ingqondo kuyisici ilebuli ezingacacile ngokwedlulele ukuthi kuyinto Akulona usizo ukuze kokubili iziguli nodokotela. It is kubhekwe omunye subtypes nantathu of ukusangana. Iningi imikhakha yisifo sengqondo nazo sibe subtypes efanayo ngokuthi “hhayi ebekiwe ngenye indlela,” ezisetshenziswa uma iziguli zehlukile criteria ngqo nganoma yisiphi disorder. Lokhu kubonisa isidingo umcabango uketshezi kakhudlwana zempilo yengqondo kanye nokuphazamiseka. Abantu angeke abhalwe ufake ngezigaba ngenxa ezigabeni zethu yentuthuko sonke ezahlukene kangaka.

Izinkinga eziyimbangela ezibangela yezifo zengqondo abakwazi njalo ukukhonjwa nobe kulinganiswa ngokwesayensi. Izifo ezihlasela ubuchopho like umdlavuza ubuchopho kungaba kodwa iziyaluyalu efana ukucindezeleka akuzona izifo futhi zingaba abstract kakhulu futhi iyadlula. Akudingeki ukuba ube nokuphila-eside. Abantu nala iziyaluyalu ngokuvamile babe umsebenzi engajwayelekile neurochemical, kodwa imithombo mehluko yamakhemikhali kungaba engafani kakhulu. Zingaba bangaphandle, ngofuzo noma abazimisele yona. Ukuhlonza futhi bexoxa imithombo ngokuvamile kubaluleke kakhulu. Ukuphazamiseka abaningi nje bafunda ukuziphatha, futhi lezi ukuziphatha kungathuthukiswa futhi “UN-wafunda.” Ngokuba iziguli ukuhlukumezeka ngokomzwelo nangokomzimba obunzima, ukukhuluma ngalezi okuhlangenwe nakho kungaba usizo ngaphezu yimuphi imithi.

Antipsychotics asetshenziselwa ‘aphathe’ ukusangana ikakhulu abophele dopamine ezenza futhi nqamula zokubonisa okuholela ukukhiqizwa encishisiwe of dopamine. Abantu abane bayasangana kuyabekwa le mithi ngoba esithebeni umbono dopamine of bayasangana speculates ngokuthi schizophrenia okubangwa ngokweqile of dopamine ngenxa eziyimbangela yezinkinga ezizuzwa zokubonisa esibangelwa yizici zemvelo kanye zofuzo. Dopamine kabusha kwalabo abatholako inhibitors efana cocaine, meth kanye crack babe ngokuyisisekelo umphumela okuhlukile. Babopha kuya dopamine ezenza futhi andise dopamine in the Zokuxhumana Zobuchopho okwesikhashana, okuyinto zinemiphumela ukuthi ongafana le “izimpawu emihle ‘of ukusangana. Kodwa le mithi ekugcineni yehle amazinga dopamine lapho umlutha ubeka in ngenxa okuwuphawu encishisiwe kanye nokulahlekelwa nokuzwela dopamine. Empeleni abanye dopamine reuptake inhibitors angase abe emihle yesikhathi eside umphumela kulabo abane bayasangana ngenxa yalesi sizathu, uma yesikhathi eside dopamine ukuncishiswa yilokho abakudingayo, kodwa lokhu luwukuqagela kakhulu. Nokho, lokhu (kanye kugwenywe okwesikhashana high) kungenzeka kungani schizophrenics abaningi kangaka zama self-medicate nalezi mithi.

Iningi antipsychotics babe ziyezwana kakhulu D2 subtype yokwamukela, okuyinto ingenye subtypes ezinhlanu eziyinhloko dopamine mangqamuzana ezinzwa, kodwa abaningi antipsychotics kungaba unamathela nezinye subtypes dopamine, serotonin mangqamuzana ezinzwa, nezinye eziningi ezenza, okungaba ukukhiqiza ibutho side effects. Futhi kungadala abaningi iziyaluyalu ahlukene zengqondo like dyskinesias tardive ukuthi abangela ukunyakaza abaphoqelelwe, twitching kanye kuhlanekezela nasemilenzeni. Iningi izimpawu emibi bayasangana (efana avolition, flat ezithinta, ukuntuleka yokukhuluma) kubonakala sengathi kubangelwa kakhulu dopamine abaphikisi asetshenziselwa ‘aphathe’ it, futhi ziningi ezinye emibi kuya antipsychotics, okuyizinto kude ezincane. Lezi zihlanganisa ukwehlisa esilindelekile sokuphila, isisindo somzimba, ukulahlekelwa motor control, kwehla in white cell ukubala egazi, dysphoria neuroleptic, (zokungajabuli noma ukucobeka jikelele) neuroleptic syndrome olubulalayo, ngisho psychosis tardive. Ukusetshenziswa okungamahlalakhona of neuroleptics nakho kungaholela ekufeni neuronal, kwezinso ezingenakuhlehliswa in ekusebenzeni kobuchopho, kunciphe elikhulu ubuchopho ivolumu.

Odokotela abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi schizophrenia ukuphazamiseka neurodegenerative, kodwa lokhu kungase kungabi icala. Ngabanye abaningi bayasangana babe liyancipha ku ubuchopho volume, kodwa abaningi nje zithola kuhlonzwe bayasangana emva beye on antipsychotics iminyaka. Ngo-2010 odokotela Joanna Moncrieff noJonathani Leo wakuhlaziya idatha kusuka ezifundweni multiple on the subject futhi bathola ukuthi iziguli une-bayasangana in zonke esifundweni ababengakaze kuthathwe antipsychotics yabonisa “akukho umehluko enkulu cerebral global, gray-udaba, ventricular noma CSF (uketshezi cerebrospinal) imiqulu, “kanti iziguli ukusetshenziswa okungamahlalakhona of antipsychotics” wabonisa ukwehla enkulu ngomphefumulo ebuchosheni, imiqulu cortical nobe grey-ndaba, noma ukwanda enkulu CSF nobe ventricular imiqulu, kuqhathaniswa zokulawula “ngo-14 the izifundo 26 MRI. [ciii]

Le nesenzakalo yokuphila-nesikhathi kwezidakamizwa angu mayelana mahlanu phakathi kwabantu unesifo sokuphazamiseka kwengqondo [civ] futhi iningi (kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa) kuyabekwa antipsychotics kanye, ngakho kuba izidakamizwa kungenzeka of ifomu eyodwa noma kwenye are the ezivamile imbangela izimpawu ukusangana. Iningi zimpawu kungenziwa olutholwa ubani. Izimpawu okuyize, ukusangana hhayi futhi kudingeka khona ukuba unesifo the disorder. The, “okungekuhle ‘futhi izimpawu’ emihle ” engqondweni yethu ‘of bayasangana like avolition (ukungakwazi azibonele ubumnandi), disorder imicabango nobe emagama, imizwa noma ayizicaba ezithinta (imiva kwanciphisa), abampofu ukusebenza executive, catatonia (motionlessness nobe motor okweqile disorders umsebenzi) kanye nokunyakaza efana ‘grimacing ebusweni “kungaba sonke kumelwe ezivezwa izidakamizwa ethile efana neuroleptics kanye dopamine reuptake inhibitors. Bangabuye kubangelwa ukucindezeleka nezinye izifo zengqondo.

Yezidakamizwa (ikakhulukazi imilutha ivuselela) kanye nabasebenzisi abangenawo bayasangana bavame ngokungeyikho Zingu njengoba schizophrenic odokotela. Cocaine kanye amphetamine kwengqondo zibhekwa ahlukene iziyaluyalu engqondo the DSM. Le mithi kungabangela psychosis esinzima, kodwa akwenzi mqondo okuningi ukuhlonza okwesikhashana, psychosis izidakamizwa-eyenga njengendlela disorder ngengqondo. I DSM libuye libabiza cishe zonke izidakamizwa ezingemthetho njengoba imbangela ezingase zivele of psychosis kanye ‘disorder ngengqondo. “Izidakamizwa abaningi kungabangela psychosis kodwa kuphela at ebulilini kakhulu. Yimuphi izidakamizwa kungaba isihlungu at umthamo eliphezulu ngokwanele.

Abantu bayasangana Namanje neuroleptics kabanzi phezu-enqunyiwe ngenxa lapho ephathwa, iziguli ziba lula ukulawula niwunqobe. Dopamine abaphikisi ukuvimba yokubopha endogenous agonist dopamine kuya dopamine mangqamuzana ezinzwa, ngaleyo ndlela ezivimbela isignali ezivezwa agonist. Lokhu kungaba nomphumela sesikhashana anti-ingqondo namtjhana tranquilizing, kodwa lapho zaphathwa isikhathi eside iziguli ngesikhathi baba ngokweqile engazweli dopamine wokumboza umphumela dulling of antipsychotics. Lokhu kungaholela ube nesifo samathumbu side-effects okukhulunywe, okuyizinto ngokuvamile iphutha for eziya ziba zimbi izimpawu bayasangana futhi ziphathwe odokotela nge more antipsychotics, kuphumele emjikeletweni ngonya.

Ziningana therapists efana uDkt David Healy, i isazi sokusebenza Irish kanye nombhali, baye bathi izinkampani zemithi ziye zazama bagunyaze esithebeni umbono dopamine of bayasangana (efana esithebeni umbono serotonin lokucindezeleka) kute ukwandisa yokuthengisa izidakamizwa zabo. Enza schizophrenia sika cishe eziyinkimbinkimbi ngaphezu izinkampani izidakamizwa sikholelwe. It is a ukuphazamiseka ngengqondo ekhanya wayeqonda kanye ‘ezisheshayo zokuxazulula izinkinga “of antipsychotics cishe kubonakala njengoba kwamacala esikhathini esizayo. Therapy Electroconvulsive (ECT), ngezinye izikhathi elisetshenziselwa ngokuhlangana ne antipsychotics, cishe kubonakala njengento ephakathi lapho zokwelapha ezingabalulekile esiyingozi sezivamile. Imithi izolo zivame kubhekwe onobulwane odokotela namuhla, kodwa bambalwa ucabangele imithi zamanje kanye zokwelapha zingase zibe nje bakudala njengoba zokwelapha zethu ezindala. Abathile abaye bathola ECT “therapy” ziye wamangalela for imiphumela, abalulekile ukulimala kobuchopho nenkumbulo ukulahleka.

Ngaphambi antipsychotics yasungulwa lobotomies kwakuvamile “zokwelapha” for bayasangana, futhi zisetshenziswa namanje lapho iziguli musa ‘aphendule “nemithi. A lobotomy kuyinto Inqubo lapho elilodwa noma ngaphezulu izingxenye zobuchopho (ngokuvamile ukuxhumana kuya cortex prefrontal) ziya ubhujiswe ngokoqobo ovuthayo noma ukhipha ngokuphelele. Le lobotomy lokuqala lwenziwa ngo 1935 futhi kwaba inqubo khulu ebisetshenziswa emashumini amabili e ikakhulu athuthukile, amazwe acebe. By 1951, 20,000 lobotomies zase eyenziwa e-United States iyodwa. [CV]

Ngokubona kwami​​, esebenzisa lobotomy ukuba “ikhambi” ukuphazamiseka ngengqondo sifana uzama ukulungisa TV esabekwa smashing it ngesando. It ingenye ongahluziwe, izinqubo iningi koda futhi amoral ukuba njalo isetshenziswe njengendlela “ukwelashwa” for isesimweni futhi isasetshenziswa nanamuhla for ukusangana, ukuluthwa nokuphazamiseka noma ezincane zengqondo efana ukucindezeleka futhi OCD, ikakhulukazi e-US kanye UK. Okuwukuphela Isizathu lobotomies zisekelwa odokotela kungenxa yokuthi benze iziguli lula ukulawula like antipsychotics.

Ngo 1948 Mit Uprofesa nombhali, Norbert Weiner, wachaza “Prefrontal lobotomy … esanda abanesimo vogue ethile, cishe ngeke unconnected neqiniso lokuthi kwenza ukunakekelwa onelungelo lokuhlala nezingane iziguli eziningi lula. Ngivumele ziphawula in okudlulayo ubabulala kwenza ukunakekelwa wabo onelungelo lokuhlala nezingane namanje lula. “Isici kucasula kakhulu lobotomies wukuthi izisulu bangalokothi wazi njani bona zabathinta kubo. Bangase bazizwe kahle naphezu kokuba ehluke kakhulu, abahlakaniphile nokuhlupheka nezinye side-effects.

5.19 iziyaluyalu engqondo, izifo ubuchopho kanye nobuhlobo babo nezifo somzimba

Imboni yezempilo yengqondo pathologizes hhayi ukungezwani nje evamile yabantu, kodwa nemizwa okuvamile kwabantu. Nokho, akuyona ezinengqondo nobe efinyelelekayo kuphela ukuba sihlangabezane imizwelo engaguquki ungalokothi enze ngobuwula kusukela emhlabeni akuyona ezinengqondo nobe enengqondo njalo. Uma singalokothi ukungabaza thina lizame baqonde ukuthi kungani esiyikho singobani nokuthi kunalokho nathi nje benze lokho ngokuvamile avumelekile, siba asibandakanyeki kuze ajenda kwezinhlangano ukuba usibuse.

Ukungafani izilwane bathuthukise kwemvelo. Labo kufanelekile kakhulu izindawo zabo asinde. Kodwa thina sishiye it up abantu ngamandla ukunquma yiziphi Ukwehluka ezizuzisayo, futhi ngaleyo ndlela babe namandla lokuqondisa inkambo yethu kwemvelo. Zikhetha lokho bona ukuqonda njengoba ukuziphatha ’emvelo “kanye Zikhipha the ukweqisa uma Ngokuphawulekayo eshintsha isimo sethu.

Ngokombono wami, impilo yengqondo kwangempela kuphela ufinyelelwe ngokuba ngokugcwele kutsha ne irrationality, ukhahlo, nokungaqiniseki ekuphileni, hhayi ukwamukela izimpendulo lula. Impilo enempilo luhlanganisa esukela ekwakheni izinqolobane zokudla of imizwelo, ukuphishekela imigomo ezuzisayo ngenkathi kumenyezelwa uyakwazi ukulinganisela. Ngokuvamile, abantu abanjalo abakuso kutsha nalaba amaqiniso abuhlungu bavame enze uncommonly kakhudlwana. Kodwa ukuziphatha ezivamile akuzona njalo ukuziphatha ezikhiqiza kakhulu emphakathini noma imvelo. Uma kukhona ukweqisa abangabantu ezimbalwa futhi ukufana ngaphezulu ngobuntu kanye ungubani, abantu abangaphansi bazizwe njengoba wayeshukumisa ukushintsha futhi sithuthukise.

Esichaza ukuphazamiseka ngengqondo kunzima ngoba kwezempilo yengqondo kuyinto latikhetsela. Ukuphazamiseka iningi ngokwengqondo abafani izifo ezithinta ezinye izingxenye zomzimba efana izifo ezibangelwa amagciwane noma umdlavuza, okungase kube ngokwenyama ngimbone futhi ziphathwe ngokuvamile besebenzisa isikhathi imithi efanayo futhi nesikhathi futhi. Ngezinye izikhathi kushintsha nokuphazamiseka okuthile ebuchosheni kungabonakala ngokusebenzisa fMRIs, kuhlolwa kobuchopho noma microdialysis, kodwa lezi nobuchwepheshe nje kunikeza umbono ibe wezempilo yengqondo komuntu.

Izifo umzimba like umdlavuza ayikwazi ziphathwe kwengcondvo therapy nesimilo (CBT) noma nge-‘ecabanga ngabo away. “Bahlukaniseka futhi kwatholakala besebenzisa izinsimbi zezokwelapha kanti yisifo sengqondo akuzona. A ephelele, umuntu ngamunye “uphile saka ekhanda” can fake izimpawu yimuphi ukuphazamiseka ngengqondo futhi wavuma ukuphila. Kodwa umuntu bengayi ‘fake’ cholesterol high noma umdlavuza. Ngabanye iningi nokucindezeleka kanye nezinye iziyaluyalu ezivamile benganamukeli izivivinyo ukunquma yiziphi neurotransmitters ayinala kakhulu noma yindlala noma mangqamuzana ezinzwa iphaphe ngokweqile. Imiphumela okungavamile Very iyodwa azanele ukwenza ukuxilongwa noma kunjalo. Odokotela abakwazi ukwazi kahle ukuthi okungalungile (uma kukhona) ngaphandle kokukhuluma iziguli zabo kakhulu. Ubuchopho nje eyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu kwezempilo yengqondo ukuba kufingqwe ngokuphelele by noma lamanje isayensi kanzima noma theory elibukelayo yedwa.

Therapists abakwazi ukubuka wezifo zengqondo njengendlela ‘gxilisa’ izingqondo. Cishe wonke kwezinso zobuchopho zibhekwa izifo. Kodwa kunengqondo ukuba ahlukanisa ukungajwayeleki njengendlela disorder uma kuphazamisa izinga lempilo esigulini. Ukuxilonga imbangela umuntu ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo ukuze lichaze isethi ezingacacile kanye ezibanzi ukuziphatha waphawula futhi nezimpawu oversimplifies umqondo womuntu nomuntu kokuba waphawula. Psychiatry kumele nje kubonakala njengendlela ukudala ezempilo, ubone indlela ukwelapha ngabanye ngenxa amasu awusizo kungaba ashukumisayo, abstract kanye ehlukene ukuze wonke umuntu.

Kukhona kugcilwa kakhulu kuhlonzwe yisifo sengqondo kunokuba isizathu uphethwe. Izifo of yisifo sengqondo ukucwaswa ukuziphatha ezithile. Benza labo une ngokweqile bazi kubo, kodwa ukuziphatha akuzona izinkinga sole, njengoba nje izidakamizwa akuzona nkinga yedwa imilutha. Ababhekana izindlela. Kuze izimbangela yisifo sengqondo ngalinye cala ethize tiyentiwa, abantu abanalesi sifo kungaba imaski nje izimpawu zabo noma iphimbo phansi kodwa hhayi yokuletha ukuthula kwangempela kwengqondo.

Nakuba izifo zengqondo kukhona amaqoqo ukuziphatha zokusebenza kwengqondo kanye ngokomzimba, lokhu akusho kunjalo konke yokuzithandela nobe njalo yokuzithandela. Abanye Kunzima ukulawula; ezinye lula ukulawula, futhi abanye azinakwenzeka ukulawula. Kodwa kunjalo konke nje ukuziphatha ngomqondo wokuthi abazi ziphathe abantu. Othile unesifo sokucindezeleka akuyona ‘egula “nokucindezeleka. Eyisisekelo izingxenye neuronal ukucindezeleka ziningi futhi atshiyatshiyeneyo. Umuntu wayengase nje sibheke phezulu esibhakabhakeni bese lokho bagcine yonke futhi konke a banomuzwa engazelelwe iyodwa kakhulu. It akwenzi mqondo ukuba ahlukanisa abanjalo izikhathi eziphelayo njengoba yisifo sengqondo.

The pathologizing of evamile umehluko ongumuntu wezifo zengqondo namuhla kungaba zikhubaze ngokungathi sína izingqondo zabantu brilliant. Ngokwesibonelo, Geniuses lokudala angaba ubuntu “schizoid” okwenza nzima ukusebenza kwabo kwansuku zonke, kodwa ukugwema yabo ukuxhumana yezenhlalo engahle ukugxekwa yangaphandle kungasisiza futhi babasize ukudala imisebenzi brilliant. Ngenkathi yokuphila lokuzikhethela engayodwa angeke Impilo kakhulu noma kujabulise, ekugcineni ukuzikhethela. Abantu “Schizoid” basengaba kahle ezithinta abanye abantu ngezinga elikhulu.

Outliers emihle nemibi ingasifundisa kakhulu ngalokho eyenza abantu kwathathwa njengosongo okuhle noma okubi futhi ongaziwa noma ejwayelekile. Ingaba product constructs social noma ezinye ezicashile, izinkinga ebanzi futhi eqaphela la kungasiza ithonya ukuziphatha ezivamile. Imikhuba emihle nemibi, zokuphila kanye izici siqu, okungafunwa futhi wayefuna, bahlaliswa eqoqelwe ndawonye futhi Zingu ngoba ukugula ngokwengqondo abahlukene. Kodwa baningi nje ukuziphatha iyashintsha.

Ukuhoxiswa Social, sensitivity high, futhi introversion sonke izimpawu ‘schizoid ubuntu disorder “. Kodwa laba kungaba izimfanelo enempilo. Bangabantu izici nje imithonseyana has, kodwa lokhu akusho ukuthi zihlale olimazayo. UDkt UNancy McWilliams wabhala, “esinye isizathu Abantu schizoid babizwa pathologized kungoba abayikho isencane ezingavamile. Abantu e majorities bavame ukucabanga ukuthi Psychology yabo siqu kuyinto normative futhi ukuba athi enokungezwani phansi kunabanye. “[Cvi] Lo linembile futhi ngeshwa, nokuziphatha evamile kwamanje, ngoba ingxenye enkulu akukhona omuhle kakhulu.

Abantu kungenziwa okwatholakala ‘schizoid “ngaphandle ekunqumeni bancamela noma cha le yokuphila, kodwa lokhu akwenzi mqondo yimuphi. Ukuba ukuphila asebenzayo social kungenzeka unempilo futhi kujabulise kakhudlwana for kakhulu, kodwa umuntu angaba nazo unabangane abaningi futhi namanje bazizwa yedwa kakhulu. (Izidingo Iziguli abakwazi njalo azimisele kuphela lokho kubonakala kakhulu.) Izikhathi iDemo engayodwa kungazuzisa kakhulu kubantu abaningi. Uma senza njalo zishukunyiswa nabanye abantu, siyoba nesikhathi esincane sokuzindla futhi babheke ngaphakathi thina ukuthuthukisa izinto zokukhulekela eyingqayizivele kakhulu. Nokho, lo umfutho njalo abanye abantu kungabuye isisekelo futhi kuyaduduza. UMuntu phuzu sonke at zokukhula ezihlukene. Abanye badinga isikhathi esiningi bebodwa kunabanye futhi abanye isidingo nobe vuma kusuka nokuxhumana oqhubekayo, kodwa akukho yokuphila esisodwa kumele lithathwe njengoba kunguye okunempilo kuphela. Zokuphila kanye ukuziphatha nakho njalo kushintshe. Ngelinye ilanga umuntu angase azizwe sengathi ukhishwa umakilisi introverted kanye bazizwa elilandelayo like a extrovert convivial. Amalebula ukucwaswa nobe njengamagama alulazayo for ukuziphatha kungavimbela abantu abavela ukuthuthukisa imikhuba yabo kanye zokuphila. Lezi amalebuli angenza sikholelwe ukuthi thina akuzona abazokwazi ezishintshashintshayo thina, kodwa thina can ezimweni eziningi.

Omunye izimpawu iziyaluyalu eziningi zengqondo kuchazwe ngu DSM kuyinto ngokoqobo ‘izinkolelo unconventional “ezingqubuzana” izinkambiso zemiphakathi. “Uma izinkolelo unconventional kukhona okunezimpawu elokugula ngengqondo ke zonke onemibono brilliant ngubani izinkambiso zemiphakathi inselele kufanele kubhekwe egula. Einstein Noma uCopernicus babengase okucatshangelwayo ngokuthi “ukugula.” (Abantu abaningi ukugomela cishe abazange kubo bheka le ndlela.) Izinkolelo Unconventional kukhona yini ukushintsha izinkolelo ezivamile. Ngaphandle kwabo, umphakathi ngeke zishintshe. Njengoba Karl Marx wathi, “imibono yesigaba esibusayo kukhona kuzo zonke kwenkathi imibono elibusayo,” futhi lokhu kugcina isigaba esibusayo kuphela ngamandla. Akufanele sicabange ukuthi umphakathi ngeke uthathe indlela elungile livumelana namazinga zemiphakathi adalwa iqembu elincane labantu ongalokothi kwadingeka nesithakazelo umphakathi engqondweni. Amabutho ukuba usibuse nayiphi evamile. Senza hhayi bebonke, kodwa ngokuqinisekile singase.

Indlela spectrum izifo zengqondo ezama ukuchaza a ebanzi ezihlukahlukene ukuziphatha kanye nezimpawu ezingaba abaphila. Ngoba abantu bipolar disorder, isibonelo, ehlukene kakhulu, a spectrum isetshenziselwa ukuchaza izici ezingaphezu njengoba okuguquguqukayo. Nomkhakha elithi athize kangcono ukuchaza kwempilo yengqondo. Esinda kuchazwa amalebula Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngokuvamile nje ukusunduza bantfu yokwelula ubufushane lokho okulindeleke kubo, futhi ukuziphatha okungafunwa, kungaba kubi kakhulu futhi babe njalo.

Enye inkinga nge wezifo zengqondo wendabuko le ndlela esetshenziswa ingafaniswa nesimiso ukungaqiniseki Bezobunjiniyela quantum. Lokhu uthi isimiso ukukhanya oludingekayo ukukala isikhundla kuyizinhlayiyana kanye velocity, kodwa ngokwenza yokulinganisa kuyizinhlayiyana kanye kukhanya, izinguquko nomphumela. Ngokufanayo, odokotela ushintshe umphumela (ukuziphatha nesineke) nangokubheka it. Ukwazi izenzo zakho kokuba ihlaziye (ikakhulukazi uma kukhona zingalondekile mayelana ukuziphatha kwakho) kuvame ukuholela yabangela nokukhathazeka futhi ingasetshenziswa ukuba semthethweni kwezinyathelo ukukhathazeka pre-akhona odokotela babe, futhi ifuna nezimpawu ingaba yimbi ngaphesheya ibhodi yalokho. Iziguli kudingeka bazizwe angaphansi akukho kwengcindezi, okuyinto engenakwenzeka ecishe for yimuphi Isiguli yezimo abhekene izibophezele. Ngisho nalabo wavuma ngokuzithandela angaphansi esilinganayo kokuhlolisisa.

Ngikholwa psychoanalysis zanamuhla ubuye kunephutha ngoba akuhloselwe kube ingxoxo engokwemvelo, kodwa abangaphezu njengokhozi interview noma i ukuphenywa at egunjini enkantolo. Kuyinto kakhulu eyodwa emaceleni. Kungaba accusatory, kokululaza, futhi ligxeke of ukuziphatha beqonda nemicabango. It ubuye ayisona ukuhweba elinganayo. Therapists Abaningi musa ukushintshanisa lutho siqu mayelana ngokwabo. Bakholelwa kufanele babe “amaqembu hlangothi ‘abangasithandi ngokomzwelo izimali kodwa njengomuntu ekubeni akwenzeki sibe hlangothi ngokuphelele. Ungakwazi lwela ukuba kube njengoba nomgomo ngangokunokwenzeka, kodwa biases siqu nakanjani ezithinta ukuxilongwa kanye zokwelapha yabo, yingakho kufanele zenziwe evulekile iziguli. Ngikholwa Liyindawo kubalulekile ukuthi ungubani umelaphi wenu nokuthi yini enifana ukuze asungule ukwethembana nobuhlobo therapist-nesineke ezuzisayo.

Michael Foucault, ekugxekeni esiphawulekayo wezifo zengqondo kanye nezikhungo engqondo bathi ukukhoseliswa ngengqondo “akayona embusweni free of observation, Ihlahlubo, kanye Therapeutics; kuba isikhala ezomthetho lapho umuntu asolwa, wahlulelwa futhi wabalahla. “Ziyisijeziso namanje esinjalo ithuluzi ngokuvamile esetshenziswa ezikhungweni zengqondo.

Lapho iziguli ezithile babe imicabango yokuzakhela, odokotela bavame kumkhathaze ngokubuza imibuzo ezenza kubo ukwandisa on imicabango yokuzakhela zabo. Bathi kumkhathaze ukuba babe engenangqondo kakhudlwana futhi kokudumazeka, esikhundleni sokubuza kungani bakholelwa kulokho abakwenzayo futhi uzama ukuzisiza bamukele umbono lwesayensi ngaphezulu emhlabeni. Therapists ngokuvamile yenza iziguli faka ecaleni ngokwabo ngokuthi livume imicabango ngobudlova noma ngokocansi noma linxusa abanakho. Lolulwazi ngezinye izikhathi asetshenziswa ngokumelene nabo enkantolo, esikhundleni esetshenziswa ukusiza control nobe ukunqanda izifiso noma imicabango engemihle. Iziguli ezibhedlela ngengqondo akufanele babe sikhathazeke ukuzithiba incrimination in kwamaseshini zabo ngoba ubugebengu is hhayi yokuvinjelwa uvukela trust kweziguli.

Sekukonke, kukhona umthetho kakhulu kangangokuthi okuhilelekile wezifo zengqondo. Izibhedlela engqondo banomuzwa kuyadingeka ukuze isikweletu izizathu ukugada ukuqopha zonke iziguli zabo. Umsebenzi therapists iwukuba athole in emakhanda zeziguli zabo ngokusebenzisa ngokujulile psychoanalysis, ngakho kuyaqondakala ukuthi kungani abanye iziguli zikholelwa odokotela baye nezwi “bangena amakhanda abo ‘nge imishini ukuqoshwa noma ukuthi imicabango yabo ngokuba” kokusakaza. “Imicabango yokuzakhela Paranoid kanye nezimpawu eziningi yisifo sengqondo zivame adalwe zabagula ngengqondo ngenxa iziguli sinezizathu abe Paranoid noma besaba. Abanye bangase ukuthuthukisa ukwesaba engenangqondo, kodwa ngokuvamile ngenxa yezingozi zangempela kakhulu futhi intrusions. Izikhungo eziningi ngokwengqondo akuzona izindawo eziphephile. Iziguli ingasetshenziswa kabi ngu abasebenzi kanye nezinye iziguli. Kodwa odokotela ichaze kuyini yabangela futhi yiziphi nokwesaba kukhona engenangqondo noma okunengqondo, kanye nalokho kuyiqiniso neyamanga. Iziguli benganakiwe “ezinokwethenjelwa.” Cishe njalo

One uphawu olujwayelekile of schizophrenia ‘imicabango yokuzakhela kobukhulu, “engama imicabango yokuzakhela zokuba extreme ingqondo siqu. Lezi lungenzeka on by ezibhedlela yengqondo lapho ukwelapha iziguli engqondo kangaka ehlukile kunabanye abantu. Therapists ezibhedlela ngokwengqondo cabangela la izindima njengoba abanakekeli eliphakeme abanquma fates zeziguli zabo ‘, sifana ejele nonogada. Abanye babo lokucabanga la izikhundla ngoba kuyizinto narcissistic namandla-belambile nobe banayo yini ayengase abizwe imicabango yokuzakhela of ubuhle.

Therapists ngokomthetho ofundile kule Nenkabazwe Western iya esikoleni ukuze bafunde Psychology yendabuko, wezifo zengqondo nemithi okuyisisekelo, kodwa akukho imfuneko ukuze ufunde mayelana imibono ehlukene, amasiko kanye Psychology kwalezi bantu. Lokhu kwenza kube nzima kwabanye ukuqonda ukuthi labo abaye baphila izimpilo ezahlukene ngokwedlulele. Umcabango wabo of kwengqondo normative kakhulu esilinganiselwe. Ngokwesibonelo, okujabulisayo, ecebile, Harvard abaphothule oye nankinga zengqondo eziyinhloko akukhona cishe ukuyiqonda (ingasaphathwa kuhambelane) i institutionalized, crack umlutha unesifo sokuphazamiseka kwengqondo kanye PTSD. Laba ababili wayengeke cishe babe emhlabathini kuningi ezivamile, kodwa umelaphi bathini isiguli has imicabango yokuzakhela kobukhulu uma uyoke insinuates ukwazi okwengeziwe disorder sakhe siqu.

In an isikhungo engqondo ekahle noma iziguli emphakathini ngeke njalo ukugadwa, silahlekelwa ubuntu futhi bazovunyelwa space kakhudlwana siqu. Odokotela nabahlengikazi babengase ziqashwe kakhulu by ejensi abazimele kanye namaqembu nesineke nokumela ukuvimbela ukuhlukunyezwa. Kwakuzoba babubone mkhulu phezu ukuthuthukisa amakhono ekuchumana nobudlelwano, kanye nodokotela babengeke impela ukulalela iziguli futhi bazame ukufunda kubo. Iziguli nawo ayengase wanikela ezihlukahlukene ngezifundo on lahlukene izihloko ekusheshiseni uzibuse.

Mhlawumbe okubaluleke, akekho okufanele owake iqhutshelwa ngokumelene nentando yabo uma abazange ebugebengwini, (ngisho noma kunjalo ukuzibulala, ngoba wonke umuntu unelungelo lokukhetha ukuze siphile futhi bafe) kanye neziguli kufanele babe Miranda amalungelo afanayo (kwesokudla eselulekweni free, ilungelo ukuhlala athule nokunye) ukuthi abasolwa ngamacala babe ngokushesha uma wavuma yezimo abhekene noma ngisho ngokuzithandela ukuze kwenziwe ukuhlola. Uma iziguli bazizwa bona sishushiswa futhi odokotela awulalele, anesizathu ilungelo athule.

Indlela disorder a Ummangalelwa sika ithuthukiswe kufanele udaba enkantolo kanye. Uma umuntu engakwazi emzimbeni ukulawula kwakhe nobe ngokwakhe, abakwazi sikhumbule isiqephu noma ibhekene ukubona izinto ezingekho okuvezwa ukudungeka kwemizwa futhi babengenaso ngenhloso lobugebengu, la izici okufanele nciphisa nobe kuqedwe yecala, kuye circumstances.However, ngoba “ukungaphili engqondweni” ngokuvamile kuchazwa zomuntu by the engenangqondo okucatshangelwayo zobugebengu hhayi isimo ezingokwengqondo insane.People kulabo abasolwa, abantu abaningi benza iphutha libhaliwe ziyakwazi ukwenza izinto anonya ngokwedlulele, enobudlova futhi ononya ngaphandle kokuba nhlobo ingqondo.

A kulungiswe okuphelele komkhakha wezempilo yengqondo kuyadingeka. Kwakuyoba ukusebenza best njengendlela hhayi-for-nzuzo sector ukuthi wasebenzisa nomqondo ovulekile kakhulu, izindlela nesineke enophephela evumela yonke izinhlobo ezahlukene zabantu uchuma futhi imile okusekelwe okufunayo zabo siqu futhi nezidingo.

5.20 Ubugebengu, Ziyisijeziso kanye namaphoyisa nenkohlakalo

Abantu izisusa babe for ubugebengu (kungakhathaliseki ukuthi isimo sabo engqondo) kufanele njalo kucatshangelwe enkantolo. Abahluleli, juries kanye bashushisi, ngoba ingxenye enkulu ukunakekela kuncane kakhulu izisusa izenzo zobugebengu. Ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kohlelo yenkantolo tinkampani ngemali, ijagoni kwezomthetho kanye amajaji ukuxhaphaza. Umthetho ayinaso uzwela kubantu abane izikhalo siqu ngezinto angaphatheki, ukuze bangabe bethela ngentengo-tag.

Esichaza isijeziso nje kunzima kakhulu. Akukho mthetho omunye angaletha ubulungiswa ngenxa zonke simo kungaba ehlukene kangaka nokuthi liyini ukujabulisa kuyinto latikhetsela, kanjalo abahluleli kanye juries kufanele senze izinqumo ebalisisiwe ngalokho abacabanga ukuthi kulungile. Kukhona engele eminingi kangaka, imibono kanye izindlela ukuthi izinkantolo kudingeka leyentekako, kodwa abaningi basuke indiva futhi macala Nayenza ngokuyinhloko ngoba lokhu kuthatha isikhathi, amandla kanye nozwela.

Izikhulu zikahulumeni kanye enforcements nomthetho izikhulu ababona neze ngenhla abantu bona abize izigebengu, futhi abaningi ngisho kwenziwe ibhizinisi nabo. Izikhulu othembekile kakhudlwana ngokuvamile bengayi, kodwa bonke Amaphoyisa osebenza njengoba amathuluzi uhlelo kangaka nje zilandela amaphoyisa isigaba nokuqikelela imithetho ukuthi ukulimaza abantu abangenacala. Bavame benze izinqumo ukushushisa bonke abantu enecala yimuphi uhlobo ubugebengu, kungakhathaliseki izimo noma lokho abakholelwa ngenxa yilokhu? Bakhokhelwa ukwenza.

Ngokungena force noma egatsheni federal, abantu babeka ngokwabo sesimweni lapho babe ukuthembela uhlelo. Sinenkosi ukwethemba izishaya kuzokwenza izinqumo ezinhle. Amaphoyisa abeke ukuphila kwazo emgqeni for imithetho bangase noma angeke avumelane. Uma azivumelani nalokho nomthetho noma bengenakho Thembela izishaya kanye “ubulungisa” sesimiso ke izinhloso zabo awekho ukuvikela abantu. Abaningi ukujoyina wemaphoyisa nabasebenzi zasejele nje ngoba bafisa kwamandla kanye nekhono ukulawula abantu. Abanye benze lokhu ngoba babenqaba abathintekayo ngandlela thile ubugebengu, kanjalo ukuze uthole retribution bayohlala bezihlupha bantfu okungahleliwe futhi usebenzise eqile for career abo wonke. Kodwa lokhu kudala nje umjikelezo engapheli ubudlova kwandisa yobutha nhlangothi zombili yomthetho.

The izinhlobo ‘izikhulu’ esonakele ukuthi wenze ibhizinisi nezigebengu bakholelwa kunjalo ngaphezu komthetho futhi abaningi bashukunyiswa efanayo imfundiso izigebengu acebile babe. Lezi zikhulu figure kulula shake bantu kunalokho kuba ukwethembeka. Bathi kuyaqabukela abanjwe ngoba banamandla kakhulu, futhi bambalwa abantu balindele ukuba benze izenzo zobugebengu. Labo abenza abone ukonakala ngokuvamile esaba ukufakaza ngoba ngokuvamile basuke sihlaziswa, wesatshiswe nobe wabulala ngaphambi abangakwenza. (Abaningi JFK lokubulala ofakazi kwabulawa ngaphambi kokuba bangafakaza.) Bayoba umthetho kuphela ohlangothini lwabo ukuze nje sibanika ukuthi ngamandla.

5.21 Izimpi ezinkulu

Njengoba Ngiye kuboniswe, izikhungo ukuba usibuse ukwenza kanjalo emhlabeni jikelele. Izinkampani International ukusizakala bokufika ngomsebenzi wazo. Zevangeli zenkolo ngokuvamile ukuxhaphaza bangaphandle wemfundiso yabo, futhi iningi ezinkulu ezithengisa media yokusakaza emhlabeni wonke. Ohulumeni futhi alawule abantu jikelele ngezindlela ezingaphezu enobudlova. Bafuna ukulwa izimpi izidakamizwa kanye nezimpi isiko on izakhamuzi zabo siqu, futhi ilwe izimpi emikhulu nalo lonke emhlabeni ngenxa yezizathu ezifanayo. Ngezinye izikhathi, basebenzisa “isidingo of izidakamizwa ukuqedwa” ibhaxa angene kwamanye amazwe, kodwa izinhloso zabo cishe njalo efanayo.

Wonke mpi futhi US operation ezinkulu wezempi ukuthi akuzange kwakusho ukuba abe ukuzivikela noma impumuzo iye yalwa ukuze kuzuze bezinkampani American. Uhulumeni waseMelika iqala izimpi futhi sibulala abaholi abakholelwa ukuthi usongo capitalism ngoba badinga lesi simiso ukuze bahlale abacebile nokugcina kuyinto engemukelekile. America nezinye izizwe Imperial kungukuthi ebizwa imibuso angisenaye, kodwa imibuso by ncazelo esiqine. Baye nje iye rebranded ukuvela impucuko kakhudlwana. Aye asiza abeke abanye abantu bafuna emhlabeni ukwesaba futhi uzonde kakhulu efana Saddam Hussein ngamandla. The Bush Cabinet ayenobungane Saddam (kanye nezinye abashokobezi) amthengisa nezingalo, kodwa ke waphenduka phezu kwakhe ngemuva wesabisa izithakazelo uwoyela American. Zingakuqeda yini ukuhlonyiswa ngezikhali ohulumeni bese kamuva elalihlasela kubo kungenye umkhuba kahulumeni waseMelika nezinye imibuso.

Kuyilapho Intela kulowo ozobe ekhokha ahlupheke kusukela izigidigidi zamaRandi ukuthi yebiwa kubo ukulwa izimpi ohulumeni ‘, abaningi amabhizinisi big yenzuzo ngoba nikeza imishini nezikhali ukulwa nabo. Izinkampani eziningi nazo bazuze imithombo ekhishwe phakathi neMpi. Izinkampani uwoyela, izinkampani zokuhloba, futhi izinkampani eziningi ngogesi bazuze lamafutha, izinsimbi ayigugu (asetshenziswa American omakhalekhukhwini, computer, PDA kanye nezinye amadivaysi eziningi), kanye namatshe ezithathwe mazwe akhungethwe yimpi nezizimele izinkontileka wezempi yenza izigidigidi kanye.

Uhulumeni waseMelika ufuna ukuqhubeka ukuba kube, kahulumeni elicebe kunawo wonke emhlabeni ngasiphi izindleko, futhi akukho market ngeke uthinte. Uhulumeni waseMelika uye wasebenzisa impi ukwenza izidakamizwa itholakale kakhudlwana futhi bathuthukise inzuzo yabo. Njengoba kushiwo, ngaphansi Taliban, ukuhweba opium in the Afghanistan kwaba angabacwasi ukuyiveza. Kodwa lapho America yahlasela, indiva cartels futhi abanye amasosha noma kwasiza ayihambise. Lokhu nakho okuye kwaba khona phakathi kwezinye izimpi kanye, efana iMpi yaseVietnam kanye baseNicaragua Revolution. Esigabeni esilandelayo, ngizochaza indlela uhulumeni waseMelika uye wasebenzisa impi nokwandisa umbuso wabo futhi nendlela ikhomanisi got endleleni.

Ingxenye Six: Izimpi global for capitalism kanye corporations, kanti ekulweni ‘ubu Khomanisi ”

6.1 Ubunikazi ohlanganyelwe, intando yeningi kanye eqondile Marxism

By the 1950s yabhebhetheleka, izinkampani America kanye nohulumeni waqala ukuthatha ngokugcwele ukuntuleka kwemingcele bagqoka imikhuba yabo. Ngenxa nauseating, engapheli, tikhangisi owandile nezinye amathuluzi esenzweni ngokomzwelo nasemzimbeni, abaningi baseMelika zazishintsha. Amasiko zendabuko eminingi kanye nabantu ngabanye sidumale wabona ukuthi isifiso kuzuzwe umcebo nganoma iyiphi indlela ezidingekayo kwaba ezibhubhisayo. Kodwa ngeshwa iningi laba bantu abangazange bakwazi ukuhlela kahle njengoba ukusakaza kulingana. Isifiso sokuba enhlanganweni okuphelele futhi ukufana, ikakhulukazi emikhakheni kwezempi, cishe okukhethekile ukuze nsimu kubuswa ukuthi ufuna ukwandisa.

Amasiko amaningi ezizimele zisebenza on nomqondo nobunikazi kanye ngekubambisana ngokuhlanganyela. Kodwa imiqondo le akuzona okwandile imibuso ngenxa ababusi babo kuyaphikisana kubo. Lapho amaqembu yokuzinikela kanye ngabanye emazweni acebe sizame ukuthuthukisa la imibono, imizamo yabo ngokuvamile ukuyiveza. Izazi zefilosofi eziningi yamaGreki osekelwa umqondo nobunikazi zomphakathi, kodwa umqondo akazange basakaze ezindaweni eziseduze. Abanye Izindima zenkolo futhi vumela nobunikazi ohlanganyelwe nokulingana universal, kodwa amandla eziqine futhi ngobukhulu esingokwenkolo lakhula phezu kwesikhathi never kwadingeka lezi zimiso engqondweni.

ENgilandi (once umbuso kunawo Emhlabeni ngaphambi  iMelika yasungula) Kwaphakama ukunyakaza ezahlukene ngesikhathi izimpi zabo yombango ukuthi kuhloswe ukuba bazihlukanise iSonto namandla amakhulu kwezombusazwe eNgilandi of. Babebizwa the abasiphikisayo English. Amaqembu amabili abasiphikisayo wabiza Diggers and Levelers khulumela for nobunikazi ohlanganyelwe, kwabiwa kabusha ingcebo futhi wentando yeningi ngqo noma reversion kuya egalitarian, imiphakathi yasemaphandleni. Nokho, iningi la iminyakazo abangu libhujiswe, oligarchy ngokwenkolo okunobudlova of England.

In leminyaka le-18 eFrance, abaningi ezinye iminyakazo anti-monarchist kwakhiwa, futhi lezi iminyakazo uholele isiFulentshi Revolution of 1789. Lo inguquko saphumela Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, okuyinto sathi ukuthi “amalungelo zomuntu jikelele. “A republic kwamiswa ngo 1792 kanti iNkosi yangaphambili eFrance, iNkosi uLouis XVI, wabulawa ngo 1793. power izinguquko ezihlukahlukene kwenzeka eminyakeni elandelayo ngenxa Ukungqubuzana phakathi amakilasi elibusayo futhi ovulekile, anti-monarchist ukunyakaza.

Jean Jacques Rousseau wayengumuntu ovelele onemibono French owasiza kwakuzosiphemba ezinye zalezi Revolutions, futhi waba esinye Umsekeli of umyalo yobukhosi ithandwa noma ukubusa ngentando yeningi ngqo. Ongqondongqondo eziningi ekhaliphile French zamlandela emva Revolutions. Kodwa ekugcineni babengakwazi bakwazi ukufezekisa yesikhathi eside beziNguquko. France yabuye emuva i ohlanga yasebukhosini lapho Napoleon Bonaparte wathatha amandla ngo 1799. Wayengumuntu umholi ngonya futhi indlu yakhe enqobe waphanga amazwe amaningi angomakhelwane. Nokho, imiqondo le Revolutions awazange afe.

Ubunikazi ohlanganyelwe, amalungelo universal kanye nentando yeningi ngqo bakhonza njengoba isisekelo kobuKhomanisi. NobuKhomanisi, okuyinto livela communis Latin, okusho ezivamile nobe universal, kwaba ukuhamba wokuqala yezombusazwe empeleni abazange engase abe namandla anele ukubeka la imibono endaweni emhlabeni wonke. UKarl Marx, (1818-1883) i sefilosofi obucacile kanye mlando, wayengomunye abaklami ezinethonya kunazo kobuKhomanisi. Wazalwa emkhayeni ocebile kunalokho e Trier nobe ngokusemthethweni lasePrussia waseRhineland, isifunda eJalimane, kodwa naphezu kwalokhu yena khulumela for amalungelo abampofu isigaba sabasebenzi lonke ekuphileni kwakhe.

Kuyilapho kaMarx ikhomanisi ukusabalala futhi kwaholela eziningana ukunyakaza ezithandwayo futhi izinguquko namandla, ubuKhomanisi yagcina aphazamisa futhi wazihlaziya, njengokungathi akukaze kwenzeke, okokuqala Union kanye proxy yabo ohulumeni base by America kanye neminye imibuso. Iningi ohulumeni zamaKhomanisi yamanje ababona neze lamaKhomanisi, kodwa kunalokho single-party kobushiqela ukuthi wasebenzisa umqondo ethandwayo of control ezivamile nobe abasebenzi ukulawula ukubeka bomashiqela isicebi ngamandla. Iqiniso lokuthi babe tincenye uhlelo sezenhlalo kuthiwa athi ngokwanele ukubiza kubo ohulumeni “sezenhlalo”. China stills izingcingo ngokwako republic sezenhlalo lapho cishe wonke imisebenzi yabo emnothweni ngenxa ubudlelwano ezingalingani kanye yezohwebo, kanye nokuxhashazwa yesigaba sabasebenzi nezingane. America kunjalo inezici sezenhlalo ngaphezu China akwenzayo. Nezimboni uqobo nobuKhomanisi banamademoni kakhulu izinkampani i America kanye nohulumeni ngoba kuphambene izithakazelo zabo zomnotho. Kodwa abaholi iningi zaseSoviet like Stalin babengabantu bomashiqela abangazange weyengenandaba ngokubambisana nobe control esivamile nje osopolitiki American.

Esinye isizathu kwakukhona ukumelana kangaka ubuKhomanisi ukuthi uhlala namuhla ukuthi ukhuthaza secularism. Marx kwaba Ummeli oqinile for secularism, nezinye zakuqala ongqondongqondo eziningi obuKhomanisi kanye. In A Iqhaza Critique of Philosophy Hegel of Right, uKarl Marx uyachaza:

“[Inkolo] Ukuqaphela fantastic of the essence womuntu kusukela essence womuntu akuzange kuluthola yimuphi qiniso weqiniso. Umzabalazo ngokumelene inkolo, ngakho-ke, ngandlela-thile ukuthi umzabalazo wokulwa lelo zwe iphunga ogama elingokomoya nenkolo … [Inkolo] nguye opium wabantu. Ukuqedwa kwenkolo njengoba nenjabulo luyakhohlisa sabantu kuyinto ukufuneka injabulo yangempela. Ukushayela kuzo ukuyeka ukukhohlisa kwabo ngesimo sabo iwukuba ukubiza kuzo ukuyeka isimo esidinga zalabo “-. Karl Marx.

Marx wakwazi ukuqaphela ukuthi kungani abantu bedinga inkolo, futhi kungani abantu abaningi kangaka abambelele kulo, naphezu efanele ibe kuhlu lokuhlukumezeka zalo. Kukhona okuningi namanje omkhulu ayaziwa (nokunye okuningi kwaba engaziwa lapho Marx ebhala le), ngakho kulula kwabanye ukukhohlisa ngokwabo futhi ukholwa izimpendulo lula okungatholakala kugwenywe okwesikhashana noma numbing like opium ngoba asuse umthwalo ngithola ephathekayo, izimpendulo zesayensi.

Marx nawukuthi inkolo capitalism zase kude kakhulu. Inkolo capitalism womabili enza abantu bagxila engaphansi abanye abantu futhi okwengeziwe ngoNkulunkulu futhi ingcebo, ngokulandelana. Ingaba ukuzihlukanisa kakhulu ngale ndlela. Marx wayekholelwa la izikhungo athatha away yabantu ubuntu futhi yini little control ababenakho phezu izimpilo zabo ngoba capitalism imayelana sameness. Akekho okufanele ukuveza ubuntu babo ngo an line umhlangano, futhi zikwazi ukwenza imisebenzi ezifanayo ad nauseam, kufanele enze izinto njengengelosi Drone ezingaqedwa futhi izakhamuzi zaseBosnia. Kodwa asikaze sibe ukuba sizithobe lokhu. Singase ukubiza la imisebenzi izidingo zesikhashana noma bubi, kodwa akufanele nanini siyeke nesithunzi lwethu noma nobuqambi asinde. Akufanele nanini okutholakale wayebophekile nobe ngenkani ukuthengisa thina noma nomshikashika wethu. Singabantu eziwusizo ngaphezu lokho abaqashi bakhokhele us for umshikashika wethu nemibono yethu. Kunalokho, singakha baphane umshikashika wethu futhi lula ukuthengiselana kanye ezimbalwa noma akukho middle-amadoda nhlobo. Siphinde yayingase asebenzise lwemali kwezenhlalo noma ohlelweni credit kukalwa okuhle-ngentando, ukusebenza kahle jikelele kanye nomthelela. Lokhu Cishe kube ehlukile engcono kakhulu imali kwakuyoba sivumele noma ubani ukuba neqhaza emvelweni kwabo ngezindlela ukuthi ziyakwazi kangangokuthi babengase lakhonakele amalungelo ayisisekelo. Ngikholelwa le empeleni omunye izinguquko ezibaluleke kakhulu ingenziwa.

6.2 Umlando Omfushane Sokusebenzela futhi kungani wazihlaziya ngu Imperial amandla

Sokusebenzela, kobuKhomanisi capitalism zitholakala ngokuyinhloko zazibaxaka iminotho ngokwalo, kanye nabanye abaningi. La magama ngenhloso eligutshuzelwe ekusithekeni nenkohliso ukugcina iningi labantu ngokwazi indlela iminotho yethu empeleni zisebenza. Stigmas nazo linamathele onobuhle ezithile kwezomnotho like nezimboni ukuthi kukhona bubuhle okuningi ngenkathi ngokuvamile onobuhle ezingabalulekile ukujabulisa zihlotshaniswa ngamazwi efana intando yeningi noma inkululeko, ukuze abantu uyovumela futhi asekele ukuxhaphaza kwabo siqu.

Lapho abadlali bamabhayisikobho kwezombusazwe corporate basebenzisa ngokwemibandela efana “yenkululeko yezomnotho” kanye “nezimakethe free,” basuke ngokuvamile ebhekisela kunosomabhizinisi enkululekweni kudingeke ukwenza imali ngangokunokwenzeka ukusishaya indiva siqu wobuntu negative, ezenhlalo, kanye nemvelo imithelela yazo. In a system free-emakethe ngempela, azikho imithetho nabantu kakade capital noma isicelo izimpahla (kuhlanganise nabantu) njalo bame lokuzuza kakhulu kuwo.

In a komnotho isicebi ngokuphelele indlela ukukhiqizwa basuke ezizimele futhi eziqhutshwa for yenzuzo. In a system isicebi ngokuphelele uhulumeni kwakungeke ukulawula izindlela zokukhiqiza, kodwa lokhu akulona icala kunoma yiliphi izwe. Alikho izwe yizwe isicebi ngokuphelele, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi amazwe amaningi ukubona njengoba isicebi. Iningi empeleni isicebi crony. Uhulumeni owawudinga ukulawula indlela ukukhiqizwa emazweni ukuthi ukukhomba njengoba isicebi efana America, okuyinto ungaba muhle kakhulu. Uhulumeni kungaba ilawule izinsiza ezibalulekile kanye nemikhiqizo, efana lezamaphilo, ezemfundo, ukudla namanzi ukuqinisekisa kungukuthi nje wathengisa kuya Abavunyelwe ukubhida esiphezulu futhi uvimbele ukufa kwabantu nokuhlupheka. Kodwa inkinga iwukuthi ohulumeni iningi nje bafuna lokulawula nokulawula izindlela ezithile ukukhiqizwa kangangokuba singazuza kubo. Bazakuthi abayi egijima imboni inzuzo (efana ejele), kodwa kuthanda vele wenze kanjalo maqondana kancane for intshisekelo noma impilo yomphakathi. Baphinde sithole iminikelo yezombusazwe kusukela izinkampani ngobukhulu ukuze bayohlala basebenzele kuzo lapho ehhovisi. (Lokhu ubizwa nangokuthi capitalism corporate.)

In a system isicebi ngokuphelele ongenawo non-nzuzo izikhungo lutho kungaba free, kuhlanganise izinkonzo zomphakathi esindisa izimpilo. Imililo zazizosetshenziswa nje out by iminyango umlilo ukube kwakukhona ngabanye uzimisele ukukhokhela ngabo ukwenza kanjalo. Kwakuyoba nabantu nje athole ukuvikelwa amaphoyisa ukuthi babenabo imali yokukhokhela njengento kuhle. Njengoba Noam Chomsky uthe The Kingdom of Survival, “A somnotho isicebi weqiniso belungafica azibhubhise ngemizuzu emihlanu.” Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ngaphandle kwemingcele izinkampani bakhululekile ukusizakala abampofu baqongelele ingcebo.

In a system isicebi ngempela osopolitiki ngeke ngeemali izinkampani enenzuzo kakhulu ngenxa ukukhokhelwa abasithola. Babuye ngeke bailing abathume nge tax-lokukhokha komunye oyedwa ngemali ukuze abagcine ntanta. Uma ohulumeni anqume ukwesekwa kwabo yezinkampani ezinkulu ezikhona njengamanje, babengeke cishe isikhathi eside. Abasebenzi wayezohamba esitelekeni futhi kusukela amaphoyisa ngeke ifike ngesikhathi imibhikisho, izinhlangano kuzodingeka ngempela ukuhambisana nezimfuno abasebenzi ‘. Ngenxa yalokhu kunzima ukusho ngokuqiniseka okuphelele uma system isicebi ngempela belungafica azibhubhise.

Amabhizinisi iningi big nje baba big ngenxa ohulumeni ukuthi ukusekela ngenxa yezizathu zobugovu, ngakho kunzima ukucabanga ukuthi umnotho luyingxenye isicebi ngabe unjani. Ngaphandle ukwesekwa kahulumeni, Kunengqondo ukuthi amabhizinisi amakhulu kuyoyeka ukuba bakhulu kangaka. Izinkampani America kanye empini bengase bokuthi lokhu. America ubengeke yezwe abacebe Emhlabeni ngaphandle kwezempi zayo njengoba ivikela futhi likhula izinkampani zaseMelika. Uma crony capitalism akazange abangele ukwehlukana xaxa komnotho kunokuba capitalism avamile, amandla ezinkampani ngabe zashintsha kancane kakhudlwana ngokulinganayo, futhi izifunda zomhlaba kanye imithombo iningi eziwusizo yayiyobizwa abahlala kwezimo ezingcono. Africa, isibonelo kuyinto izwekazi elicebe kwemitfombolusito yemvelo, kodwa le abaningi kakhulu Afrika ovamile (ikakhulu e-Central naseMpumalanga Afrika) bantula imithombo eyanele eziyisisekelo ukuze asinde. Afrika abalinganiselwa $ 14 trillion izinsimbi eziyigugu) kodwa kuyinto izwekazi abampofu ngokwemigomo GDP. Lokhu ngengcebo kwavubukulwa engase usetshenziswe abantu-Afrika kanye nalabo iningi edinga ngobunye kanye ukuzibusa. Nokho, ngokuvamile kungenzeki ngale ndlela ngenxa kwemibuso crony isicebi kanye bomashiqela zendawo ukuthi basuke Izimayini iningi lazo kusukela Afrika akanawo umthamo wezempi okuzivikela. Nokho, lokhu akusho capitalism beqiniso kungcono kunokuba crony capitalism noma ukuthi noma kukhona onobuhle emihle kwezomnotho. Nje mayelana wonke umuntu emhlabeni angakwazi ayavuma ukuthi ezinye izinto okudingeka abe free.

Amasevisi kanye esebenzisa ukukhiqizwa elilawulwa uhulumeni hhayi ugijime inzuzo kukhona sezenhlalo, kanti cishe njalo kahulumeni inezici sezenhlalo, kodwa hhayi esiqinile ncazelo sezenhlalo. Amanye amazwe (bonke ocebile) babe nemfundo yomphakathi, imitapo yolwazi, amaphoyisa amabutho ukuba bakhonze abanye njongo, iziteshi umlilo, oluthile lwezempilo ekuzaleni. An insimu ungoverned angaba nazo babe izinhlangano NGO, ezingenzi inzuzo ukuthi ahlinzeke izinsizakalo ezibalulekile futhi ube kungoni sezenhlalo noma isicebi.

In a system kwezomnotho yezinto sezenhlalo, indlela ukukhiqizwa kukhona obala noma ngokuvamile wayenezimvu kanye nezisebenzi musa adayise noma ukuqasha out umshikashika wabo kanye nemizimba kubaqashi for capital. A Umnotho sezenhlalo kuveza lokho okudingekayo futhi uyosebenzisa labantu jikelele, ubone iminotho isicebi, okuyinto ukukhiqiza konke uzodala nzuzo iningi. In systems real sezenhlalo, ngabanye zithola kakhudlwana uma esivivaneni. Ababeki ukusiza abantu abacebe njengoba iminotho isicebi ukukwenza.

Control komphakathi kanye ezivamile zokukhiqiza zihlukile kakhulu practice. Indlela izinkampani beze ngaphansi by lokulawula zomphakathi iwukuba ngokusebenzisa tavelonkhe, onikeza isimo amandla ukulawula lezi zinkampani. Lokhu kubizwa wombuso nezimboni. Uma inkampani is uhulumeni, uhulumeni ukuthi izuza kuba obhekene emelela abasebenzi kanye izithakazelo zabo. Nokho, amabhizinisi ukuba beze ngaphansi kokulawula ovamile asebenza kakhulu ehlukile. A yokusebenza ngaphansi kokulawula common ibizwa ngokuthi ibhizinisi isisebenzi-ephethwe noma intando yeningi emsebenzini. Democracies emsebenzini kukhona isici esibalulekile nezimboni libertarian. Abasebenzi kuzo babe ngqo belingana bathi kuka izici ebhizinisini labo. Azikho abaphathi, ngaphandle uma abasebenzi banqume bafuna nabo base basuke wentando yeningi. Zonke izinqumo ephawulekayo enkampanini, emsebenzini, ukukhiqizwa kanye nokwabiwa kwemithombo kwenziwa ngaphakathi ngu ivoti ethandwayo. Izinqumo okufanele engabe kwenziwe ukuthi iningi ezizuzisa wonke. Nokho, lokhu akusho kwenzeke kwezinye self-wamemezela emsebenzini democracies ngoba kusadingeka hierarchies ukuthi disproportionately bayazuza abaholi babo. Impumelelo yokusebenza wentando yeningi incike ezisebenzini zalo. Uma benza sebenzisana, ayathandana, ucabange ngalokujulile, futhi aqhube zonke izindaba zabo wentando futhi ephumelelayo, nethuba kwabo okuphumelela kuthanda okuhle.

Nezimboni Libertarian lisondele ubuKhomanisi futhi anarchism ngoba kwehlisa amandla wombuso. UbuKhomanisi ihlose ukuqeda amaholo labour futhi anikeze abasebenzi control ngqo phezu ukukhiqizwa like nezimboni libertarian, kodwa uya isinyathelo esiqhubekayo ngokufaka ethi isimo (kanye imingcele yayo) kanye nokusetshenziswa udlame ukulawula umphakathi kukhona engadingekile. Abanye AmaKhomanisi khulumela isiphithiphithi kanti abanye bakholelwa imigomo yabo bungatholakala nge okulinganiselwe kakhulu, ezizimele, ohulumeni non-enobudlova. Lapho kuyodingeka kube nokubambisana systemic ngabo usebenze. Lokhu ngesinye ebizwa isici ubuKhomanisi anarchist. (Nezinye izinhlobo anarchism lingabhekisela uhlelo sintula yimuphi uhlobo kahulumeni ngaso sonke.)

Nezimboni State okwamanje ukusebenza ngenxa yokuthi ababusi zethu ukubethemba ukumela izithakazelo abasebenzi noma abantu abavamile. Bathi ukulawula yebhizinisi nje ukuzuza kuso. Njengoba Noam Chomsky kusho inkulumo, ohulumeni sezenhlalo zamanje namanje bazibiza sezenhlalo ngoba “ngokuzihlanganisa ukubhujiswa kwabo siqu of nezimboni ne aurora of nezimboni, banethemba lokuthola credit nge amakilasi yokusebenza nezinye imikhakha ezithuthukayo.” [Cvii] The definition of izwi ikhomanisi iye yashintsha ngu ohulumeni ababethi bamukele it, futhi bekubonakala washintsha by “isicebi ‘ohulumeni abafisa demonize umqondo yokuqala kobuKhomanisi, ngaleyo ndlela ukudala okukhulu ukudideka. Kodwa kungakhathaliseki silulumagama, izwe kanye neminotho zayo ngokuyinhloko kubuswa crony capitalism.

6.3 The Soviet Union

Njengoba Ngiye kuxoxwa, elaseSoviet Union uqalise abambalwa kakhulu izimiso yamaKhomanisi nemibono. UVladimir Lenin (1870-1924) kwadingeka ezinye zezimiso kunazo sezenhlalo ngempela, futhi yena wavuka by toppling le eyodwa kakhulu futhi wekucindzetela Russian uMbuso, okuyinto ayekhona kusukela 1721 kuze 1917 lapho Russian Revolution zenzeka. I Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party kwakhiwa ngo 1898 ungomunye amaqembu zikaMarx yokuqala Russian ezasiza asihole Russian Revolution. It kuqhekeka 1904 ngamaqembu amabili wabiza Mensheviks kanye elokuthi bacheme namaBolshevik ngenxa ukungezwani phakathi kuka Lenin ne Julius Marov. Lenin ayekholelwa ukuthi isigaba sabasebenzi babengase emelelwa Abavukeli professional nokuthi umbuso Tsarist kufanele ligumbuqelwa, kanti Mensheviks babekholelwa ukuthi abaholi bourgeois babengase wabambisana. “WokuVukela KwamaBolshevik” lisuselwa elithi waseRussia for inengi, большинство, futhi “Menshevik” lisuselwa elithi waseRussia for amancane, меньшинство. Nokho, elokuthi bacheme namaBolshevik kwakungezona njalo eliyiningi.) UJulius Marov wahola Mensheviks and Vladimir Lenin wahola elokuthi bacheme namaBolshevik. Ngaphambi Lenin weza ngamandla, imiboniso ngoFebhuwari ka-1917 phakathi neMpi Yezwe First baphoqelela Tsar iwuyeke, okwaholela uhulumeni ngingakhululeki zesikhashana nabaholi abaningi bourgeois namanje owayephethe.

Lenin ekugcineni waboshwa ngu lwesikhashana Uhulumeni neqembu lakhe lase bungavunyelwe ngenxa ekuvukeleni athandwayo wayeselitholile sathuthukisa. Lenin wabe wabaleka emuva eFinland lapho wanquma ukuthatha uhulumeni okwesikhashana. Wahlela for sebethule salo, kodwa ehamba back eRussia kwakunzima ngenxa World War One yayishisa. Ngakho Lenin kwadingeka ukugibela endaweni eyodwa-ukuthutha isitimela car ngokusebenzisa Germany eRussia kanye amasosha German on ebhodini. Lapho efika, wafika ngamandla endaweni inguquko kuqhathaniswa onokuthula October ka 1917. nini ngamandla, Lenin uhulumeni emabhange Russian kanye ukulawula amafektri wanikwa iSoviet. Wabuye usudlule Isinqumo Yokuthula ukuvimbela udlame, isimemezelo sezwe ukunikeza back zwe abalimi, futhi wasuka ezinye amasosha kusukela War. Wabuye esungulwe free ukunakekelwa kwezempilo jikelele nemfundo futhi kwaba eyiqaphuqaphu mayelana inkolelo wakhe amalungelo abesifazane. [Cviii]

Okuhle okuningi kwakuvela liphumele kukaLenin izintambo. Walwa ngoba amalungelo ongumlimi abalimi kakhulu yokuphila kwakhe njengomuntu ummeli, umlobi nomhleli kwezenhlalo. Nokho, ezinye izazi-mlando kugceka Lenin ngokuthatha esithile control kude ekilasini sabasebenzi ngokumisa abaholi zikahulumeni-sokubika amabhizinisi. Abasebenzi babevunyelwe ukuveza iziphakamiso zabo, kodwa abaholi ekugcineni wenza izinqumo eziphawuleka kakhulu. Lokhu kungabukeka njengendlela pragmatic sokushada nezimboni ne ngokoqobo sokusebenza class ngangabethemba nobe singakubona njengendlela namandla-daphuna by Lenin. Abaholi kungaba usizo kakhulu, Yiqiniso, kodwa kuphela uma Amapayipi amakhulu of the ntu internalize futhi ngokukhalipha ucabangele zonke luvo ukuze senze isinqumo okunenzuzo wonke umuntu. Ukubhujiswa kukaLenin of Soviet imboni imikhandlu kanye Assembly ababamele kwaba ngokhahlo wagxeka abanye of the Marxists bendabuko kakhudlwana, efana Rosa eLuxemburg, kodwa umongo kuyinto efanele.

Lenin kungashiwo futhi kugxekwe iyala ukubulalana of abaholi umbuso wangaphambili tsarist. Oda enjalo zazivame kakhulu lapho izinguquko amandla kwenzeka, futhi umbuso kwaba kude abangenacala. Kodwa amasamanisi non-enobudlova umbuso kwakuyoba lesichubekako kakhudlwana futhi mhlawumbe more edume wathola. It Cishe ngabe kwaholela eside izinguquko zaphakade kanye.

Ngo-1918 Leon Trotsky wabhala ukuthi kwakudingekile ukuba “hlanganisa ndawonye tinsita wezempi ‘futhi anikeze Revolutionary War Council futhi omunye-single umholi (Lenin) amandla ukuphatha bonke kwemithombo Soviet Union. [Cix] La imibono abangu akawuthandi ikhomanisi. Lenin akakaze wabhala kangaka kakhulu, kodwa sigxile wakhe abazange bayeke ngempi ngokuyinhloko ngoba kokuthola ukumelana kangaka ezivela radicals nezithakazelo zabo siqu, okungukuthi kusukela White Movement, iqembu ukumelana kwabokufika kanye anti-lwamaSemite, entula yimuphi imibono ukhonkolo. Bathi nje wafuna i ohlanga ngokuphelele njengenkunzi umbuso wangaphambili Tsarist. The White Movement wasebenzisa Georgia, Armenia ne-Azerbaijan njengoba zokuzamazama wezempi, futhi USSR kwakhiwa ngo 1922 yayinqoba kuzo ngenxa yalokho. Lenin zazithi lokhu kwenziwa ukuze zivikelwe abase amandla yasebukhosini futhi uguqulwe upopayi imibuso ababe nobudlova ngisho nakakhulu, okuyinto kwaba olukhulu ngempela for izizwe eziningi ngesikhathi.

In ingxoxo Lenin kwadingeka nembongi waseRussia uValeriu Marcu, Lenin wathi “Umuntu kumelwe azame njalo ukuba njengoba ezinkulu njengoba ngokoqobo ngokwako.” [Cx] Ngikholelwa lokhu iphuzu elibalulekile. Reality akuyona hlangothi. Ezombusazwe is hhayi kubuswa inkulumo nongqondongqondo, kucabanga ngalokujulile kanye nentando yeningi ngqo. It ubuswa izigidi abachithanga on ze, imikhankaso yezombangazwe, attack izikhangiso, ngokweqile media Ukuhlanganisa izimpikiswano ezingathi shú, ezihamba phambili, imibono lwamaqembu enkolo ezibizayo, nemihlangano bubuhle. The ukweqisa kanye radicalism akhona kakade emhlabeni wonke zibonakala kakhulu, kanjalo ngikholwa kuyinto kunalokho kuyabonelela ukwethemba emhlabeni kudingeka ngokuyisisekelo ukushintsha. Kodwa bekholelwa le kwabathile kwanele ukuba abhalwe eyeqisayo noma “olukhulu.”

Ngemuva kwaba kweMpi ERussia Civil phezu, Lenin washona ngo-1924 kwemizamo amaningi ayenziwe ukuthatha ngokuphila kwakhe, okwaholela yezinkinga zokwelashwa, sohlangothi kanye yinhliziyo. Kwase Lenin bengakafi at 54, Russia kungenzeka abe esifundeni elihluke kakhulu, kodwa kunzima ukusho for ezithile. Ngeshwa, uJoseph Stalin wathatha indawo yakhe, futhi wayengumpristi ngokushesha okuningi ukusebenzisa udlame kwelinye izwe hhayi kuphela, kodwa kubantu bakhe siqu. Waba kakhudlwana futhi enomswakama bomashiqela kakhudlwana ngokusebenzisa isikhathi sakhe ngamandla, futhi izigidi zabantu bagcina bafa kusukela indlala okubangelwa ngokuyinhloko izinqubomgomo zakhe.

Zabezindaba State-elawulwa ngokuvamile bathi ohulumeni zamaKhomanisi kuyaphikisana intando yeningi, futhi abantu abaningi bakholelwa ngoba zikhona izibonelo self-ezikhonjwe amazwe “sezenhlalo ‘ukuthi lokunyathela intando yeningi. Kodwa uhulumeni eqinisweni lamaKhomanisi kungaba yenengi kakhulu futhi free kuka yamanje democracies iningi self-echazwe isicebi ngoba wayeyobanika wonke izwi eyayingase sizwakale futhi ezidaliwe.

Izwi intando yeningi sivela lesiGreki “amademo wemikhiqizo,” okusho abantu abavamile futhi ‘kratos, “okusho ukubusa noma amandla. Lona isimiso main of nezimboni. It unikeza ezivamile nabantu control. Emazweni crony isicebi, osombusazwe ukusebenza kwisibalo encane kakhulu owakhiwa abantu acebile nanamandla kakhulu kanti wonke umuntu ngokuyinhloko indiva. Kodwa ohlelweni weqiniso lamaKhomanisi, isigaba yokubusa iyona ikilasi engezansi. Sabasebenzi enquma ikusasa lalo. Ngakho-ke, kubalulekile ukuba capitalism umelene wentando yeningi.

Abaholi abaningi Soviet ngeshwa flexed imisipha yawo yempi futhi ligcwaliswe omunye nomunye like abantwana. UJoseph Stalin wabulala abaningi ayemphikisa futhi yazuza amandla aphelele phezu lizwe. Cishe wonke umuntu owabonisa yiluphi uhlobo yokungathembani nobe disproval of Stalin ibizo an “isitha sabantu,” futhi ngokuvamile laba bantu bafakwa emakamu okuhlushwa noma bagwetshwe ekufeni. Stalin belahla imibono kobuKhomanisi. Kodwa nokwedelelwa American kahulumeni for kobukhomanisi kwadingeka lutho zokucindezelwa the Soviet Union uzobhujiswa abantu babo kodwa kunalokho ezigxilile ukuhaha yabo siqu kanye isifiso sokuba namandla. Uhulumeni wenza le sobala kakhulu kaningi ukugxeka kwethemu nomqondo ubuKhomanisi kuka Stalin noma amacala akhe. IBrithani nezinye imibuso wenza okufanayo. Empeleni, Churchill uthathwa uStalin ngokuthi “umholi omkhulu”, naphezu kokuphikisa yakhe ubuKhomanisi. [Cxi]

Nakuba Russia naseMelika elwa ndawonye ngokumelene isitha ezifanayo phakathi WWII (1939-1945), ngisho ke kwakukhona ukungezwani phakathi kohulumeni babo. Ekugcineni, njengoba amazwe zangaphambili amaNazi athathwa phezu by America neRussia ezilawulwa Stalin, base babengavumelani ngezinga lapho imingcele kwakumelwe ukudonselwa futhi Yiliphi izwe kwakungase ukulawula kakhudlwana. America neRussia kokubili wayefuna izinhlelo zabo siqu abafanele kwezomnotho (okuyinto babebe ngokungakhethi okufanayo) zidonse. Kuyilapho iRussia bathola ukusekela okuvela emazweni ukuthi babefuna abe sezenhlalo, uhulumeni waseMelika wabona ukwesekwa okuvela bangaphambili abaholi amabhizinisi yamaNazi abaningi. Bakhandwa uxhaso ngokuyinhloko i Plan Marshall, okuyinto ikakhulukazi kwaqinisekisa ukuthi abanikazi ezinkulu ebhizinisini wahlala ntanta kanti iningi abampofu ayesele ukuba azibulale. Noam Chomsky wabhala on the Plan Marshall ukuthi “kwasusa esiningi yangasese US utshalomali eYurophu, ekusunguleni isisekelo izinkampani zanamuhla YeSizwe.” [Cxii] The Soviet nohulumeni waseMelika kokubili babefuna linqobe emhlabeni, kodwa Marxism kanye izimiso eziyisisekelo kobuKhomanisi babephikiswa amandla eyodwa kanye kokuphoqelelwa iluphi uhlobo.

Yini edingekayo kuyinto ukubuya kuze izimiso nezimboni kweqiniso. Abasebenzi kumele inikezwe back control in zonke ebhizinisini omhlaba. Siyobe sizuze ukube sonke babazi kahle ukuthi nobuKhomanisi, nezimboni, capitalism ngoba sasingakwazi sonke sibone indlela ohulumeni bezama ukukhohlisa us nge by ze revisionist ukuze isinqumo ocebile phezulu lonke kithi. Lapho abantu eyanele baqonde futhi kukhona inhlangano okwanele ngokubambisana ukunikeza abasebenzi control bese udale models co-operative yebhizinisi ke hweba, ezobuchwepheshe kanye zonke izindaba zethu uyoshintshwa kanye izinga lokuphila kobuntu kuyothuthuka emhlabeni wonke.

6.4 Impi Korean

Phakathi neMpi Yomshoshaphansi (1947-1991), uhulumeni wase-US ezihlosiwe amazwe amaningi ngomzamo ukusiphula zici okungafunwa nokulawula futhi akhe kabusha la mazwe embonweni wabo siqu ngemva kokubhujiswa kusuka WWII. Umbuso waseSoviet luhlose ukwenza okufanayo futhi usongo baqonda yokungenela waseSoviet okugqugquzelwa okuningi yobutha US ekufezeni Union. Izwe of umbango ethile phakathi kwabo Korea kwakukhona futhi ukungezwani ngekusasa walo umvuthwandaba iMpi yaseKorea of 1950 kuya 1953.

Korea wayekade ukulwa ekubusweni ekubuseni Japanese kusukela 1910 A obusebenzayo, uhulumeni wesikhashana elibizwa ngokuthi okwesikhashana Government of the Republic of Korea ekuqaleni bamisa ngo 1919 eChina ukuze bathathe indawo yoMbuso Japanese. Kodwa Japanese namanje yanquma okuningi labantu kuze 1945 lapho amaJapane lacela umaluju ngesikhathi Parallel 38th of Korea kuya US. The US wabe abahlela United States Army Military Uhulumeni e Korea (nobe USAMGIK) kanye John Reed Hodge oshayelayo njengoba kumbusi wezempi. Uhulumeni waseKorea yesikhashana wabe yahlakazeka kanye abaningi amakomiti abantu ezithandwayo sika esolwa ngokuba “yamaKhomanisi.” The US no Soviet Union futhi wanquma ilizwe at the 38th parallel. Amabutho aseMelika alithatha division Southern kuyilapho iSoviet Union ivimbezele aseNyakatho.

Izinqubomgomo isicebi olwasetshenziswa USAMGIK wathatha ukulawula kude abasebenzi kanye nabantu abavamile ayekade ukusebenza kanzima kangaka ukuze athole control kusukela Empire Japanese. Isisebenzi ephikisayo kwaholela Autumn Uprising 1946. Lokhu ezithandwayo futhi enokuthula uvuko ukusabalala ezingxenyeni eziningi Korea, kodwa United States waphendula ngobudlova by yekwatisa isiteleka amadlambi, bememezela komthetho bokulwa ebulala izakhamuzi eziningi. Ekugcineni, lelo tulo akazange aphumelele. Emva kuphangwa eziningana skirmishes at the 38th parallel, nempi kwathiwa ngo 1950 emkhatsini North neNingizimu Korea. Lokhu kwaba ingxabano wokuqala ahlomile iMpi Yomshoshaphansi.

China ngahileleka impi October 1950 futhi kusekelwe North Korea. Amakhulu ezinkulungwane zabantu ngubani abachema the Democratic Republic of People sika Korea (North Korea) babulawa amasosha US kanye namabutho weRiphabhuliki Korea, (South Korea). Abanye futhi bagqunywa ejele ngoba ‘reeducation. “Ngokushesha emva Stalin efa ngo March ka 1953, impi yaphela. Kodwa “ezingalweni uhlanga” namanje waqhubeka.

Nikita Khrushchev esikhundleni saso Stalin ngo 1954 futhi kwaba ngu-njengoba abanobudlova. Yena kwanciphisa ukucwaninga on the airwaves futhi wakhulula izigidi iziboshwa zezombusazwe baseSoviet kusukela Gulag okufukuzwa kuwo ababeboshelwe uStalin. Kodwa yena wayekade futhi ukwamukele okuningi kwalezi nokuboshwa lapho Stalin kwaba ngamandla. Wabuye wasiza ukwakha izikhali zenuzi baseRussia kanye austerity olwengeziwe.

6.5 Impi Vietnam

IMpi yaseVietnam waba elandelayo ezinkulu iMpi Yomshoshaphansi ingxabano. Vietnam linqotshwa lesiFulentshi e-1800 futhi ibuswa French wamakoloni amashumi eminyaka ayisikhombisa ngaphambi kwaqala iMpi yaseVietnam. Bảo Đại (1913-1997) kwaba koMbusi yokugcina lwamakhosi. Wabusa Annam (the Vietnam esifundeni) kusuka 1926 kuya 1945 Lapho yesula.

Ho Chi Minh, (1890-1969) umholi we-Viet Minh Independence Movement waba uNdunankulu ngo 1945 no President of the yamaKhomanisi Democratic Republic of eVietnam. Nokho, iziphathimandla zaseFrance wafaka Đại back in amandla Southern eVietnam ukukwehlisela nethonya Minh kule North. Đại kwabusa Vietnam njengoba induna wombuso kusuka 1949 kuya 1955, kodwa wachitha isikhathi sakhe esiningi eFrance. Union wasekela kahulumeni Minh sika kuyilapho United States futhi kubangane bawo wasekela Đại. Bobabili ohulumeni bekhohlakele, sasivumela, enobudlova ezidukisayo.

IBrithani yahlasela Vietnam ngo 1945 kusukela eningizimu neChina bahlasela kusukela enyakatho. The British rearmed the French futhi wazama ukubasiza thatha futhi bamba futhi North eVietnam. Minh wayefuna ixoxe isiFulentshi, kodwa uhulumeni waseFrance akathandanga, ngakho baqala ukulwa le Viet Minh ukulawula. Lokhu kwaba ukuqala kwempi First Indochina.

The US bachitha eziyinkulungwane dollar futhi wathumela izingalo 300000 ezincane kuya isiFulentshi, (nabo kubhekwe ehlakaza Vietnam ngezikhali athomu) kodwa balahlekelwa impi kungakhathaliseki ngo 1954 A ceasefire kwaba kwaxoxiswana eNgqungqutheleni Geneva kanye Northern kanye nezigaba Southern of Vietnam ahlukana ngokusemthethweni ngesikhathi parallel nesikhombisa by the Geneva Peace Evumelana. Lomculu yathi Vietnam uphinde ube ndawonye ngo-1956 lapho ukhetho kwakufanele aqulwe.

Lapho leli lizwe kwahlukaniswa ngokusemthethweni, US izikhulu lamelana ubunye kanye ukhetho ngoba babazi yezwe wayefuna nomholi lamaKhomanisi like Ho Chi Minh. Ngokusho uMengameli Dwight D. Eisenhower, “80 per cent of the labantu ngabe uvotela Communist Ho Chi Minh.” Ngakho US rigged ukhetho ivune Ngo Dinh Diem, i ngoludala ngokwedlulele, ubuzwe, ziyingozi zenkolo. Wayinqoba nge amaphesenti 98,2 wamavoti.

Diem wabeka ninodwa amaKatolika kuhulumeni wakhe kanye nezinqubomgomo zakhe wayithanda njalo amaKatolika. Wabuye ababeshushiswa nabantu bezinye izinkolo futhi wavimbela ifulege ongumBuddha. Lapho amaBuddha bayangisukela abaningi badutshulwe, futhi pagodas obuBuddha abangu alibhidliza by paramilitaries Diem sika zamaKatolika. Diem futhi baboshwa, bahlushwa futhi babulawa noma ubani kwakucatshangwa kube yamaKhomanisi nobe ngokumelene nohulumeni wakhe. Kushone izinkulungwane, futhi Diem wabeka izinkulungwane ngaphezulu emakamu okuhlushwa. Wabuye beboshwe 40,000 ngaphezulu by 1958, nokho uMengameli Eisenhower basisekela ngokungenamibandela futhi baba nomhlangano umbukiso in nodumo lwakhe eNew York.

Diem, like US bokudla akhe, wala ucabangele komhlaba, futhi abalimi kwadingeka bakhokhele nezintela aphezulu ezweni labo ukuze a Abanikazi bezindawo abacebile kakhulu ezimbalwa ngenxa yalokho. Minh Ngakolunye uhlangothi, wasungula ‘ezweni izinguquko “, kodwa abaningi balaba kwaphumela ekufeni Abanikazi bezindawo kanye nemindeni yabo. Diem wafakwa ngamandla ukusebenzela abacebile kakade (nobe ngaphambilini) enamandla, kanye nokuqinisekisa uquqaba abampofu babengakaze bakwazi ukuhlela futhi avuke ubuphofu kanye nokungqubuzana. Ukungabekezelelwa yenkolo diem sabuye zamenza waba ekahle upopayi umbusi for the United States.

Around isikhathi Diem wafika ngamandla, i CIA waqala umkhankaso ze eNorth eVietnam ngokumelene uhulumeni wamaKhomanisi ukuze uthole labantu Vietnamese ukunyakaza eningizimu. Lo mkhankaso wabizwa ikakhulu okuhloswe ngaso labantu wamaKatolika of Northern eVietnam. I CIA and Colonel Edward Lansdale ezinyathelisiwe izinkulungwane amaphosta kanye amapheshana ayethi le “uMariya simukile kusukela North” futhi “UKristu uye South” ngenxa yabo “inzondo ubuKhomanisi. ‘[Cxiii] Ezinye ze zabo zathi bangamaKhomanisi babengabantu Cannibals ababeyoba badle izingane zabo. Baphinde kwaqinisekisa abantu abaningi ukuba Ho Chi Minh babeyoshushisa amaKatolika. The United States noma wanika Vietnamese nabantu cash ozokunika abalaleli for kokusuka. Kodwa indlela ephumelela kunazo bagqugquzela Northerners ukuthutha eningizimu kwaba ngu kufuna ingaceka lonke North nomuntu isiteleka athomu. Mayelana yisigidi izakhamuzi Vietnamese ababesebusweni ikakhulu Catholic washiya yalokho.

John F. Kennedy wakhethwa likamengameli ngo 1960 Nakuba Kennedy babengabathandi ikhomanisi (ngokuyinhloko ngoba ezihambisana ikhomanisi ne unya self-bamemezela “zamaKhomanisi” Union), wayengafuni ukuba umane abhidlize Vietnam futhi bekaphikisana ngezinga elikhulu empini. Ngemuva Kennedy ebulawa, Lyndon B. Johnson wafungiswa njengoba umengameli futhi kwadingeka izinqubomgomo kakhulu ezahlukene. Wathuthuka ezifuywayo kanye yakhe “Okukhulu Society,” kodwa ukusabela kwakhe ukulahlekelwa okukhulu yokuphila komuntu nhlangothi zombili impi lase ukuthumela amasosha bayanda eVietnam. Izigidi zabantu zafa ngenxa oda zakhe.

Ngo-August 2 ka 1964, i-American ngumbhubhisi wezempi USS Maddox ahlasela ezintathu North Vietnamese torpedo izikebhe eGulf of Tonkin. Kushone amatilosi ezine Vietnamese, abayisithupha kwalimala, kodwa ayengekho abafa US. Kwabikwa A kuhlasela lesibili kodwa kwaba yamanga-flag. (The Imifanekiso ireda yasebenzisa ‘bokuthi’ of kuhlasela base positives bamanga futhi akukho North Vietnamese torpedo izikebhe babekhona kule ndawo.) Naphezu le Johnson wasebenzisa le flag yamanga ukuze bathethelele air iziteleka on eVietnam. Johnson atshalwa amasosha amaningi ngaphezulu emva kwalokhu. Amabutho 2,000 kuphela ezibekelwe eVietnam ngo 1961 Kodwa by 1964 kwakukhona 16.500. Ngonyaka olandelayo amasosha 196.500 ngaphezulu kwathunyelwa. Ngonyaka ofanayo, Johnson wamemezela kwakuzoba iziteleka ezintathu air ngaphezulu eVietnam wabiza Operation Flaming Sexy, Operation Rolling Thunder and Operation Arc Light. Curtis LeMay, Chief of Abasebenzi of the US Air Force wabhala “We nithatha ukuze kuqhunyiswe ukuba zibuyele endaweni Stone Age.” Lapho eseqedile Johnson term yakhe, wayekade saphela US ngamabhomu, kodwa baseMelika 30,000 babebulewe empini. Ngemuva wabulawa Diem, abaningana wezempi efanayo, upopayi imibuso kwamiswa wonke iU.S..

Ngo 1970 Nixon ukhethiwe futhi wasekela impi, kodwa wayazi kwaba kabanzi esingathandeki, ngakho wahoxisa amabutho 150,000 kusuka Vietnam futhi esikhundleni sabo amabutho Vietnamese. Nixon bawenza ngamabhomu eyimfihlo eCambodia esacekela phansi labantu futhi yayala Operation Linebacker II, a ngamabhomu omkhulu Hanoi. Abafundi basekolishi amane at Kent State babulawa i Ohio National Guard for ukubhikisha la ngamabhomu nesishiyagalolunye balimala. Lokhu yaziwa ngokuthi i Kent State Massacre, okuyinto zagxila ngesibindi student iziteleka zakuleli.

Ukwesekwa Public sancipha impi, ikakhulu ngemva ukudubulana ekolishi. Amahlazo ezesabekayo like the My Lai Massacre nawo nomthelela. Ngalesi massacre, abantu abangaba ngu-500, ikakhulu abesifazane, izinsana, kanye nabantu asebekhulile My Lai (idolobha eVietnam) base wadlwengulwa, zicwiywa futhi ebulawa US Army Leli qembu, “Charlie Company.” Babe washisa dolobhana phansi. Lilodwa Isosha Second wayengambonelela, uWilliam Calley, walahlwa yicala. Utholakele enecala 22 okubulala futhi ukusuka bagwetshwe udilikajele, kodwa wamane emithathu nesigamu kweminyaka eboshiwe. Ukubhuqwa wayengomunye okungenani ajeziswe, elimazayo kunazo amalungelo esintu ukwephula emlandweni mhlawumbe.

Ekupheleni kweMpi Vietnam, million 3.5 izakhamuzi Vietnamese babebulewe. Kwesigidi North Vietnamese kanye namasosha zaseMelika licishe 60,000 kwabulawa njengoba well.Most zabantu yaseVietnam nje babefuna uzibuse kanye ubunye izwe lakubo ephukile, kanye uhlelo ukujabulisa, nokho abangaphezu kwezigidi ezinhlanu bafa kusukela empini ngenxa nokungezwani nokucwasa nababusi bethu. Ekugcineni Paris Peace Evumelana uqede le esibuhlungu, mpi lobugebengu ngo 1973 Bathi wabiza ubunye eVietnam futhi ukhetho free njengoba Geneva Accord kwadingeka cishe engu-20 ngaphambili. Nokho, imiphumela yempi isekhona namanje namuhla efanele imiphumela azalwa naso of ngemisebe futhi DDT.

6.6 I CIA nokuzinikela walo kuya izinkampani

Iningi labantu abaye wafunda ngomlando US ababeyazi izimpi ezinkulu iMpi Yomshoshaphansi, kodwa mfihlo izimpi, ukusebenza nokubulawa kwabantu mancane abaziwayo. Zombili izinhlobo impi zaziqhutshwa ukuthuthukisa izithakazelo nomnotho imibuso yethu. UmThetho National Security of 1947, wadala Central Intelligence Agency, i National Security Council kanye noMnyango onobunye. Wezokuvikela. Lezi amagatsha kahulumeni zazisetshenziswa ukuthatha la yezenzo nezimfihlo okwengeziwe ekuthuthukiseni izithakazelo US kwezomnotho. I National Security Council wabhala umthethosivivinywa NSC-68 ngo-1950, okwenza wabiza imali esetshenziswe ukuzivikela quadruple. Imali echithwa on ‘ukuvikela’ eMelika manje ephakeme kunanini ngaphambili.

I CIA kusukela Ukwakheka walo uye wasebenza wezinkampane zaseMelika (kanye Abavunyelwe ukubhida eliphakeme kunawo) ngaphezu yimuphi omunye igatsha likahulumeni. It is a elonakele, enhlanganweni ngokokuziphatha ayinamali kanye nabaqondisi zayo zangaphambili nezanamuhla kufanele ozoba nobulelesi onesibopho zonke amacala abo. I CIA uye lula izinkulungwane Ukuketulwa United ukuze sizuze izinkampani zaseMelika. Elinye bokuqala wayengowokuqala 1954 Guatemalan Ukuketulwa kombuso. Lokhu Icebo lika Kwakuhlelwe lapho iminyaka eyisikhombisa phakathi neMpi Yomshoshaphansi lapho uMongameli wentando-akhethwe of Guatemala, uJacobo Arbenz Guzman, wanquma ukwenza ezintsha izinqubomgomo komhlaba (efana Wamemezela 900 noma Agrarian Reform Law) ukuthi wawufuna izinkampani ukusabalalisa izwe labo engasetshenziswanga ukuze abampofu ukuze ulisebenzise ukuze kwezolimo. I CIA kanye nezinye amagatsha kahulumeni wafuna buyisela kuye njengoba yalokho.

Ngo 1945 amaphesenti angamashumi ayisikhombisa lonke zwe evundile e Guatemala kwaba ephethwe ngumuntu 2.2% nje sabantu zwe, kanti amaphesenti nambili kuphela kuleli zwe lalisetshenziswa wezolimo. [Cxiv] The United Fruit Company, okuyinto ephethwe lukhulu yaleli zwe bekaphikisana kokunikeza izwe engasetshenziswanga ukuze abahlali ababezidinga it ukusinda ngoba nkampani engafuni umhlatshelo engahle yimuphi nzuzo. Ngakho-ke, le nkampani wasebenzisa amandla ayo ezombusazwe ukuba ‘ukuvikela’ izithakazelo zabo zezimali.

Allen Dulles ke umqondisi CIA, kwaba ebhodini ye-United Fruit Company kanye wamasheya enkulu enkampanini, (njengoba kwaba umfowabo futhi owayengumphathi uNobhala US of State). Dulles, kanye nalo lonke CIA, wasiza ukukholisa uhulumeni nezakhamuzi of America Guatemala ukuthi Guzman wayengumuntu usongo lamaKhomanisi ukuze bathethelele kuhlanganise naye ukuvikela izwe labo Holdings kuleli lizwe. Ukusebenza original ukugumbuqela Guzman wayebizwa ngokuthi PBFORTUNE. (Kuthiwa abazange bazizwe isidingo okuningi ukufihla iqiniso lokuthi le kwaba icebo wayeshukunyiswa ngokwezimali.)

An abadingisiwe Guatemalan sebutho okuthiwa Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas waphathiswa by the CIA ukuhola Icebo lika wezempi. Ngaphambi nokuhlaselwa, Armas basakaza amapheshana ezivela zempi phezu Guatemala mayelana ‘zamaKhomanisi “uhulumeni wabo. The amapheshana funda, “Ukushikashikeka ngokumelene uNkulunkulu akekho lamaKhomanisi, ukungenelela lamaKhomanisi, ukucindezelwa yamaKhomanisi. . . Bashikashikana nabafowenu wokushisekela izwe! Bahlushwa Castillo Armas! “Izindlu of nabasekeli Guzman nazo Zingu ngesitikha ukuthi funda” A yamaKhomanisi ohlala lapha, “futhi Armas wabuye wathatha ukulawula iziteshi zomsakazo Guatemalan ukusakaza inkulumo-ze ngaphezulu.

Lapho Armas nebutho lakhe yahlasela, base babembalwa kakhulu amasosha Guatemalan. Nokho, omesaba ukungenelela eqondile US kanye ukuhlasela, izingxenye wezempi Guatemalan baqala sehlulwe amabutho Armas, futhi Guzman wesulile. Ngosuku olufanayo, SS Springfjord, umkhumbi waseBrithani egcwele ikhofi Guatemalan nokotini, kwaba napalmed ngumuntu wezindiza kusukela CIA sika “Liberation Air Force.” (The CIA wayekholelwa kwathiwa bephethe izikhali eGuatemala.) Armas okwenzeka Guzman sika futhi abusa izwe umashiqela onobudlova, kuphumele ngonyaka-amathathu nesithupha War Civil. Mayelana 250.000 Guatemalans wanyamalala noma babulawa uhulumeni abacindezelayo kanye nabezempi yalo njengoba yalokho. [Cxv]

I Guatemalan Ukuketulwa kombuso wayengeyena CIA wokuqala. Nje eyodwa ngaphambi, i CIA enqobe elinye umholi wentando yeningi, Iranian uNdunankulu Mohammad Mosaddegh, ngoba efuna enza kube okobuzwe Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, kuhluzwa ngobukhulu kawoyela emhlabeni. Uwoyela Iran kwakungu utshalomali uhulumeni waseBrithani sika zaphesheya ngobukhulu ngesikhathi futhi ephethwe 51% of the nkampani.

Mosaddegh wayefuna Anglo-Iranian Oil Company ukuba kuqondiswe, ukuxhashazwa engaphansi kanye nenzuzo kakhudlwana abantu Iran, esikhundleni inzuzo imibuso angaphandle efana eBrithani naseMelika. IBrithani waqala ukuvinjelwa yalwa Iran futhi uvukela namafutha abo emhlabeni wonke. I CIA wabe bribed thugs, osopolitiki kanye namadoda nebutho ukusiza basakaze nkulumo-ze mayelana Mosaddegh. Ekugcineni, yena waboshwa yisixuku yisigungu CIA futhi wagwetshwa bavalelwa bodwa, nabasekeli bakhe bahlukunyezwa futhi babulawa.

Mosaddegh salandelwa Mohammad-reza Shah Pahlavi eyabusa njengethuba umashiqela ocindezelayo iminyaka engu-26 waze uchithwa ngo-1979 Uhulumeni waseMelika ihlinzekwa naye nge ezingalweni ku ukubusa kwakhe, kanye CIA wasiza ukuqeqesha kwakhe ngesihluku futhi ekhohlakele amaphoyisa force. Anglo-Iranian Oil Company wabe waba British Petroleum Company, kangcono eyaziwa njengoba BP namuhla, le nkampani elidume kabi ngenxa yamafutha ayo imidlalo phansi coast ePersian ngo-2010.

I CIA nawo wazama ukubulala Fidel Castro ngo 1960 ngenxa yezizathu ezifanayo. Castro wayefuna usabalalise kwempahla ababesenzile Kwebiwe abalimi izinkampani ezinkulu American, futhi umshayeli CIA aphinde abekwe ukuvikela la zinhlangano. (Castro waba umashiqela bangomashiqela okuningi njengoba isikhathi sasihamba futhi Cubans amaningi bahlupheka futhi namanje basenza ngenxa yakhe, kodwa CIA wayekhathazeke kakhudlwana nezinqubomgomo zakhe sezenhlalo. Kwakufanele futhi akulungile mayelana Castro basongela ezinye izizwe. Cishe wenza cha kukhona izinhloso of ngokusebenzisa izikhali zakhe, ngaphandle ezivikela) Castro kuxoxwe ezinye izinqubomgomo zakhe CIA bamelana okwaholela ukuhlaselwa in incwadi ekhuluma ngaye, Life My:. A okukhuluma ELIKHULUNYIWE:

“Izinyathelo ezibaluleke kunazo asithathanga kangaka le kwakungamadodana nokuletha uguquko kwezolimo kanye tavelonkhe bezinkampani ezinkulu yezimboni nezentengiselwano kanye namabhange, kanye nezinye izinyathelo ezithile umthelela omkhulu kwezenhlalo, ezifana lo mkhankaso literacy, ukuncipha rates ugesi nezingcingo , le izinguquko zasemadolobheni, isenzo control yerenti-, ukuphucwa impahla yalabo zase zintshontsha kusuka kuhulumeni kanye nabantu. Singathanda kwenziwe ezinye izinto ezibalulekile kakhulu, kodwa thina wayengazange bamemezela thina njengabantu Socialists kokuba, noma obala bamemezela zikaMarx-Leninist izimfundiso. Mina kufanele ngithi yebo ukuba izinguquko wethu nezolimo kwaba, ngesikhathi, esingaphansi olukhulu ukwedlula izinguquko General MacArthur wayemise eJapane. Ngenxa yokuthi lapho United States ivimbezele eJapane ngo-1945, MacArthur owaqeda izwe Holdings ezinkulu futhi parceled izwe futhi sebezinikeza abantukazana nabampofu. Kodwa eJapane amapheshana enkulu ezweni wayengazange wayevela enkulu baseMelika corporations, kanti eCuba ababenakho. Yingakho sasingavunyelwe ukuba nokuletha uguquko kwezolimo, njengoba nje kwakungavunyelwe eGuatemala lapho Arbenz wazama ukuqalisa eyodwa ngo-1954 “- Fidel Castro.

Lokhu kunembile. Uhulumeni United States uyokusekela zwe izinguquko kuphela uma musa iyimbi nomthelela izinkampane ezinkulu American. Kwadingeka izwe eJapane matasa wayevela izinkampane ezinkulu waseMelika, abalimi babengeke ubabone of it. Nokho, General MacArthur wayengeyena umklami sangempela abangela izinguquko ezweni eJapane Ematasa. Umakhi main kwakungu Hiro Wada, owayekade Japanese uNgqongqoshe wezoLimo esasiqinisekisa million 5.8 esingamahektare komhlaba Japanese yathengwa kusuka izindawo zokuhlala kanye ithengiswe emuva abalimi esasisebenza izwe. By 1950 ngu-million ezintathu abalimi ababethole zwe ngenxa yalesi nqubomgomo okuqhubekayo. Castro nje kwenzeka ukuthi usabalalise ezweni izinkampani zaseMelika ayethi, futhi lokhu yingakho CIA okubhekiswe kuye.

Ngo-April 15 1960, waqeqesha futhi usekelwa yi-CIA abathunjwa Cuban ahlasela airfields Cuban nge B-26 ekuhlaseleni. The ekuhlaseleni zonke ngobuqili kwasho Ngokwazi (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias) izindiza, ukuze ibonakale kusukela Cuban Revolutionary amabutho ahlomile. Omunye wale kwasekukubi cowling walo lakhishwa by CIA operatives wadutshulwa ngaphambi kokuhamba. Umshayeli Its radioed ucingo Mayday kuya Miami International Airport, ethi yena wayekade adubule at by Cuban emhlabathini amabutho waze wafika khona.

Ngosuku olulandelayo Kennedy yasesula kuhlelwa US kugadla air, kodwa isiteleka emhlabathini akuzange ebizwa off. CIA operatives 1400 CIA eziqeqeshwe, abathunjwa Cuban ngesinyenyela eCuba ukubulala Castro, kodwa abazange baphumelele. Lokhu kwaziwa ngokuthi i-Bay of EZINGULUBENI ekuhlaselweni. Kamuva JFK kwadingeka ukuzisola mayelana sithembela CIA nale mission ezakhiwe “Special Group” futhi wayeqaphela nokuhlaselwa kwaba inhlekelele.

6.7 JFK kanye CIA

JFK wagcizelela ukuthula kwezwe futhi amalungelo wonke umuntu emhlabeni okungenzeka ngaphezu yimuphi omunye umengameli US kwadingeka ngaphambi kwakhe. Wasitshela ekholelwa in nokulingana ukuze bonke baseMelika futhi bonke abantu, futhi wasungula Peace Corps njengendlela asekele la malungelo. Nokho, akazange uyamukele ukuhlaselwa efihlwayo ngokumelene Vietnam no Cuba, ngikholwa wayebethelwe akhohliswe la amaphutha by the CIA. Izinqubomgomo zakhe emibonweni yami kakhudlwana base ala bephikiswa yi-CIA ngenxa war kuyinto ebalulekile kwabaningi izinkampane ezinkulu zamanje, ngakho eziphikisanayo kuba ngokomnotho ezingenanzuzo ngabo. I CIA wayenezizathu eziningi zomnotho yokungakholelwa ukubulala JFK futhi ungomunye izinhlangano ezimbalwa ne imithombo ukukwenza, kanjalo kakhulu kungenzeka benza khona. Abaningi ukhohlwe Lee Harvey Oswald, lo okuthiwa “Shooter oyedwa ‘kwaba owayekade in intelligence zasolwandle futhi wayesejele kokuba ikhokhwe nguhulumeni US eside emva washiya ibutho. I CIA obulele abaningi ezinye abameli zokuthula. Ubufakazi salokhu liye wangcwatshwa futhi yembula izikhathi eziningi kusukela sokudubula izazi eziningi ezahlukene kanye amaqembu othintekayo.

The Bay of Izingulube ukuhlasela kwasungulwa umkhankaso esingaphansi kwezinyanga ezintathu phakathi likaMengameli Kennedy sika. Le “Special Group,” a ehlukaniselwe National Security Council (NSC) kwase kwaqanjwa leli Icebo lika ngonyaka ngaphambi no Eisenhower yagunyaza isabelomali of $ 13 million ukuhlinzwa. Eisenhower kanye CIA banxenxa JFK uhlelo kudingeka. Watshelwa Castro kwaba olukhulu, kodwa sasingawohloki watshelwa ukuthi Union wayazi ngokuhlasela uyeza, okuyinto eyaphakanyiswa kakhulu ngezigxobo. Ngakho-ke, hhayi ngokuba ububona ingozi, yena yavuma Bay of EZINGULUBENI ukuhlasela wathatha umthwalo ngoba. Ngasemuva, waphawula: “Ngingabenza kanjani baye stupid kangaka?” In Mayelana trust yakhe zibeke for the CIA. Ngemva nje Bay yehlulekile ezingulubeni ukuhlasela, watshela omunye izikhulu zakhe eliphezulu kakhulu ukuthi wayefuna “liyahlukana kube namanye i CIA ibe yinkulungwane izicucu futhi abahlakaze bayifaka imimoya.” [Cxvi] Waphinde watshela Ben Bradlee of the Washington Post wokuthi “iseluleko lokuqala ngiyolinika ukunikeza owayezomlandela yami iwukuba ukubukela ojenene futhi bagweme unomuzwa wokuthi ngoba babengabantu wezempi imibono yabo ngezindaba yempi aba uzisole Day. ”

I CIA wakhokhela kokubulawa Ngo Dinh Diem, umholi esonakele ungubani CIA wafaka ngamandla eVietnam. Umfowabo naye wabulawa naye. Lapho abazalwane Diem babulawa, Kennedy kwaba kubikwa kwamethusa. Wabe wadubula Allen Dulles, Richard M. Bissell, noCharles P. Cabell, ukudala Ripples kulo lonke agency. Dulles kwaba yentshiseko emizamweni yakhe ukuba abe yingxenye uphenyo on kokubulawa Kennedy mhlawumbe ukugwema iqiniso ekuvezeni ngoba nobe cronies zakhe ababehilelekile.

Kennedy kwadingeka kakhulu ngokufanele ukwedelela CIA ovusa, ukuthatheka kwabo enobudlova nge capitalism kanye corporatism, futhi waba isitha se-CIA yalokho. Ngokushesha emva yehlulekile Bay of Izingulube ukuhlasela, Kennedy wanikeza inkulumo kule Waldorf-Astoria Hotel on April 27, 1961 mayelana ukubaluleka ekusithekeni (kanye nokuntuleka yalo) kuhulumeni. Akukho kunjalo akukho umengameli US emlandweni ukuthi zithuthukisa kahulumeni obala kakhulu ngendlela enza ngayo. Cishe wonke omongameli US ziye wagcizelela “isidingo ‘sokuba ekusithekeni ngenxa Nakhu izingcaphuno ezimbalwa” ukuvikeleka. “:

“Izwi” ekusithekeni “uyanengeka emphakathini free nekhululekile; futhi singa njengabantu abazalwa futhi ngokomlando abamelene emiphakathini eyimfihlo, kuya izifungo eyimfihlo futhi tinchubo eyimfihlo. Sanquma kudala ukuthi izingozi zokucasha ngokweqile futhi esingasifanele amaqiniso zihlobane zazizidlula kakhulu izingozi okuyinto ekhonjiwe ukuze bathethelele it … Futhi akukho esemthethweni Administration yami, noma isikhundla sakhe uphakeme nobe eliphansi, ezisetshenziswa umphakathi noma wezempi, kufanele ahumushe amazwi ami lapha tonight kube ibhaxa umlisa owayebheka izindaba, likhinyabeze ephikisayo, ukufihla amaphutha ethu noma ukugodla kusukela cindezela bese umphakathi amaqiniso ifanelwe ukwazi ….

Ngokuba nathi kuyaphikisana emhlabeni wonke by uzungu monolithic futhi ononya ukuthi ukuthembela ngokuyinhloko on izindlela oluyimfihlo for ukwandisa sphere walo abanethonya-on kokuziphatha esikhundleni ekuhlaselweni, on nohulumeni esikhundleni ukhetho, on ukwesatshiswa esikhundleni lokuzikhethela free, on abashokobezi ebusuku kunalokho wamabutho emini. It is a system okuyinto eye ababebuthelwe enkulu yabantu kanye ezibonakalayo zibe kwakhiwe onobunye, esebenza kahle kakhulu nomshini oluhlanganisa lempi, zamanxusa, intelligence, ezomnotho, ezesayensi kanye nokuhlinzwa zezombusazwe. Amalungiselelo bakhona ezifihlile, hhayi eshicilelwe. Amaphutha Its bangcwatshwe, hhayi isihloko esikhulu se. Abasiphikisayo bakhona kubayekise, hhayi lidunyiswe. Akukho zindleko ngemibuzo, akukho Amahlebezi liyanyatheliswa, akukho mfihlo yambulwe. It uqhuba kweMpi Yomshoshaphansi, ngamafuphi, ephethe nesiyalo nempi-sikhathi akukho intando yeningi bekungaba njalo ithemba noma ufisa ukufanisa. ”

Lokhu kwaba inkulumo ephawulekayo kakhulu ukuthi akatholanga ukunakwa okuningi. Ukuze intando yeningi ukumela umphakathi, zikahulumeni izinhloso kanye nokuhlinzwa angeke kahle kube eyimfihlo ngoba iningi ngeke ukwazi ukuba ohulumeni bathatha izenzo ezisebusweni eyozuzisa zabantu. Bamane babe ukwethemba ukuthi ziyokwenza, kanti CIA kanye nezinye izinhlangano zikahulumeni spy babonisile izikhathi eziningi ukuthi ukubethemba ukwenza lokhu.

Kukhona okuncane kakhulu imininingwane okufanele ligodliwe kusukela umphakathi. Ulwazi ukugodla ngenxa zokuvikeleka kazwelonke kuyadingeka kuphela uma ohulumeni babe izimfihlo yokufihla, kodwa kukhona okuncane sizathu kufanele. Nezimfihlo angeke walungisiswa khona amacala zikahulumeni. Uma America kwakuyindawo beacon zokuziphatha, inkululeko nentando yeningi ke Uhulumeni yayo ngeke badinga izinhlaka eziningi kangaka ukufihla endleleni walo wezimpi ezalandela.

Ohulumeni ukudala ubutha ezingaphezu nobudlova kunabo vimbela lapho azama ukulondoloza izindaba zabo mfihlo. They isipho ngokwabo zangasese kakhulu ngendlela oyifunayo, kodwa ungayeki ubani omunye esifanayo ilungelo. Akufanele sibe izitha abafuna ukusebenzisa imininingwane ngokumelene nathi. Kufanele silwele ukuthuthukisa inhlalakahle wonke amazwe ukuze aqede intando for nobudlova nobutha. Indlela kuphela intando yeningi real liseduze obala ngokuphelele kuhulumeni futhi okudingekayo yemvume sokuthola ukwaziswa komuntu siqu kusuka ngabanye abangenacala. Ohulumeni kudingeka babe esobala, abantu ngeke zansuku zonke. Abantu bonke baphathwa njengoba nobungozi by ohulumeni abanamandla kunabo, kodwa izinsongo zangempela ngoba asebenza ekusithekeni ngokumelene nathi. Bafuna ukulwa izimpi. Esingaziqondi futhi abantu abaningi ngokuzithandela ezingaphezu kuka esobala kohulumeni iningi. Le exchange free of ulwazi olufanele kahle kwezwe kubalulekile ukuqinisekisa kahle yayo.

“Intelligence” izinhlangano njengoMfula CIA kangako nge intelligence. By surveilling abantu, ziqoqa ulwazi noma “Intel, ‘ngokuvamile ukhonza kubo inhloso kancane. Iningi ulwazi babuthana nje imininingwane yomuntu alunamsebenzi. Ukube wonke umuntu babambisane futhi ukuzwakalisa imibono yabo ukuba balolonge ohulumeni transparent ke kwakungeke isizathu inhloli. Abantu abakhuluphele ngokumelene izithakazelo zabantu ezivamile sasiyoba abambalwa futhi ayesengafakwa futhi bakhuthazwa ukuba bacabange kakhudlwana ngokuqhubekayo.

Uma umuntu, inhlangano noma kuhulumeni ufuna ukwaziswa komuntu siqu kusuka komunye yale zinhlangano, kumelwe abe kwemvume kubo kuqala. Kumele cela ulwazi. Kumele nje ukuphishekela egunyaza uma ubugebengu obungathi sína okusolwa. Ukuhlola kuyinto sokugembula. It negates ukubaluleka nengxoxo. It has nje value lapho kwenzelwa ngendlela elinganiselwe kakhulu futhi ezihlosiwe. Iziphuphutheki ezingaba ukubona imizamo yokwakha izikhali zenuzi ngaphambi kokuba njalo suka ziwusizo, kodwa bananekhono ukuthi bayahlukunyezwa. Lolu Ubuchwepheshe ubuye nje obuncane “imizamo intelligence.” Eziningi zalezi mizamo akhiwa wiretapping awunasisekelo, kwezobunhloli esingasifanele lamarekhodi yefoni umsebenzi online, nezinye intrusions of the ubumfihlo yabantu ngabanye abangenacala.

Uma sifuna ukunciphisa nobuphekula nobudlova, kufanele sigxile ekunciphiseni entandweni for nomonakalo omkhulu. It akudingeki ukuba bube khona futhi ngeke ukube inkhulumomphendvulwano Kwakwenzeka esikhundleni inkohliso okwandile ekusithekeni. Uma i CIA noma ‘ukwazi “inhlangano efana MI5 nobe MI6 (intelligence waseBrithani, Isigaba 5 no 6) bakholelwa bona banelungelo inhloli kwabantu ke abakwazi kanyekanye banelungelo ukuligcina okwafike mfihlo ngenxa ke abangakwenza ngokoqobo inhloli noma ukubulala ubani ngaphandle imiphumela. Lokhu akusona ezahlukene ukwedlula ngendlela ihlozi, etholwa phezulu izinhlangano obugebengu zisebenza.

Wonke “isitha” kungenziwa wakhuluma, kungakhathaliseki umlingisi yomuntu okucatshangelwayo. Ukuntuleka inkhulumomphendvulwano eyakhayo kubangela izingxabano kakhulu ngoba lapho sethu “ubudlelwano” primary nabanye abantu lwenziwa noma zokugada nezinye media, bangakwazi kubhekwe kalula. Izimpi Kuqalwe ngenxa yamazwi nje nezenzo kuthathwe emongweni, okuyinto kuqondakala ukuba threating nobubi by abathile. Okuwukuphela Indlela zokuziphatha angenze usongo iwukuba kuqala kucocisana naso.

Ukuhlola iyingxenye imperialism. Ayikho indlela eya kuzuzwe okubusa okunjalo kwezomnotho nezombusazwe ngaphandle zokugada awunasisekelo futhi ekusithekeni omkhulu nenkohliso kuhulumeni. Ngaphambi Kennedy waba ngumengameli, wanikeza inkulumo on imperialism ngoJulayi 2 ka 1957 Kennedy wazwakalisa ukuthi imperialism kwaba isitha senkululeko. (Kodwa lokho akuzange bona nanyana umbuso obala wukuthi America nguye umbuso ngobukhulu emhlabeni.) Esikhathini Enkulumweni walahla kokubili imperialism zaseSoviet futhi Western e-Afrika. Ngalesi sikhathi, i-French base elwa impi esinonya on Algeria (basebenzisa amasosha 400.000), stifling imfundo uzibuse ngo Algeria, futhi jailing nokubulala abaholi ubuzwe ngubani ikakhulu ayefuna basebenzele ukuzuzisa yezwe labo. Abantu of Tunisia and Morocco becindezelwe kanye ngokweseka Algeria ngenkathi US waphenduka abakuboni. Kennedy wavula le inkulumo ethi:

“UMnu Umengameli, amandla amakhulu kunawo ongashadile ezisezweni namuhla neither ikhomanisi noma capitalism, kungoni i H-ibhomu noma missile eqondiswa. Kuyisifiso somuntu laphakade ukukhululeka futhi azimele. Isitha esikhulu leso force omkhulu wenkululeko ibizwa, ngenxa yokuswela a ezinembile term, imperialism – futhi namuhla lokho kusho imperialism kweSoviet futhi, kungakhathaliseki siyakuthanda noma cha, futhi nakuba kungukuthi ukuba akhiwa, imperialism Western.”

Kennedy wayehlale esingaphansi sisheshe sokugxeka imperialism Western, (ikakhulukazi US imperialism) kodwa wenza sokugxeka kokubili, ngokungafani iningi US abezombusazwe of kwenkathi yakhe. Imperialism asentshonalanga kanye imperialism waseSoviet wayengase ngokuqinisekile iye yafaniswa, kodwa cishe kungenakwenzeka ukunqoba ukhetho eMelika by ukuyilahla uhulumeni njengenhlangano mbuso abangathembekile. Ngaphezu kwalokho wangena yokukhuluma, Kennedy uzwakalisa isikhundla sakhe on US imperialism:

“Bengilokhu sokugxeka isikhundla-United States mayelana le simo kusukela 1946 – ikakhulukazi, isifiso United States silondoloze nobungane walo ne French, i baseBelgium lithanda, futhi amaPutukezi, bonke babo babe impahla koloni, futhi ngaso esifanayo silondoloze ubungane nezizwe koloni ngokwabo. Ngakho ukugxekwa wami ngeke kwakusho ukuba ube munye Partisan, kodwa kwakusho kuphela kubonisa ukuthi ngikholelwa inqubomgomo yethu kwehlulekile.

Kubaluleke ngokukhethekile, njengoba Hungary uyoba udaba primary emhlanganweni United Nations lokhu kuwa, ukuthi United States esusa emoyeni bese athathe isikhundla esicacile kule ndaba, ngalo besilokhu abasengozini esikhathini esidlule. Futhi kumelwe wenze kucace bhá kuya isiFulentshi kanye Afrika North ukuba sifune akukho yezinzuzo zezomnotho thina kuleyo ndawo, akukho amathuba buyisela ubuhlobo kwezomnotho French noma ukuxhaphaza imithombo Afrika.

Uma sifuna belondekile ubungane of the Arabhu, African, kanti Asian – kanti thina kumele, naphezu lokho uMnu Dulles lithini singakhathazeki kwethu emncintiswaneni ithandwa – asinakuzithembisa ekuwufezeni kuphela esebenzisa billion-dollar izinhlelo zosizo angaphandle. Asikwazi win izinhliziyo zabo ngokuzenza bancike handouts zethu. Nor Singaqhubeka nabo free ngokuthengisa nabo ibhizinisi free, ngokuchaza evikelekile kobuKhomanisi noma ukuchuma-United States, noma singaboli ukusebenzelana kwethu ukuba pacts wezempi. Cha, amandla ethu sikhalo kulezi imiphakathi key – futhi nofanelekayo sikhalo sethu, futhi hhayi lokho of amaKhomanisi – sixhomeke ifilosofi yethu yendabuko futhi ngokujulile wazizwa zenkululeko nokuzibusa for bonke abantu kuyo yonke indawo. “- John F. Kennedy.

Lokhu kwaba omunye inkulumo ukuthi akawuthandi le brand imperialism esingokoqobo White House. Kennedy babengase begxeka sokukholelwa ikhomanisi kufanele alwa, kodwa angikholwa ukuthi yena njalo baqonda ikhomanisi kweqiniso. Azihlanganisa ikhomanisi (njengoba kwenza abantu abaningi) kanye unya Union ngoba ngokuthi The inqubomgomo waseSoviet of ‘Indigenization’ (in Russian: коренизации) “ngamaKhomanisi.” Sifana kakhulu imperialism Western. Ikhomanisi ukube JFK lase funda Marx no kukhona yayingeyena hlazo enjalo elixhumene nezimboni in the McCarthy Era, cishe ngabe aqaphela eliphikisa ngokuphelele imperialism. Injongo yaso iwukuba ukusungula control ovamile, isici elibalulekile ngentando yeningi. Akuyona iphutha of Marx ukuthi imibono yakhe base obonakele, kusetshenziselwa ukuthethelela ukucindezelwa.

Naphezu le ukungaqondi, uJohn F. Kennedy ngefa umbuso ukuthi wayefuna ukuthatha ohlangothini oluhlukile kakhulu. Angikholelwa wayefuna ukuba abe yingxenye eMelika power umzabalazo ne USSR. Uma ayengazange babulawa, kungenzeka kahle ziye lwaphela neMpi eVietnam futhi iMpi Yomshoshaphansi ngesikhatsi likaMengameli wakhe, kanye nezwe ngabe babe babuhluke yalokho. Akekho ongasho ngokuqinisekile lokho ngabe kwenziwa wayeshilo kwabulawa kodwa National Security Action Memorandum 263 yango Okthoba 11 1963 waphinda ukuzibophezela Kennedy sika ukususa amabutho eziyinkulungwane eyodwa evela eNingizimu Vietnam nemibono yakhe ngokuthula zase ngokungafani yimuphi omunye umengameli US.

Sekuyisikhathi eside Kennedy ebulawa ngo Dealey Plaza, Dallas Texas ngoNovemba lama-22-1963 Izazi eziningi futhi ngabanye abasolwa ngokuthi kwakukhona uzungu ukubulala Kennedy. Ngokwenye vo, 80% of baseMelika akholelwa kwakukhona uzungu nokuthi Oswald akazange enze yedwa. [Cxvii] Uma nje amaqiniso ayisisekelo mayelana kokubulawa zihlolwa, kuba sobala kakhulu kwakukhona cover-up. Omunye ngemaphuzu wukuthi inombolo enkulu (cishe 105) sofakazi kanye nabantu ababenolwazi ngaphakathi nolwazi mayelana kokubulawa wafa ‘lokufa elula, “(abanye babulawa futhi abanye ukufa kwabantu abangu abusa abazibulalayo) owawenqabela iqiniso inotiyela isikhathi esithile. Lezi ukufa kwabantu zenzeka phakathi amabili emashumini njengoba ubugebengu yabuye-wahlola izikhathi eziningi.

Lee Harvey Oswald, umbulali wokuqala abasolwa, kwaba akakaze akwazi ukuya kwecala ngoba wabulawa ngemuva kokubulawa by Jack Ruby ababenolwazi ubuhlobo kuya Richard Nixon amahora angaphansi kuka-48. An FBI memo wathumela ngo-1947 evela redacted FBI kwabasebenzi umsizi watusa ukuba Jack Ruby hhayi ifakazela for kuzwa weKomidi House on Un-American Imisebenzi ngoba ‘owenza ukwaziswa imisebenzi ukuze udondolo Richard Nixon. ”

URuby waxhumana Warren Commission, okuyinto ngo ukuba ‘ukuphenya “kokubulawa, kodwa wenza uphenyo okuncane kakhulu. URuby wacela isho izikhathi eziningana, kodwa sithakazelo, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi Ruby wabulala Oswald. Babethi Ruby wayengakaze noma wahlangana Oswald, kodwa oFakazi abaningana ukuqinisekisile babethole. Ngokwesibonelo, ngo-1963 Esther Ann Mash, a isikhonzi, washumayeza emhlanganweni 7 abantu yokudlela lapho esebenza. Yena ayethi Oswald noRuby ayelapho kuze 1 am.

I cherry-zalandwa Warren Commission okuningi ubufakazi. Kungenzeka injongo yawo kuphela ungakwazi ukuvumelanisa Indaba uhulumeni yasekuqaleni mayelana kokubulawa. URuby wayefuna ukuba alethwe Washington DC futhi wamtshela Earl Warren, “Ukuphila kwami ​​usengozini lapha … Ngifuna ukutshela iqiniso, futhi angikwazi ukutshela lapha.” Emva konyaka enecala wakhe lokubulala Oswald, wathi ngoMashi ka-1965 ngendlela inkomfa wezindaba ukuthi “Konke eziphathelene kwenzakalani lapha akakaze eze ebusweni. Emhlabeni akasoze wazi amaqiniso weqiniso okwenzeka, izisusa zami. Abantu ababenolwazi kangaka ukuze athole futhi yisisusa zobugovu ezinjalo ngokubeka nami sikhundla I am in asisoze sivumele amaqiniso weqiniso eze ngenhla ebhodini emhlabeni. “Intatheli wabe esebuza ukuba laba bantu bangabantu abasezikhundleni eziphakeme kakhulu?” futhi baqinisekisa. Kweminyaka emibili kamuva, Ruby wabulawa umdlavuza. Wathi ngaphambi kokufa kwakhe ukuthi ithuthukiswe umdlavuza kusuka umjovo wanikwa for umkhuhlane, kodwa lokhu kwakubhekwa akakaze kungase kutholakale.

URuby wabulala Oswald yokuthulisa naye cishe ngoba sakhokhwa. Angase aye nawo wayefuna isho ukuvuma yena kuphazanyiswe ubufakazi kuleli lokubulala. Wabonwa yintatheli Dallas e Parkland Hospital lapho ‘Bullet Magic “(umbukiso Commission 399) watholakala on the uhlaka ezingafanele. Inhlamvu magic kuyinto inhlamvu Kusolakala ukuthi siwela ngokusebenzisa Kennedy noMbusi Connelly, ehlezi phambi kwakhe kule Limousine kamongameli. Ngokusho single bullet theory avela nesazi-Warren Commission, le bullet ukungena 7 izingqimba zesikhumba kanye 15 amasentimitha of kwezicubu, odlulayo noma entanyeni Kennedy sika ke sombusi esifubeni, isihlakala kanye ephumula ngaphakathi kwethanga sakhe sokunene. Indlela le Inhlamvu ngabe kwadingeka ukuthatha ukuze izilonda onjalo esiyisigwegwe, futhi kuyinto engenakwenzeka ukuba ngokomzimba eyodwa bullet kungathatha indlela enjalo. Lokhu kuye kuqinisekiswa ahlukahlukene kuqhubeke Ochwepheshe efana uDkt Joseph dolce, isazi esiyinhloko kuqhubeke for the Army owayebizwa wacela ukuba avivinye single bullet theory for the Warren Commission. Wayengavunyelwe ukubizelwa isho futhi akutholile base oluthathwa iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili.

Dealey Plaza Lalikuphi ekahle ukubulala Kennedy. It is a, endaweni evulekile flat elizungezwe ikakhulu nguhulumeni izakhiwo efana isakhiwo Dal-Tex, indlu iNkantolo Old, i County Criminal Wezinkantolo ukwakha kanye izakhiwo County Records. Noma iyiphi kulezi zakhiwo ngabe isetshenziswe njengoba sniper izidleke. In the ezinye isiqondiso, kukhona umgwaqo kathathu ukudlula ngaphansi, wasibiyela lekushuca bezungeza knoll anotshani, nezinye izindawo eziningi anotshani nge ikhava. Budebuduze naleli omkhulu wabuye wanika nalabo sasihilela lula, engahle Ukuphunyuka umzila. Secret Service agents babengavunyelwe emotweni Kennedy noma endaweni, futhi Dallas Police, abaningi babo ababengebona abonakele, kuphela ababemi ukuba amvikele. Jack Ruby kwadingeka ubuhlobo kuya Dallas uMnyango Wamaphoyisa futhi kungenzeka yena wakhokha amaphoyisa Dallas kusengaphambili ukuze hhayi agade President.

Ngo-2007 izinsolo of CIA ukufaka abangu ngqo kuqinisekiswa CIA wangaphambilini kanye Oss operative, E. Howard Hunt. Hunt eyayihilelekile imisebenzi eminingi kubandakanya ngokuhlasela Bay of izingulube PBFORTUNE. Uphinde watholwa enecala for ukuhileleka the ukugqekeza Watergate. Yena wavuma ekusizeni ukuhlela kokubulawa in incwadi ekhuluma ngaye, American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate, no Beyond. Yena, kwadingeka ukuba alobe le ncwadi emva wathumela tape indodana yakhe, Saint John Hunt, ngaphambi kokufa kwakhe kuyo wachaza wayengumuntu ‘a benchwarmer “on kokubulawa, okwathiwa” The Big Indawo. ”

Hunt kwaba cishe nakanjani omunye ‘tramps “ezintathu ubanjwe ukufihla emotweni ujantshi ibhokisi eduze Dealey Plaza. Cishe base Abacibishelayo kusukela knoll anotshani aphuza shot ukubulala. Hunt naye ongumsolwa a Ushayasibhamu French okungenzeka baye le mobster elidumile uLucien Sarti noma uDavide Ferrie of the CIA owayazi kokubili Ruby and Oswald. Umtapo ikhadi david Ferrie sika nayo esitholakala ephaketheni Oswald kanye Ferrie ehlala ehhotela e Dallas ngosuku sokudubula. Kukhona nobufakazi ekhona acoustic ukuthi okungenani eyodwa bullet Waxoshwa knoll anotshani. Lokhu abalwa ofakazi abaningi owabona amadoda amaningana Obalekela knoll anotshani, emva nje isibhamu zezwakala kusukela ndawo. Abophe tramps ezintathu, ngemibuzo bese kudedelwa ngaphandle amagama abo njalo ezilotshwe.

In the okuwukuphela nesithombe ezikhishwe of the tramps ezintathu, basuke abafanekiselwa sashiya uMnyango wamaphoyisa Dallas egqoke izibuko kanye amasudi. Hunt libukeka omunye wabo. Charles Harrelson, (i ngobugebengu obuhleliwe sibalo ayethi amaphoyisa ngoSepthemba ka-1982 ukuthi udubule Kennedy) noJakobe Earl Ray, owayebulele yicala Martin Luther King Jr bachazwa njengoba ezinye tramps ezimbili. The tramps abathathu kwakungezona ngabanye nje Kuboshwe ngalolo suku. Kokubulawa wayengumuntu, ngomzamo enkulu kweLuhlelo ayehileleke abaningi in.

In the tape indodana yakhe, uHoward Hunt wachaza Lyndon B. Johnson kwakuyindawo orchestrator eyinhloko kokubulawa. Wayesethuneni isikhundla ukuzuza kakhulu ekufeni Kennedy kanye waba ngumengameli ngemva nje kokuba Kennedy wafa. Wabuye babengabathandi Kennedy nobe izinqubomgomo zakhe. In the zingxoxo Frank Gannon / Nixon, Nixon wathi, “Johnson akazange ikakhulukazi like Jack Kennedy. Wazonda Bobby Kennedy. ”

Okuningi the CIA kakade ubufuna ukuqeda Kennedy. Ngaphandle izinqubomgomo Kennedy kanye nokuzimisela kwakhe ezobhubhisa CIA, wayeyisosha adubula abantu abaningana abanamandla kuleli CIA. Ngokusho Hunt, Cord Meyer Jr, elinye operative CIA waphathiswa of “The Big Indawo.” Cord Meyer Jr wavelelwa Isisusa eyengeziwe ukubulala Kennedy kusukela wayazi Kennedy nomkakhe base uthandana nomuntu.

Cord Meyer Jr futhi abaqashiwe David Morales noBill Harvey, ababili bakhohlakele CIA izikhulu. Ex-Ummeli david Morales BakaJehova, uRobert Walton, uthe Morales uvumile yena Kwakuhileleke zombili kubulawa Kennedy in a interview BBC ngo 2006 Wathi yena ‘kwaba ngo Dallas lapho sesifika ukuthi motherfucker futhi ngisafunda Los Angeles lapho sathola bastard omncane . “Morales wabona oda Kennedy sika ukukhansela airstrikes on Cuba njengomuntu ‘ukunikela,” njengoba kwenza abaningana CIA operatives. Kennedy wabuye wenza ziphathelene Khrushchev ukuthi CIA wakhohlisa. Kennedy sathi uma Khrushchev wadonsa imicibisholo aphume Cuba, iU.S. ngeke ihlasele.

Long ngaphambi kokufa kwakhe ngo-2007, uHoward E. Hunt uzwakalise intukuthelo yakhe mayelana ngezenzo Kennedy sika kuxoxwa: “Izithembiso ayenziwe ngu nokuphatha, ngokufaka abaphathi Kennedy kanye esandulele Eisenhower nokuphatha ukuthi ukuhlasela zaziyoba uqhubeke ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile. Futhi lapho baphula ukuthi [isithembiso] ngenxa ingxenye uMnu Kennedy, [sabona ukuthi] njengendlela ukwehluleka of nerve. ”

Amadoda ayishumi nambili noma ngaphezulu abophe lowo suku kwakungewona nje CIA operatives njengoba kushiwo. I CIA kusetshenziswa ehleliwe ubugebengu izibalo ngezizathu eziningana. Le Hade mafia wenza isivumelwano uMengameli Batista iminyaka ngaphambi ukuvumela zokugembula nezidakamizwa imisebenzi okumele run eCuba, (US izinkampani wabusa esifundeni ngenxa ngaye) kodwa la imisebenzi kwaphela lapho Castro weza ngamandla. Glenn Kessler of the Washington Post wachaza: “Ngemva Fidel Castro wahola inguquko ukuthi kwaketula uhulumeni yobungane 1959, i CIA wayeludinga ukuqeda naye. Ngakho ejensi wafuna umlingani okhathazekile ngokulinganayo mayelana Castro-the Mafia, okuyinto kwadingeka izimali eziphambili zokugembula Cuban. “Amalungu amaningi mafia kwadingeka ugqozi ukusiza ukuqeda Castro ngenxa yalokhu, kodwa kanye CIA angase abe agcina wabeka esephendukela on Kennedy ngezizathu ezifanayo. Santo Trafficante wayengomunye mobsters baboshwe ngesikhathi kuphangwa ikhasino. Kodwa wadedelwa ngayo yonke impahla zakhe mhlawumbe ngoba wavuma ukudlala zombili izinhlangothi yena.

Kennedy wathi mayelana Cuba and Batista ukuthi “Ngikholelwa ukuthi akukho izwe emhlabeni kubandakanya noma iyiphi futhi wonke amazwe ngaphansi kokubuswa abaphathi bamakoloni, lapho ezomnotho ikoloni, ukululazeka nokuxhashazwa zase mubi kakhulu eCuba, ngokwengxenye ngenxa izinqubomgomo lizwe wami ngesikhathi batista umbuso. I yagunyaza isimemezelo, okuyinto Fidel Castro eyenziwe e-Sierra Maestra, lapho anesizathu wabiza ubulungisa ikakhulukazi belangazelela wokuqeda Cuba inkohlakalo. Mina ngeke baze hamba phambili: ngezinga elingakanani kuba sengathi Batista kwakuyindawo incarnation of abaningana izono on the ingxenye United States. Manje nathi kuyomelwe ukukhokhela lezo zono. Endabeni umbuso Batista, ngivumelana ne Abavukeli zokuqala Cuban. Yilokho kucace ngokuphelele. ”

Abazalwane Kennedy wabuye wathatha kakhulu a hardline nge ubugebengu obuhleliwe, ikakhulukazi ezisukela ngokusebenzisa United States Select Committee on Imisebenzi esingafanele Labor and Management, owaziwa ngokuthi i-ikomidi McClellan okuthiwa emva uSihlalo walo, yilungu lephalamende John L. McClellan. By 1963 izinkulungwane zamalungu mafia zase noma ejele, igadiwe noma ezibhekene necala. Umfowabo Kennedy BakaJehova, uBobby Kennedy, wathatha izenzo nolaka kakhulu high-profile abamangalelwa futhi wayevame bacabanga yecala lapho melani owesihlanu. Wabonakaliswa Attorney General of the US kanye izinkolelo of mobsters rose by 800% eneminyaka ehhovisi. UCarlos Marcella, umholi mafia e Dallas wadingiselwa Guatemala ngu Kennedy, kabusha wangena United States ngokungemthetho ngosizo mobsters akubo. Amanye amalungu mob efana Johnny Rosselli, hit-man for Al Capone, futhi engakuthandi Kennedy ngoba babethi ukusiza ukuthola naye ehhovisi for umusa ezombusazwe.

Ngo 1960 URobert Maheu of the CIA, isifuba kuMengameli John F. Kennedy no yilungu lephalamende Robert F. Kennedy waqala ukuqasha mafia amadoda for kokubulawa Fidel Castro. Johnny Roselli wavakashelwa kuqala. Maheu wamtshela ukuthi wayeyisikhulu advocate wezinkampane ngamazwe, kodwa akazange atshele ngaye yena wayengemuva CIA, okuyinto kwaba indlela okuthakazelisa of ngitshela uhhafu iqiniso. Roselli wethula Maheu uSam Giancana okwathi kamuva uzwakalise ukuthi wayekholelwa CIA kanye Cosa nostra babengabantu “ezinhlangothini ezehlukene lwemali ofanayo.” Roselli wabuye wethula Maheu kuya Santo Trafficante, Jr Bonke kwadingeka zokugembula ukuthi avalwa eCuba. La madoda zazinikezwa ubuthi amaphilisi eziyisithupha ukusebenzisa ngomzamo ukubulala uCastro. Lezi amaphilisi ngabe eyenga yisifo senhliziyo, kodwa ngemva bezama ukuphatha nabo ngezindlela eziningana, abazange baphumelele.

UMarita Lorenz, intombi engu-19 ubudala Castro kwaba ukubuthwa Frank Sturgis ukubulala uCastro. Uthe kuxoxwa, “Babelokhu ukungibuza ngoba wangiqeqesha. Bathi Bengingekho kuhle yini enye. Bathi kwadingeka ukukwenza ngenxa yezizathu zokuphepha kazwelonke. Ngale kwalokho, kwakuzoba nempi. ”

Lapho yonke imizamo eziyisithupha ukubulala Castro yehluleka, Santo Trafficante wathumela lokudutshulwa Cuban abaqeqeshiwe at a base CIA in the Florida Keys ukubulala Castro, kodwana Trafficante wamxwayisa kusengaphambili ngakho. Lezi lokudutshulwa Cuban zabe athunjwa yiziphathimandla Cuban. Ngokusho iSigele ubufakazi Johnny Roselli sika, la lokudutshulwa zabe wadedelwa ngaphansi kombandela wokuthi babezoya America ukubulala Kennedy. Lezi lokudutshulwa Kungenzeka kuthathwe isibhamu kusuka esakhiweni Dal-Tex. Ofakazi eziningana wezwa isibhamu kuwo. Kwakubuye indawo evikelekile ngaphezu Depository Book School ukuthi wanikela shot ngokucacile le yezimoto. Ngemva nje Roselli wachaza konke lokhu iSigele ubufakazi bakhe, yena wadutshulwa waklinywa olwandle. Imilenze yakhe base lithi wanqunywa off wayesefakwa eyayigcwele in an yabadayisi kawoyela ukuthi ekugcineni santanta ogwini.

I Warren Commission esasungulwa LBJ ngoNovemba 29 1963. Wamisa ikakhulu abangane wayazi wayengeke faka ecaleni naye noma ubani omunye kuhulumeni. Kwakumelwe Usihlalo Chief Justice, Earl Warren, ex-CIA operative, Allen Dulles, J. Lee Rankin (ekhonza njengamaphayona neseluleko jikelele), uJohn J. McCloy, uGerald Ford, Hale Boggs, yilungu lephalamende Richard B. Russell noJohn Sherman Cooper. (Kwakukhona nezinye minor amalungu seluleko umsizi.) Babethi kwakukhona Shooter eyodwa kuphela (Oswald) ngubani adubula kusukela phansi 6 Depository Texas School Book, naphezu esibekele kobufakazi obuhlukile.

Lee Harvey Oswald, le ndoda basola ngokuphelele ngenxa kokubulawa by the Warren Commission, kungenzeka unezinkulungwane nje patsy ezingaqedwa in ukuhlinzwa. I CIA kanye sixuku aqaphela engahle kwakhe njengomuntu Azazeli omuhle ngoba wabonakala ziye ‘eyeke “kusukela America kanye CIA emva kwesikhathi sakhe e-Marine Corps. Kodwa ezombusazwe zakhe zase akakaze ezedlulele kakhulu futhi ujenga kunalokho eduze Kennedy sika, ngaphandle isikhundla sakhe on Cuba. Ngakho-ke, Oswald kwadingeka Isisusa little ukubulala Kennedy.

Oswald wajoyina Marine Corp at 17 nje kuphela ubudala. At 18 yena wathunyelwa a airbase top secret e Atsugi Japan, esebenzela intelligence yempi. Ngemva osenyameni evela Marine Corps, yena wahlukana kwakhe isakhamuzi waseMelika, baya eMoscow, futhi washada Marina Oswald. Khona uhulumeni mnike sibuye futhi ahlale Fort Worth, Texas. Ngo-1963 wathuthela eNew Orleans futhi wasungula isahluko zendawo ukuze Play Fair for Cuba Committee.

Lapho kuxoxwa mayelana Committee Cuba, wathi egameni inhlangano wayeseholela “omemezela ukubuyiselwa zamanxusa, ezohwebo, kanye ubudlelwane izivakashi kanye eCuba.” Lezi Ngokuqinisekile musa azwakala like amazwi i ziyingozi ukulungele ukubulala umengameli . Uthe ukuthi cha abasemaqenjini yimuphi omunye group nokuthi injongo iKomidi sika sole kwaba ukuvimbela US ukungenelela eCuba makabe laphenduka ngokwayo njengesizwe esizimele nabantu Cuban ophethe ikusasa layo. JFK eyayivimbela le, (njengoba abaningi kuhulumeni zase) kodwa njengoba eshiwo yena bagcina yasesula kugadla air on Cuba, a Oswald Kumelwe ukuba ukuthutha asekelwe.

Lapho kuxoxwa kamuva nje Oswald Waboshwa wathi akazi lokho aphathiswe. Uthe umuntu wokuqala embuze ukube wabulala Kennedy kwaba intatheli zindaba. Kamuva Marina Oswald iyakufakazela ukuthi elalisetshenziswa nguhulumeni kanye Warren Commission ukwenza Oswald sound unecala, kodwa yena wayekholelwa Oswald Sasingekho isizathu afune ukubulala Kennedy ngenxa efanayo, imibono yabo ovulekile.

Enye indoda okungenzeka kwaba nendima kokubulawa kuyinto George Bush Senior. Dallas isekela, uRoger Craig, wathi wayezazi kuboshwa nambili, ngosuku kokubulawa. One of amadoda kuboshwe ezimele opharetha uwoyela kusuka Houston, Texas. Lokhu kwakungaba incazelo ka Bush, njengoba kwenzeka ngo-Dallas ngalolo suku ngenxa American Association of Oil Drilling Contractors Well umhlangano, elimelela inkampani yakhe oil Zapata at the Sheraton Hotel Dallas, (okuyinto 10 ukusuka Dealey Plaza.) Bush kuye ohlonzwe izithombe lapho kuvele kokubulawa.

Ngokusho Army uBrigadier General, uRussell Bowen, Bush wasebenza ngqo namaqembu anti-Castro ngaphambi nangemva Bay of EZINGULUBENI Invasion. Empeleni, lo Codename for Bay of Izingulube kwakuwukuhlasela kwaba operation “Zapata.” Zapata wabuye wanika izimpahla lula ngokuhlasela. Uwoyela amapulatifomu Zapata sika zazisetshenziselwa ukuqeqesha abasebenzi namafutha Cuban ayehlasela ngokusho isikhulu engaziwa. Ngesikhathi “Operation Whale Watch,” off-icala uwoyela yokumba Zapata sika nawo wasebenzisa njengoba elisekela for izidakamizwa izimpahla ngesikhathi ndaba Iran contra ukukhokha contras baseNicaragua kusukela 1986-1988. [Cxviii]

Amarekhodi Zapata no-US no Securities Exchange Commission kusuka 1960 kuya 1966 uduke emva amarekhodi officer sekhomishana babethi amabhokisi kuka 1,000 lamarekhodi kwabhujiswa endaweni Warehouse likahulumeni. Lapho babhujiswa is phikisa kodwa uWilson Umbazi, a umhlaziyi yerekhodi for ikhomishana babethi bona babhujiswa emva nje Bush Sr. waba ngumengameli. Kungenzeka mibhalo ezibheca Bush ngokubonisa kahle indlela yena basiza CIA ngokusebenzisa inkampani yakhe uwoyela.

Ngenxa nobuhlobo obuseduze phakathi kwabantu lokuzama of Fidel Castro kanye kokubulawa ngempumelelo JFK, kubonakala Bush ozwakalayo okungenani wayazi mayelana plan. Uma eyayihilelekile, kungenzeka bashukumiseleke, okungenani ngokwengxenye, by imali walahlekelwa lapho West Indies Sugar Company zadliwa uhulumeni ngu Fidel Castro.

Ukuvukela umbuso bekungeke kube ukuziphatha isimanga kusukela line Bush. Umndeni Bush ine ifa ukuphila komuntu ekwelapheni kanye kangako kungekho sici. Ngokwesibonelo, ubaba uGeorge Bush Senior sika, Prescott Bush, aphethwe futhi adayiswa izimpahla yamaNazi iminyaka. Prescott kwaba director kanye isikhulu esiphezulu se-Union Banking Corporation (UBC), okuyinto ihwebelana amafa ezivela bezinhlangano eJalimane lobuNazi sika abacebe nabantu efana Hamburg America Line and Fritz Thyssen, ilunga kanye umsekeli primary sezimali Party wamaNazi kusukela 1933 UBC waphoqwa ngaphansi Trading ne Enemy Act, kodwa Prescott Bush asizange yicala noma wazama for umbuso. Eqinisweni, yena wanikwa $ 1.5 million dollars back evela kuhulumeni US for Holdings zakhe bambamba amaNazi.

A memo eyabhalwa uJ Edgar Hoover yayiswa uGeorge Bush of izinsuku CIA ngemuva kokubulawa embiza emhlanganweni. Okhulumela CIA Sharron Basso wasikisela it wayebhekisele a George William Bush of the CIA. Kodwa le ndoda yafunga in efungelwe ukuthi akakaze wabona memo esinjalo. Bush Senior uthe akakwazanga akhumbule kokuthola memo mayelana kokubulawa futhi waze waphika yimuphi ukubandakanyeka ne CIA. Yena wabe waba umqondisi CIA ngoJanuwari ka 1976 no Vice President of the United States emva kwalokho. Lapho wagijima for President, waqhubeka ukuphika yimuphi ukubandakanyeka ne CIA, futhi lapho yembulwa Bush wayengemuva CIA, le zabangela ukucasula.

Lapho Hunt waboshwa ngenxa ukugqekeza Watergate, kuthiwa wacela omunye million dollars ukuze ithule hhayi implicate ubani ngamandla. Kungenzeka Nixon wesulile ngoba efuna i-FBI ukuyeka kuphenywa Watergate no Hunt, ikakhulukazi. Akavumanga ngokuyisisekelo enze zokwazi away in a enophephela emhlane ilungelo emva ngenkulumo yakhe yokusula.) Nixon naye aqoshiwe efonini echaza kwenye isikhulu ukuthi Hunt wayengase embule “lonke Bay of Izingulube of nto.”

Nakuba Bush Ukuhileleka kokubulawa akuqinisekwa, LBJ cishe ngokuqinisekile labatsintsekako. RFK wabuza Kamuva Lyndon Johnson “Kungani kuye wabulala mfowethu?” Futhi engatholi mpendulo. Robert Kennedy ngemibuzo Johnson ngodaba etinkhulumiswaneni phone ulotshwe ngokushesha ngemva kokubulawa. Ngasekupheleni, uRobert uyachaza, “Wena bathumela imibiko ngami … kuhlanganise uhulumeni ngempoqo nobudlova eholela ukuvukela uMbuso.” Johnson engingiza futhi uthi, “Cha, akukho, lokho kuyiphutha.” Wabe uqala ukuphefumula ayehlome futhi nje ngaphambi elenga up uthi “Ngizoxoxa nawe ngayo ngosuku noma emibili.” wabuye wachazwa Johnson ngokuthi “asho, okumunyu, abanonya, isilwane,” futhi uJacqueline Kennedy, umka JFK sika, wezwakalisa imizwa efanayo.

Jacqueline wayegqoke izembatho ofanayo anegazi yena isikhindi lapho Kennedy wadutshulwa ngosuku Johnson wafungiswa njengoba umengameli. Uthe isikhindi sona ‘ukubabonisa lokho babenzile Kennedy. “Lokhu kwaba phambi LBJ kanye cronies zakhe. Akazange athi wayefuna ukutjengisa Oswald bafuna ayezenzile. Cishe wayazi Jacqueline eziningi kakhulu amadoda emi abaseduze kwakhe kwakukhona amaqembu enecala.

Lapho Robert Kennedy wabulawa (futhi ngaphansi kwezimo ezisolisayo nge eziningana CIA operatives abakhona) wathi, “Uma uqamba babulala Kennedy sika ke izingane zami okuhloswe … Ngifuna ukuphuma ezweni.” [Cxix] Oswald wayefile by kulokhu iminyaka, futhi kungenzeka ukuthi utjho eqenjini elifanayo labantu owabulala umyeni wayo, nakuba akakaze washo ngubani ncamashi yena wayekhuluma, cishe ngenxa yokwesaba wabulala ngokwakhe.

UKaryn Kupicinet, indodakazi ibutho TV uthe wezwa amacebo itulo ukubulala JFK ngaphambi kwenzeka, futhi naye wabulawa ngosuku olufanayo wabulawa Kennedy. Hank Killam, umyeni ka isisebenzi of uJack Ruby ababemazi Oswald ungesinye isibonelo. Umphimbo wakhe wahlabeka ngoMashi ka-1964 Gary Underhill, a agent CIA ayethi lo ejensi okwakuhilelekile udutshulwe ekhanda ngo-May 1964 uJim Koethe, yamanje ntatheli in efulethini Ruby sika usuku emva wabulawa kokubulawa by buhlungu entanyeni ngoSepthemba ka-1964 Kunezinye izibonelo eziningi.

Owesifazane okuthiwa Rose Chermie eyathi yona ikalishi a ride ne lokudutshulwa Cuban belibangise Dallas ukubulala Kennedy Wangilahla ohlangothini izinsuku komgwaqo ngaphambi kokubulawa senzeke. Lapho latholwa ngu ambulensi, watshela eziningana kwabasebenzi esibhedlela ukuthi umongameli uzobulawa nokuthi kwaba eyaziwayo endaweni lemimoya. Nokho, akekho bakholwa wakhe, futhi walaliswa uzibophezele yezimo abhekene. Wayephinde kamuva wabulawa September ka 1965.

UDorothy Kilgallen, umlobeli owayenonembeza inkhulumoluhlolo ngasese uJack Ruby futhi zazithi wayezothola ‘uyophula “icala JFK washona ngo November ka 1965 ngemva kokudla izidakamizwa. Lase wayebusa lokuzibulala. A Ruby Isisebenzi ekhulumile naye ebusuku ngaphambi kokuba adubula Oswald okuthiwa uKaren “Little Lynn” Carlin wabulawa ngo-1966 uLieutenant William uPitzer, i JFK photographer ukuhlola isidumbu owachaza duty kwakhe njengomuntu “Okuhlangenwe nakho obunyantisayo,” wafa October ka 1966 .

ER Walthers, Dallas Iphini Sheriff owasiza ukusesha Depository Texas School Book emva kokudubula, babethi wathola .45-osezingeni slug endaweni yesehlakalo, yize kungekho gun onjalo wake kubikwe kutholakale. Yena wadutshulwa wabulawa ngoJanuwari ka 1969. Hale Boggs, House Iningi uMholi ilungu Warren Commission, waqala ukuveza ukungabaza mayelana okutholakele obala ngaphambi washona ngo-1972 UWilliam Sullivan, owayekade eliphezulu simo FBI agent ngubani ephethwe Division 5 yena , counter-ubunhloli kanye intelligence basekhaya wabulawa endaweni “ukuzingela engozini ‘ngoNovemba ka 1977.

Esinye isibonelo George De Mohrenschildt, a Russian ongahluziwe sokuma komhlaba ngubani watshelwa ukuhlangabezana Oswald ngu CIA operative, J. Walton Moore. (Kungenzeka ukuthi wayesethubeni a CIA “handler”). De Mohrenschildt owabulawa ukuvunguza athola isibhamu kubona ekhanda ngobusuku ngaphambi kokuba kwakufanele ifakazela phambi United States House Khetha Committee on Ukubulawa kwabantu abavamile (HSCA) kwecala. Wayeke utshele ikomidi ukuthi Oswald kwaba izinsuku abangenacala ngaphambili, futhi kwadingeka ugqozi olungako amanga kusukela Oswald wayesefile kakade. Ukufa de Mohrenschildt sika kwekucala wayebusa ukuzibulala, naphezu kwezimo ezisolisayo ezisobala. Wayekhulekela wesaba ukuphila kwakhe iminyaka eminingana ngaphambi kokufa kwakhe. Wathi yena wayehlushwa futhi ilandelwa CIA ngenxa olwazini lwakhe mayelana kokubulawa, futhi waze waxhumana uGeorge Bush Sr. usizo ngaphambi kokubulawa kwakhe. (George Bush Sr. ngempela wabhala emuva, kodwa akazange anikele usizo.)

URoy Kellerman, imfihlo Service ejenti ophethe Limousine JFK sabuye wafa ngo March ka 1984 Iningi operatives CIA nabanye ababehileleke bafile kanye. Nokho, ngalesi sihloko uhlala efanele ngoba abaningi CIA operatives le waphathwa nje njenganoma yimuphi omunye operation. Zibulala ngasese abaholi sonke isikhathi, kodwa bambalwa kakhulu abantu imibuzo ngaphandle kokuba lehlose a President US. Ngakho abantu abaningi wayengeke kwabulawa wayenelungelo real amaqembu enecala ngaphakathi CIA kanye nezinye izinhlangano bathunjwa kanye wadalula.

Ngo 1976 the HSCA weza esiphethweni esihlukile ukwedlula Warren Commission. Babekholelwa ukuthi itulo phakathi ababulali eziningi cishe kakhulu, kodwa yathi abazange babe ubufakazi obanele implicate ubani ngokuqondile CIA, FBI nobe Service eyimfihlo. Nokho, bathi uMongameli wayentula ukuvikelwa kusukela Secret Service futhi okukhulunywa ukuthi CIA kwaba uncooperative, onezimfihlo kakhulu futhi neze ozayo mayelana imibuzo on kokubulawa.

6.8 Izimpi amafutha

I CIA akuyena yedwa US intelligence agency. Empeleni, i-United States has nesithupha inani ejensi intelligence yonke oholwa uMqondisi of National Intelligence ngubani kunjalo has ezingaphezu amandla wangempela kunokuba uMongameli. Lezi zihlanganisa ejensi uMnyango Homeland Security, uMnyango Wobulungisa, uMnyango State, uMnyango we-Treasury, kanti noMnyango Wezokuvikela (DOD), okuyinto umqashi ezinkudlwana ezisezweni. DOD abaqashwe million 3.2 Abantu ngo-2012 [cxx] It siqukethe National Security Agency, i Defense Intelligence Agency, National Geo-Spatial Intelligence Agency, National ukuhlola ukuphepha kwesimo endaweni Agency, Army Intelligence Activity kanye neHhovisi of Naval Intelligence. Iningi imisebenzi DOD ziya compartmentalized ngomzamo uzigcina. Basuke ahlukana phakathi kwabantu abaningi ezahlukene abangase ngeke zazi ngisho umgomo ekupheleni abakwenzayo, kanjalo amalungu iningi nje ukuthola umsebenzi olula (efana ikhodi ukuphulwa nobe ukubhekwa), kodwa abantu abangase anikeze la oda phezulu kakhulu bazi kahle hle kwenzekani. Le misebenzi sibambane akhonze i ajenda kwezomnotho abasebenzela izithakazelo corporate ilungelo lokufuna.

I CIA and iningi nezinye US kanye angaphandle “intelligence” izinhlangano ikakhulu zikhona ukusizakala emakethe uwoyela yonke izimakethe kanye nemithombo bakwazi ukuthola izandla zabo phezu. Ziyakwazi izinsimbi ezinkulu kakhulu kuhulumeni, kodwa izenzo zabo iningi olukhulu akuvamile zaziwe ngoba asebenza ekusithekeni futhi asitshela benza ‘ngokuphepha kwethu siqu. “Kodwa-ke, lokhu nje ukufihla ajenda yabo kwezomnotho . I CIA inomlando omude ukuhileleka eMpumalanga Ephakathi ikakhulu ngenxa yokuthi le ndawo kakhulu uwoyela emhlabeni. EMpumalanga Ephakathi ubuye ngokuyinhloko Islamic, onikeza abaningi agents zikahulumeni bigoted esinye isizathu afune bacindezele futhi ababhubhise isifunda.

Ukuvelela Saddam Hussein, eqinisweni, kwaba lula ngomunye Icebo lika CIA. Kulo lonke ikhulu lama-20 le-CIA wafuna indawo yabo abaholi ngubani wayehlose enza kube okobuzwe izinkampani ezinkulu uwoyela ukuzuza izwe labo. I okukhulunywa Icebo lika Mosaddegh sika eGuatemala, kodwa lokhu kumane nje kuyisibonelo esisodwa out of kwabaningi. Jikelele Abd al-Qasim Karim, umholi ethandwayo ka Iraq, naye okuhloswe ukuba yalokhu. Yena yazama enza kube okobuzwe nje ingxenye Iraq Petroleum Company, okuyinto eyayikade abancela uwoyela izinqolobane Iraq sika elomile nokuthengisa it ezizweni Western ngenkathi enikeza lutho emuva kubantu Iraq. Qasim naye okubhekiswe ngoba wasuka Iraq kusukela ngoludala, namaSoviet iBaghdad Pact atheleka, futhi decriminalized le Iraq Communist Party. [Cxxi] Qasim futhi kwadingeka bangamaKhomanisi eziningana nokuphathwa yakhe, futhi yazama bahlasele Kuwait, okwaba umphakeli enkulu amafutha US.

I CIA okokuqala wathumela iduku anobuthi ukuba Qasim ngo 1960 Kodwa lapho lokhu uhlulekile ukumbulala, babakhuthaza futhi usekelwa izakhi ezinkulu of Ba’ath party Saddam Hussein sika ukuhlubuka ngokumelene Qasim. (Saddam kwaba phezu kwabasebenzi le-CIA ngesikhathi.) The CIA kwadingeka Oxhumana ezahlukene iqembu ukuthi wasidlulisela ulwazi mayelana Icebo lika ngaphambi kokuba senzeke futhi emva kwecala emfushane, Qasim wadutshulwa wafa ngo-1963 Lapho i Ba ‘ath party kamuva wathatha amandla, i CIA inqobo umbuso kanye namagama ezinkulungwane bangamaKhomanisi nezinye izishoshovu ovulekile ukuba abe killed.Saddam ngokwakhe kwadingeka isandla kulezi nokubulalana. phakathi kwezisulu zase odokotela, abameli, othisha, kanye nezibalo zezombusazwe.

Umholi omusha we-party Ba’ath, Abdul Salam Arif, washona ngo-1966 emva kweminyaka emithathu kuphela ehhovisi. Umfowabo, Abdul Rahman Arif ke wathatha indawo yakhe. Wayengeyena ilungu leqembu Ba’ath, futhi wanquma ukunikeza isandla eFrance kanye USSR for ekutfutfukiseni amasimu amasha kawoyela. Uhulumeni waseMelika nezinkampani namafutha abo babephikiswa kulokhu, ngoba babekholelwa base ‘ukulahlekelwa “uwoyela ukuthi kungaba eyabo. Robert Anderson, uNobhala wangaphambilini we-Treasury ngaphansi uMengameli Dwight D. Eisenhower, wahlangana nalo Ba’ath Party ngo-1968 ukudingida nibakhulisa emandleni futhi aphinde athole the ezivuna kawoyela ukuthi USSR neFrance kwase kuxoxiswane. I CIA weseke Icebo lika no Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of the Ba’ath Party waba uMongameli omusha. Baphinde wenza Saddam Hussein entsha vice President. I Iraq Ba’ath Party amaphoyisa ophethe le amasu okugumbuqela imibuso zase phezu kwabasebenzi of umzukulu uTheodore Roosevelt sika, Archibald Roosevelt owayengumholi iphini of the East Ephakathi.

Ngo 1972 Hassan al-Bakr uhulumeni i Iraq Petroleum Company. Uma lo CIA ababengalazi le kwaba inhloso yakhe, cishe bona ngabe wambeka ngamandla. I CIA uzungu ne Shah of Iran (owayengumfundi umsekeli of US izithakazelo ezinkampani esifundeni) engalweni amavukelambuso wemathando ababekwazi ukugumbuqela al-Bakr. Kodwa lapho Iran and Iraq wasayina isivumelwano yokuthula ngo 1975, i CIA nginqume ukwesekwa kwabo Kurds. Ngo 1976 Saddam waba Jikelele Iraq Armed Forces nanjengoba asebekhulile al-Bakr waba engakwazi ukusebenza kuhle ngokwanele ukuba umyalo, Saddam yaba de empeleni waba umholi.

Ngo-1979 al-Bakr wenza izivumelwano neSiriya ukuthi wanika uMengameli yaseSiriya Hafez al-Assad isikhundla umholi iphini kanye Saddam kwase ngokuyisisekelo zehliswa. Ngenxa yalokho, Saddam waphoqa al-Bakr sokwesula futhi ngokusemthethweni wathatha amandla kamuva ngalowo nyaka. Ukuze alondoloze ngamandla akhe, wayala Saddam ukukhishwa amakhulu amalungu Ba’ath eqembu lakhe ungubani babekholelwa babengathembekile. Saddam waba President of Iraq ngo-1979 Yena avumela CIA ukuvula ihhovisi eBaghdad futhi lalisamelene ukwanda yamaSoviet, okuyinto wamenza umngane US Nokho, Saddam wabuye kwadingeka abanye tinchubomgomo sezenhlalo ukuba ngcono umnotho Iraq futhi yanda ukutholakala kwemfundo. Lapho Saddam esizuzwe amandla ngokushesha wayefuna ukuba ngiphinde insimu elilahlekile. Al-Bakr wayenze ezivuna ezinkulu ukuthi wanika zwe Iran ukuqeda impi phakathi kwamazwe amabili. Saddam akakaze wayethanda isivumelwano eyaba izingxabano phezu emngceleni imigqa kanye ukuthola amanzi kanye nabaholi Iranian akazange noma. Womabili amazwe abamdumisanga imigomo yesivumelwano noma isivumelwano sokuthula, futhi ngenxa emngceleni skirmishes, Saddam umkhankaso impi ngokumelene Iran on September 22, 1980.

Uhulumeni US wasekela nempi Saddam ngoba babefuna ukuqeda Ruhollah Khomeini, lo, umholi kakhulu inkolo onobudlova of Iran. UMengameli Carter ekucaleni aluhlaza kokukhanyisa nempi, futhi UZbigniew Brzezinski, National Security Advisor uMengameli Carter utshele Saddam wayeyoba babe ukwesekwa okuvela-United States. [Cxxii] Wabona izithakazelo Saddam njengoba ayifane izithakazelo US.

Njengoba impi waya mgomo, uhulumeni wase-US wayengafuni ukuba ukugeleza kawoyela kusuka Iran ukuyeka, ngakho banquma ziqukethe impi. Ekugcineni, base wasekela futhi ehlome zombili izinhlangothi Cishe ukuba kungaze ekubhujisweni esiningi mutual ngangokunokwenzeka. Amafutha kwaba ikakhulu ephephile komhlaba futhi yilokhu base emva. Ed Juchniewicz, CIA Zihlanganise IPhini Umqondisi ngesikhathi wachaza ngobuciko, “We wayengafuni noma side ukuba babe inzuzo. We nje wayefuna ukuba ngilidlale Shit aphume nomunye. ”

In the Spring 1982 kulahlekelwa Iraq sika empini kwabonakala isondela ngakho uRonald Reagan banikela support. Izikhulu US Uhulumeni wayekholelwa Iran laliya enamandla kakhulu nokuthi kwaba usongo Kuwait no Saudi Arabia, okuyinto kwaba ngokuqondene ngoba zombili amazwe ihlinzekwa esiningi uwoyela kwabo United States. Howard Teicher, a staffer Reagan National Security Council, wathi ngo efungelwe ukuthi, “uMongameli Reagan yanquma ukuthi United States … ayeyokwenza konke kwaba okudingekayo lwezomthetho ukuvimbela Iraq ekulahlekelweni nempi nge Iran,” naphezu nokuhileleka kwabo ubuphekula On December 20 of 1983, uDonald Rumsfeld wahlangana Saddam Hussein tekucinisekisa naye ukuthi US shoka naye nganoma iyiphi indlela ayeludinga. Lokhu kulandela Saddam waxosha iqembu yasePalestina ukuba nenkani ebizwa Abu Nidal kusuka Iraq.

Kusukela 1985 kuya 1989, Reagan ivume ukudayiswa kwezikhali ezingamagciwane Iraq, ezifana botulism, anthrax, West Nile fever amagciwane, futhi brucella melitensis. [Cxxiii] La izimpahla baya emayunivesithi Iraq, i Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, futhi ngqo izakhiwo wezempi . Lezi izimpahla abangu ayethi kube ‘ngezinjongo zocwaningo lwezokwelapha kuphela. “[Cxxiv] The CIA wanika Iraq imininingwane nelungelo mayelana Iran futhi wabalungiselela cluster amabhomu ngokusebenzisa nomkhiqizi eChile. (Umnotho kusukela UK nabo bathengisa izikhali kuya Iraq ukuvikela izithakazelo uwoyela yabo.) Kamuva Saddam waba isitha se-US lapho eqala zokuhlatshwa izinkulungwane zababaleki wemathando ababekhuthele izimpahla kuya CIA.

Ngesikhathi “Iran-Contra ndaba,” Reagan ayehlome eyizingovolo Iran futhi wasebenzisa ukuqhutshwa kulezi yokuthengisa ukuxhasa elinye iqembu amaphekula: the contras baseNicaragua.  The contras baseNicaragua babengabantu iqembu insurgent ukuthi wayezama ukubhubhisa uhulumeni wamaKhomanisi baseNicaragua, Sandinista National Liberation Front. The contras ngokuvamile olwenziwe impi nge nhlobo kokucabangela imithetho. Abulala izingane, wadlwengula abesifazane, futhi ahlukunyezwe izakhamuzi. Le contras nabo ayehlome ababehileleke ekuhwebeni cocaine, futhi Reagan wayisekela kubo ngawo by efundisa CIA ukuthenga cocaine yabo futhi ungenise lona US izimakethe. Lokhu kungase kuzwakale kanzima ukukukholelwa, kodwa kahle libhalwe Gary Webb encwadini yakhe Dark Alliance: The CIA, le Contras, kanye crack cocaine Explosion kanti kwabanye abaningi. (Webb kwaba igadiwe njalo yi-CIA futhi watholakala efile ngoDisemba 10 2004 nge okudutshulwa multiple ekhanda. Ukufa kwakhe kwaba wayebusa “ukuzibulala.”) Iningi labantu kungawona yi-ndaba Iran-Contra babengabantu ezincane abampofu.

Control kahulumeni wafinyelela ezintsha eziphakeme emva 1980 No umengameli kusukela Reagan (kuhlanganise Clinton no Obama) uye siphambukile kakhulu kusuka nolaka zero-sum nenqubomgomo angaphandle eMelika. War bekulokhu yethenisi enkulu kunazo eMelika njalo, futhi akanandaba uma kukhona Democrat noma Republican in the White House. Njengoba nje ngentando lempi ikhona phakathi kwalabo ngokwezimali esenikwa kuwo, America lonke kwezwe kuyohlale at nempi. Kodwa lokhu akusho ukuthi kufanele kube cala.

6.9 Le ndaba Iran-contra

I-Iran contra indaba ekuqaleni kwaqubula yi-Iran kalowo nenhlekelele. Lokhu ukuthumba lwenziwe iqembu labafundi Islamist wabiza Muslim Student Abalandeli of the Line Imam sika. Amatshe zazihlanganisa high-profile ngabanye (ikakhulu Amasosha asolwandle) ngokuhlala ngesikhathi embassy American e Tehran, Iran. Ngamtshela ukuthi nezithunjwa, abathumbi wafuna Shah ukubuya ngenjongo yokunivivinya nokubulawa, kanye axolise evela US for kungenelela lwangaphambilini Iran. Ngemuva eziningana izingxoxo yehlulekile nemizamo ukutakula, Carter wakwazi ukuthola nezithunjwa ngemuva kwemizuzu emva Reagan waba nguMongameli.

Emva lenkinga kalowo, Reagan wathengisa Iran planeloads kwezikhali. Imali aluthola kulezi yokuthengisa kwabe esetshenziswa CIA ukuxhasa nezihlubuki baseNicaragua. Izizathu Reagan ngokwenza le kwakuwukuba ‘ukuletha intando yeningi “eNicaragua futhi” ukuthula “bonke of America Central naseMpumalanga Ephakathi, kodwa wenza okuphambene. Iningi enhlokodolobha eyanikezwa contras yasetshenziselwa izikhali, kanti ezinye zalezi zikhali bathengwa ngokuqondile US Ukuze udale chaos jikelele nesiyaluyalu, i CIA futhi airdropped bookletscalled le “Inkululeko Fighter sika Manual” phezu lizwe, okuyinto wayala izakhamizi indlela ukuceka zocingo imigqa, khubaza izimoto futhi wenze futhi usebenzise Molotov Cocktails ngokumelene eziteshini zamaphoyisa. Ngokwenza lokhu, base avuselele nobuphekula ngendlela okwakusobala kakhulu futhi unapologetic.

Congress akazange ukusekela ukudayiswa ezicitshwayo eziphambili (ikakhulu donsa anti-tank imicibisholo) kuhulumeni Iranian. Congress kwaba abaphikisayo nakakhulu ukuxhasa contras baseNicaragua kanye ukuqhutshwa kulezi kokuthengisiwe. Ngaphandle kokuba zokuziphatha okubi, ngezimali le contras baseNicaragua wayebuye kwephula ngokuqondile le Boland Agreement and United States isivumelwano nezibopho the nge eNicaragua. Ngo-1986 Nicaragua waletha la amacala US eNkantolo yoBulungiswa International and wawina. Nokho, e-nyanga ukuthi iNkantolo wenza isinqumo, iSishaya wagoba nokucindezelwa lezombusazwe evela-ups ephakeme kuhulumeni futhi ziphenywe nesinqumo salo, futhi leli ngezimali kuya Contras wavuselela ku sum of $ 100 million dollars of abakhokhi bentela imali. [Cxxv] (Lalibizwa ngokuthi ‘zosizo “, nakuba iningi khona waya nezikhali.)

Ngo 1983 Congress waphika ngezimali le contras ngokokuqala wesine. Kodwa CIA, Reagan nabanye lakhe abazange badinge imali lapho kwadingeka khilogremu of cocaine contra. The contras base ayehlome ababehileleke ekuhwebeni coke kanye CIA wanikela kubo ukufinyelela evulekile US izimakethe. Amathani cocaine kwakuthiwa zithunyelwa United States nge CIA eminyakeni elandelayo. Lokhu kwabangela cocaine okwandile crack umlutha. Lokhu Liyindawo ingwijikhwebu ngoba uRonald Reagan waba umsunguli the “Just Yithi Cha” lingalawuleki mkhankaso, nomkakhe uNancy Reagan, kwaba ubuso mkhankaso.

Crack ukusetshenziswa kwakuvamile phakathi ezincane abampofu. Abantu abamhlophe Ngokuqinisekile babengabantu ziyawathinta bhubhane, kodwa ngabanye iningi white ababamba izidakamizwa, ikakhulukazi acebile, oluncamelayo cocaine oluyimpuphu ukwambula ngoba mancane umlutha futhi ngokuvamile mancane ugly. Abacebile, white abaningi bezamabhizinisi babengabantu abasebenzisi cocaine. It ezibizayo futhi beqonda njengoba iwuphawu isimo kwaba. Liphinde wakhonza njengephayona isingathekiso ukuze lelisetulu kahle kwezomnotho Ukuphahlazeka okunye wonke umuntu.

Crack kuyinto ifomu rock of cocaine owaziwa nangokuthi methylbenzoylecgonine noma “AdWords” cocaine, okungase kube ngabhema. Kuyinto elula ukwenza kuphela kudinga cocaine kanye base kwamakhemikhali, ezifana baking soda nobe sodium hydroxide. Lapho ukuqhuma yasungulwa nxazonke 1984, kwaba okungabizi kakhulu futhi itholakala ezindaweni abampofu kunokuba cocaine. Lena cishe kungani Reagan yavuma Anti-Drug Abuse Act ka 1986 ukuthi wenza isijeziso a “cocaine base ‘icala up izikhathi 100 kunokuba zinjalo isijeziso icala powder cocaine kuya. Crack kuyinto into umlutha ngaphezu cocaine, kodwa lokho akusona isizathu sokujezisa kakhudlwana kakhulu abasebenzisi crack cocaine kuka abasebenzisi. Uma kukhona, crack abayimilutha ngokuvamile badinga usizo olwengeziwe.

“Freeway” Ricky Ross, i-Afrika-American kwezidakamizwa nomthengisi kusuka LA, wayengomunye abasakaza elikhulu ufa in Los Angeles ngesikhathi 1980. Wakhe uxhumano cocaine kwakungu Daniyeli Blandon, indoda wayesebenzela CIA futhi wathola cocaine yakhe ngokuqondile Contras. Blandon wathengisa Ross cocaine ngamanani aphansi. Ngokusho Ross, wayevame wenza amaRandi ayizigidi ezimbili nsuku ngokudayisa cocaine bese crack eNingizimu Central Los Angeles. Ngenxa lucrativeness of ukuhweba crack, it sisabalale America futhi wathola ekhaya yayo in enkulu ongaphakathi-imizi.

Lapho Ross eboshwa, wanika up amagama abonakele amaningi izikhulu owanikela ukuvikelwa yena nabangane bakhe ukuze kuncishiswe isigwebo sakhe iminyaka emine amaphoyisa. Lapho kukhululwa ejele yena, wayefuna ukusiza emphakathini wakhe, kodwa sasidinga ngemali. Blandon wayekade izama uxhumane naye ukuhlela ukuthengisa ngalesi sikhathi, ngakho Ross wanquma babuyela ebhizinisini lakhe elidala ukuxhasa umsebenzi wakhe. Kodwa Blandon kwadingeka nezinye izinhlelo. Le deal waseshwa futhi Ross ugwetshwe udilikajele kanti Blandon wathola nje ngonyaka emibili ejele futhi kamuva waba kahle wakhokha DEA agent. Daniel Blandon wayengekho ngisho isakhamuzi lwezomthetho lapho ayesebenzela for the CIA, kodwa kwaba wakhipha ikhadi eliluhlaza emva kwesikhathi sakhe ejele.

Le deal waseshwa ngoba umphakathi lase liqala ukuthola ulwazi mayelana ndaba Iran-Contra, futhi ngokugxeka i African American for it, uhulumeni yayingase kude ngokwalo kusukela ukuhweba crack bese uphethe akukho umthwalo ngezenzo zabo. I-Iran Contra ehlazweni wabonisa ukuthi abaningi kuhulumeni babe nje uthole ukunquma yabo ngaphandle kokuphikiswa sokuziphatha noma zokuziphatha ukuze ukwabiwa izidakamizwa.

URonald Reagan uvele izikhathi eziningana on izikhwama zethelevishini ubambelele cocaine kanye crack. Wachaza indlela okulula ngayo ukuthenga ngayo nendlela ezishibhile kwaba. Wakhuluma imiphumela okubhubhisa of ukulutheka, kodwa at-engozini kungenzeka abantu ngabanye wazibona salezi ziteshi ezingaphezu njengoba izikhangiso kuka izaziso zezempilo zomphakathi. Kubonakala ozwakalayo kakhulu ukuthi Reagan nje wayefuna ukukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa yayo kusukela CIA goons zakhe bethengisa khona. Kungenzeka impela lo cocaine yayinempahla bebelokhu kusukela contras ngokwazo.

Daniel Blandon wayengeyena sikahulumeni kodwa ezihilelekile nehlazo Iran-Contra ukuze babalekele isijeziso futhi wamukele ukukhokhelwa ngalezi bugebengu. Akukho nelilodwa isikhulu kuhulumeni wachitha usuku ejele ngalezi amacala. George W. Bush Sr. wayithethelela izikhulu eziyisithupha top ezihilelekile nehlazo Iran-Contra. Oliver North, le ndoda obhekene shredding zonke imibhalo US National Security Council mayelana ngezimali contra kanye nezikhali yokuthengisa kuya Iran, wayengomunye ngabanye -xolele. Manje anakho TV sakhe siqu show on Fox, (“War Stories”) eye egijima kusukela 2001.

The 1980 ayengabantu jikelele isikhathi yokwehla komnotho for anabambalwa iningi nokuchuma kwezomnotho for engenhla-class, omhlophe baseMelika, futhi lokhu kwaba yokungabikho cocaine bese crack ubhubhane, (kanye imakethe yamasheya esibuyé). Izinkampani eziningi ezinkulu zase ziba ocebile off of lo mshini omusha lapho ezezimali, okuyinto uphendukela yonke imikhiqizo kanye namasevisi zibe zomculo lwezimali okungatholakala lwamasheya luzokwenziwa ezimakethe zezimali. Lokhu kwandisa impahla elite kwezezimali alithathe namandla nezimali ezivela kubantu ngempela ukwenza umsebenzi kunayo. Ezomnotho Agricultural and Permaculture ziye lehla kakhulu ngenxa yalo.

Esiza abantu abahola eziningi top ababengaphili abathengisa cocaine ku 1980 ayezuza ukudayiswa yayo ngoba basiza launder ngemali izidakamizwa, futhi kwakungekho zezigidi ukuba zihlanzekile. Ngemali yezidakamizwa idinga zihlanzekile, izimali noma adayiswa. Noma yiliphi ibhizinisi akusona ukhathazekile umthombo ingeniso noma ngeke ngitjho ukurekhoda ukuthengiselana uya ukuheha abathengisi bezidakamizwa abafuna afihle umthombo umholo wabo. Amabhange iningi enkulu, izinkampani car, jewelers, kanye nezinkampani ingcebo awazange ukhathazekile nge umsuka imali enkulu base ethola. Lokhu kuyaqabukela ukukhathazeka, eqinisweni. General Motors, ngokwesibonelo, uye wathengisa amakhulukhulu ezinkulungwane ngezimoto kuya abathengisi bezidakamizwa nezidakamizwa Amakhosi emhlabeni wonke, (ikakhulukazi eNingizimu Melika) futhi liyaqhubeka ukwenza kanjalo. It is futhi sizibeke by Obama sika crony capitalism. Abanye amabhange e America ngeke launder imali abathengisi bezidakamizwa for ngentengo. Lokhu kwenzeka ngokukhethekile ngo Miami in the 1980 futhi lokhu kwaphumela nokwanda okukhulu inzuzo ebhange. Ngokwesibonelo, i-Miami Federal Reserve Bank wabona imali ngaphezu yimuphi omunye Federal Reserve Bank kuleli lizwe. [Cxxvi]

Ngemali izidakamizwa ngokuvamile izimali izinhlangano ngobukhulu kusukela kulezi ukuthengiselana kungaba ulahleke phakathi kwabaningi. Ke, ecebile, osomabhizinisi ‘esizwakalayo “ngubani kakade ukugijima la zinhlangano bagcina inzuzo kakhulu kusukela ukuhweba yalokho. (Kodwa lokhu kungagwemeka ngu nje ngokusebenzisa futhi ahwebelana imali yakho kanye nemithombo ezimakethe amancane nabantu abacacisiwe ngenkathi zokukhokhelwa wafihla.)

Njengoba ngokuvamile kwenzeka, eziningi abashushumbisi bezidakamizwa kanye imilutha kwenkathi ayebhalwa abulawa noma baboshwa. Ukudingiswa Fidel Castro sika izigebengu okungafunwa kusuka eCuba zaba nengxenye ekwandiseni zobugebengu izidakamizwa e-Florida kusukela eziningi zalezi ababaleki kwaba ukuthengisa cocaine. Abashushumbisi coke Columbian lalenza okufanayo futhi ingxabano phakathi kwabo ngenxa ukulawula ukuhweba izidakamizwa kwaba obhekene yokwanda okukhulu ngesibhamu okubulala e Miami kanye lonke Florida ngalesi sikhathi.

Wangaphambilini CIA operative, uRobert Steele, wachaza lapho kuxoxwa impi umuthi “elisetshenziswe kokuba ngokumelene nabantu abampofu hhayi ngokumelene ntu abazuza izidakamizwa, okuyizinto kubaphathi bebhange ngubani launder imali.” Umnotho Miami sika inzuzo kakhulu kusukela Craze cocaine ngokwalesi sizathu. Eziningi zezakhiwo ukuthi ume enkabeni Miami namuhla zakhiwa izidakamizwa ngemali wathola ngamabhange nezinye izinkampani.

I-Iran contra indaba wakhonza ajenda kwezomnotho American kahulumeni domestically futhi aphesheya ngezindlela ezintathu: It okuyiwona owafaka izimali zawo Iran ukuvikela izithakazelo uwoyela America sika (ngenkathi lula lokubulala bebaningi abantu Islamic); it okuyiwona owafaka izimali zawo contras baseNicaragua, ezazikuye waphuma ukubhubhisa kuhulumeni bamakhomanisi, futhi kwashiya ezincane eziningi dengwane American lutho ngaphandle ukulutheka elimazayo.

6.10 ePersian Gulf empi kanye nezimpi okulandelayo Afghanistan and Iraq

Kahulumeni US ukukhathazeka main empini Iran-Iraq kwaba ngokuvikela izithakazelo zayo uwoyela, kanjalo ukwesekwa Wagqugquzela emuva naphambili phakathi kwamazwe amabili ayelwa ngomzamo ukuthola ukuqashelwa uwoyela yabo. America nje wasebenzisa yezempi yayo ngqo empini Iran-Iraq lapho izithakazelo uwoyela kwabo zase sina kusengozini. Ngokwesibonelo, ngo-1987 i-US Navy umkhankaso, “Operation Oqotho Will,” ezinkulu zasolwandle kulandelana operation umkhankaso kusukela WWII. Injongo ukuhlinzwa ukuze zikhiphe nokuvikela yimikhumbi Kuwaiti kawoyela ekuhlaselweni Iranian njengoba per sicelo Kuwait sika. “Operation Prime Chance” babekhonza naye umkhankaso ukuvikela US ihlatshwe umkhosi yimikhumbi uwoyela ekumeleni Iranian.

Ngo-October 1987 of, US Navy ahlasela ezimbili amapulatifomu Iranian kawoyela ePersian Gulf. Lokhu kuhlasela ngokuthi “Operation Nimble Archer” ebulawa ephendula Iran sika kuhlasela ekuqaleni on the Sea Isle City, a Kuwaiti kawoyela kabusha ihlatshwe umkhosi. Ngo-April 1988, i-US Navy wabe bahlasela Iran aphinde “Operation Ukuthandaza Mantis.” (Lokhu kuhlasela kwaba kuphendvula umonakalo olwehlela omunye imikhumbi ezihilelekile the Operation Oqotho Intando, USS Samuel B. Roberts, okuyinto wamshaya i emayini Iranian.) Enye umkhumbi wempi enkulu Iranian kanye gunboat ezincane babhujiswa beziphindiselela. Lezi kuhlasela yasiza ukukholisa uhulumeni Iranian ukuba uvume ceasefire nge Iraq, ophela impi oneminyaka 8 ubudala.

Nje kweminyaka embalwa kamuva, Saddam wasebenzisa izikhali ethola kusukela US ukuze ihlasele Kuwait. Ngemuva oxolela zonke izikhulu ezihilelekile the Iran-Contra Affair, uGeorge Bush Sr. wahola ibutho collation ogunyazwe UN olimini Iraq wangaphendula. Njengoba kushiwo, Kuwait kwaba umphakeli uwoyela enkulu US, ngakho cishe lena sizathu Bush wayefuna Saddam aphume Kuwait. Saddam wenza abanye izikhalo ezisemthethweni nge Kuwait. Yezwe wayekade imishini slant bawela umngcele baya Rumaila uwoyela field Iraq kanye base ukukhiqiza uwoyela ngaphezu esivunyelwe the OPEC quota, okuyinto waxosha intengo kawoyela phansi kabuhlungu umnotho Iraq. Imishini yabo kungenzeka ezishukunyiswa ezikweletini Iraq awasho Kuwait nenhloso yazo ukuqoqa. Nokho, Saddam kwaba neze umashiqela enengqondo, kanjalo izingxoxo eyengeziwe ngalesi sikweletu futhi emngceleni imigqa awazange kwadingeka.

The osopolitiki nezinye ababusi ngubani ezilwiwa impi ngokumelene Saddam wayewazisa amafutha engozini e Kuwait okungaphezu kakhulu inhlalakahle yabantu Kuwaiti nobe Iraq. Bush Senior nawukuthi Iraq kwaba usongo olukhulu ngoba kwadingeka izikhali ezingamagciwane, kodwa kwaba umengameli ezedlule (Reagan) ngubani bamthengisa lezi zikhali kanye CIA wasiza ukubeka Saddam ngamandla kwasekuqaleni. Indodana Bush yasebenzisa elungile efanayo ukuya empini ngokuhuba Iraq and Saddam kweminyaka kamuva nokusekela umphakathi impi ngo-2001 laliphezulu, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi izikhali eziyingozi kunazo base ithengiswe uvela US

Imibuso like amazwe ngokuvamile ingalo asathuthuka eMelika, wafaka bomashiqela ophethe abese ababhubhise uma angeke ilawulwe. Lokhu bakwenza ngoba mpi kuyabazuzisa kangaka futhi amazwe angaphandle pheze never preemptively ukuhlasela America ngoba Ngokuyisisekelo ukuzibulala, (Japan waqothulwa ngemuva ukuziphindiselela for Pearl Harbor, naphezu amakhono abo ezempi) ngakho uhulumeni ukuqala izimpi, ukudala izitha, futhi ngezinye izikhathi ngisho wababeka ngamandla ukuqhubeka yethenisi bempi. (Ngisho September 11 kuhlasela awazange olwenziwe ezweni, kodwa kunalokho by Izıhlabane non-state.) By zingakuqeda yini ukuhlonyiswa ngezikhali amazwe ohulumeni musa singafani, banesikhathi isikhathi lula ethi kunjalo izinsongo kanye eziqothulayo asekele.

Cishe bonke abaholi the CIA uye ugumbuqelwe base wentando yeningi futhi indawo bomashiqela bangomashiqela ababa emaphaphethi for uhulumeni waseMelika. Kodwa ngokushesha lapho uhulumeni ulahlekelwa ukulawula umashiqela, bayohlala bagcina esikhundleni sakhe ngokusebenzisa ukubulawa noma aboshwe. (Uma Saddam, yena wathweswa icala, ababoshiwe futhi wabulawa.)

Ukulandela ukuhlaselwa September 11 2001, Bush okokuqala ulwa Afghanistan. George Bush Junior owned wagijima izinkampani ezimbalwa kawoyela ngaphambi kokuba abe nguMengameli, futhi lokhu wamnika yisisusa eyengeziwe angene. Afghanistan unothile kakhulu emafutheni, (kodwa ompofu kakhulu ngokulandela enhlokodolobha) kanye kwamaphekula on September 11 yayisetshenziswa ngempela kalula njengoba izaba makawuthathe. The Bush IKhabhinethi indiva izixwayiso eziqondile mayelana Bin Laden sizimisele ukuhlasela by imoto aircrafts. Kwakungekho ukwanda kwezokuphepha sezindiza emva bawamukela lezi zixwayiso, ngakho iKhabhinethi Bush kwaba asibandakanyeki. Bavumela la ukuhlaselwa kwenzeke, futhi babeka iningi yezwe ibe esimweni ukwethuka. Bush kanye nokuphatha kwakhe yanda futhi bexhashazwa le kwesaba kulo lonke izwi lakhe ukuletha ukwesekwa ngoba izimpi zakhe ezibizayo futhi elimazayo.

George Bush waqale bahlasela Afghanistan ngenhloso okuthiwa yokuthola Osama Bin Laden ababethi obangela kuhlasela. Kodwa kwakungeyona ibutho Afghanistan noma abantu abavamile Afghani abahlasela World Trade Center. Kwakungu Osama Bin Laden kanye nezinye Amaphekula ngamanye abambalwa nokuqhuba ePakistan. Impi eyayiqhubeka ephula United Nations Charter, othi akukho amalungu UN kanye namazwe abo omele avunyelwe ukusebenzisa amandla wezempi on nomunye ngaphandle ezivikela. Lokhu kwenza mpi kukahulumeni nge Afghanistan impi lobugebengu uchuku.

The US kwakungadingeki ukuba bahlasele futhi ingaceka Afghanistan nobe Iraq abulale oyedwa endodeni nomdlali non-state. Amashumi ezinkulungwane zabantu abangenacala (amadoda, abesifazane kanye nezingane) kwabulawa airstrikes kokuqala kanye namakhulu ezinkulungwane ngaphezulu aye abulawa empini esaqhubeka ekuhlaselweni ngaphakathi nangaphandle, kanye ekubulaweni yindlala, ukuntuleka kwamanzi emzimbeni, ukugula, ukuntuleka zokwelapha , poisoning kwemisebe kusuka sebeyingcosana uranium imali, [17] kanti nomnotho Afghanistan sika decimated. Udlame kwandisa kuphela lenyuka US nokuba wezempi, futhi konke lokhu kwakwenziwa wayohlasela oyedwa ungubani Bush akakaze ngisho wathola.

Kuyinto incontrovertibly ukudaza kuqhunyiswe izwe ukuze uwuthumbe oyedwa. Uhulumeni waseMelika ngeke simemezele impi United Kingdom ukube kwakukhona ayecashe amaphekula lapho, ngakho akwenzi mqondo ukuguqula Afghanistan ibe yimpi-zone ukuze uthole eyodwa amaphekula. Amaphekula e Pakistan, kuhlanganise Bin Laden, kanti Taliban ngabe bayaboshwa amasosha emhlabathini kanye izingalo ezincane (no Bin Laden ekugcineni waboshwa ngo-2011 ngu Seal Team Six in “Operation Neptune Spear.” Nokho, akazange wabona kwecala futhi kwaba Kushone on yesehlakalo, engesiyo ncamashi indlela inqubo efanele usebenza.)

Kwakukhona engeke anele Amaphekula zangempela ukuze bathethelele kwamabhomu omkhulu Afghanistan ezenzeka. Kukhona akalokothi abe elungile for causalities nobe kubulala obungakhethi. Ukuhlaselwa eziningi engahleliwe kanti abanye wayala kuye kwenziwa on abangenacala njengoba kuboniswe imibhalo Izindaba Ezintsha on zombili izimpi (Afghan War Diary and Iraq War zikhuni) kanye nezinye Imibhalo classified bangaphambili. Kukhona amazwe amaningi nabantu amaphekula, kodwa ezimbalwa kakhulu nge izinqolobane ngamafutha elikhulu poppy amasimu.

Impi Afghanistan wabizwa ngokuthi “Operation Ukukhuthazelela Freedom,” okuyinto ingwijikhwebu ephazamisayo ngoba kwakufanele lutho enkululekweni. Lapho Saddam eboshwa, abantu Afghani baba ethonyeni lakhe, kodwa ukubusa US esifundeni liye kunjalo waba ukushintshwa sibi. Sekube isiphithiphithi ezingaphezu nobudlova kuka kwakungekho ngaphansi Taliban. Yamanje amaphoyisa Afghan namabutho lingama elonakele kakhulu futhi bagomele, kanjalo ngaphandle uma izinguquko zangempela kwenziwa ukuletha amalungelo esintu kanye ukuzimela kubantu Afghan, izimo ngeke cishe ngcono.

“Operation Ukukhuthazelela Inkululeko” yisona esingokoqobo silulumagama lisetshenziselwa ukwedelela futhi badayise izimpi. US ukuphepha kwaba kafishane engozini. Kodwa nenkululeko yethu kwakungafanele kusengozini. The Taliban ngo 2001 akunakwenzeka elawulwa Chicago, ingasaphathwa lonke United States. Kuphela Afghanistan sika nenkululeko baba kwaba engozini yi-US ukusabela wezempi ukuze Izıhlabane non-state, bese inani elingaziwa zamaphekula ezintsha kwadalwa yilo mpi.

Bush wabona ukumamukela izilinganiso ungandiza emva kokwenza inkulumo yakhe mayelana ubulungisa ukuziphindiselela elandela ukuhlaselwa. Obukholisayo Congress ukuba Saddam wayengumuntu olukhulu nezikhali zembubhiso Kwakungenzima too. US izakhamuzi zazilokhu kokuba waxwayisa mayelana kungenzeka ‘elinye 9-11, “futhi pundits eziningi ezithandwayo futhi osopolitiki babekhona usebenzisa ulimi exhunywe lonke Middle East nabantu zansuku zonke Islamic kulezi ukuhlaselwa.

In the 1950 yabhebhetheleka Uhlelo Eisenhower BakaJehova, “Ama-athomu Ukuthula ‘kwakufanele ukunikeza amazwe izinzuzo banendlela ekahle zamandla enuzi. Iraq wayengomunye lamazwe ezinikezwe uranium, kodwa aguqulwa aba izikhali zabo yokuqala zenuzi. Nokho, ngesikhathi Bush Junior wamemezela ukulwa Iraq, Saddam kakhulu cishe ayisekho kwadingeka izikhali zamagciwane noma zenuzi noma ikhono ukubenza ngoba iningi izikhali Iraq sika enkulu sasibhujiswe UN kanye zamasosha e-War Gulf. Ke, akukho zikhali kwatholakala. Bush Junior exhunywe Saddam kuya 9-11 for uwoyela, nzuzo kanye ukuziphindiselela. (Saddam wazama ukubulala uyise.) Saddam wayebuye i umashiqela uncooperative, ngakho iKhabhinethi Bush yanquma kwakudingeka ahambe.

6.11 ohulumeni, impi, ukubulala, kanye namazinga double

Ngezinye izikhathi Izimpi ziqala phezu izikhalo nje emkhatsini kosopolitiki futhi akusiyo ukujabulisa ukuthi thina alwe izimpi zabo ngabo. IMpi lutho ngaphezu kwenhlangano kanye yokwenza imali okubulala. Ohulumeni iningi ngokuqinisekile musa bephikisa lokubulala ngomqondo zokuziphatha. Uma it wenza okufunayo zabo kanye nezithakazelo, kwamukeleka futhi anikeziwe. Amadoda ababulala ngamakhulu ezimpini ngokuvamile zithola izindondo nezinye accolades. Uma nje kuwukuthi esimweni wezomthetho, ngokuvamile uphuzwe kalula ngokuthi kuyinto zokuziphatha lapho lokhu akunjalo ngaso sonke isikhathi.

Amasosha nxazonke of impi ngokuvamile abe okuningi esifana kunalokho bayaqaphela. Abaningi fight ngoba bakholelwa basuke wokuvikela izakhamuzi zabo, yize lokhu kuyaqabukela iqiniso. Ngisho nalapho lokhu injongo yabo, ukwelapha kanye nodlame enenzondo kanye ngaphezulu efanayo kaningi iholela nodlame ngaphezulu. Ke, akukho sizathu amasosha on yisiphi ohlangothini kufanele athi zifa umvuzo, futhi akufanele kube enjalo ukwesekwa esisebenza ngaso sonke amasosha.

Ukubulawa isosha empini esinjalo azihlukile kakhulu kunezinye ngokubulala umuntu emphakathini wakho siqu nobani ungavumelani. Abanye abantu abangase acele nje bafuna ukubulala abantu ngendlela esemthethweni ngoba intukuthelo obedlulele inzondo. Abanye babe qotho, benezinhloso ezinhle, kodwa amasosha le amaningi futhi bayafisa ngendlela emangalisayo senzondo kanye nezizathu nokulwa. Lokho abakwenzayo unesibindi at umhlabeleli futhi ngokuphelele Kuyashaqisa in amacala okubi kakhulu, njengoba amaningi ukucekelwa engiye kuxoxwa.

Amabutho Combat kuthiwa waqasha ababulali, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi abakholelwa abakwenzayo. Amasosha abanikeza usizo for izakhamuzi kumele ahlonishwe, kodwa labo uhlanganyele ngoba bafuna ukubulala ngokungakhethi akufanele bavunyelwe in. Uhulumeni US nje ufuna emhlabeni on a abanjwe ezihambisanayo. Bafuna ukukhombisa off ‘isayizi “zabo ukuba kuvimbele noma ubani kusuka ukuncintisana kanye iMelika kwezomnotho namtjhana ngempi, nezimpi zawo bashukunyiswa ubugovu kanye wobugwala of nababusi bethu. Amanye amadoda abanesibindi kakhulu ukulwisana izimpi futhi wenze omkhulu azidele, kodwa ngamagwala nje thumela ukuba lokufa kwabo ukuze kuzuze.

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi yini amasosha akholelwa, izimpi basuke pheze never lalwa ukuvikela ezweni elilodwa “ezinhle” ezivela esithile kuhulumeni sobala “okubi”, futhi cishe ungalokothi ikhiqize kungakhathaliseki sokuzibonakalisa elungile sabo zokuziphatha. Lapho inombolo enkulu kubantu bayabulawa empini, le kubhebhethekise umlilo ukungqubuzana ngokuvamile kuphela futhi sidala isizukulwane esisha yonke abantu abazizwa kuyafaneleka ukuthatha isinyathelo ezedlulele. Youth ophilayo ngaphansi abaholi ububi noma imfundiso ebhubhisayo kukhona in nesiyaluyalu abazange bacele futhi ngeke nendaba kwabathile uma ohlangothini ‘engafanele’. Bayoba ukulwa emuva. Ngakho-ke, izimpi never ukuvimbela udlame. Bathi nje banga abantu abaningi abanobudlova.

AmaNazi ayengabantu ububi esicacile ngo WWII. Bamane wayefuna dlula emhlabeni ngoba wazizwa kunabangewona zonke uhlanga, inkolo, isivumo sokholo kanye isikhundla ukuthi kwakungekhona okwakhe yabo. Kodwa ngisho ukuthi impi kwaba ngokokuziphatha ezididayo. Amasosha owafa ukulwa amaNazi wafela imbangela enodumo kakhulu, kodwa abazange babe ngoba ukuthi impi bekungagwenywa kalula. WWII ayikwazi kusolwe on Adolf Hitler amaNazi yedwa. Kokunganaki izizwe lombusi ubuye ukusola. Babekwazi ngayeka uHitler amaNazi ngaphambi kokuba njalo baba inamandla ngempela ilwe impi yezwe, kodwa benza hhayi ngoba Germany wayengumuntu asathuthuka, ungamandla ithele. Ohulumeni abaningi ngaleso sikhathi nazo eliqhutshwa uhlobo inzondo nobandlululo ukuthi amaNazi kwadingeka, kanjalo ubandlululo lwazo akuzange ngimbone esiningi of inkinga baze bayofika United Kingdom. Ngisho nalapho kwakukhona ukubulawa mass of amaJuda Poland babekade yahlasela, ezinye imibuso abazange ukubavimba. Bathi wabheka enye indlela. Ukube amaNazi ayesanda wasala eJalimane nasePoland angomakhelwane wabulala amaJuda lapho, cishe nanoma yimuphi uhulumeni yasebukhosini ngabe engenela. Bebengeke zinakekelwa.

Kuyinto ehloniphekayo kakhulu futhi enesibindi hhayi ukulwa, kodwa kunalokho ukukhuluma ngayo izitha zakho. Kodwa zokuvimbela izingxabano isibe ezihlobene wobugwala esikhundleni nesibindi. Kuthatha amadoda nabesifazane abangaqashiwe ukushukunyiswa ukwesaba uzonde zokuxazulula izingxabano ngokungafani kuqhutshekiselwe it by kuhle behlezi phansi abaholi eziphikisayo engahlomile ukuze uxazulule izingxabano futhi usebenzisa amandla njengendlela yokugcina njalo. Lokhu kudinga isibindi futhi kungenza impela kuholele izixazululo non-enobudlova ezizuzisa abanye.

Ukukhangisa akhohlisayo for amasosha lusiqinisekisa nohide abantu abanobudlova ngomumo ukubulala on oda. Izikhangiso amasosha kungenza kube bheka okuthakazelisayo, enesibindi, uhloniphekile, kanti owokuqala step endleleni endleleni eya ukuphila okuphumelelayo. Kodwa impi ugly. It is walwa ngezizathu ikakhulu sethusa futhi ngokujoyina ibutho, abaqeqeshwayo engozini izimpilo zabo ngalezi izimbangela.

Njengoba kushiwo, amanye amasosha bathathe izindlela zokuziphatha futhi ithele. Abanye odokotela, isibonelo, ujoyine ibutho ukumane ukunikeza usizo nokunakekelwa yezokwelapha abakhileyo emazweni basuke belwa nangenxa amasosha. Empeleni Lokhu enza ukunciphisa bazonde waseMelika kanye nentando ukulwa back, okuyinto evimbela izingxabano kwezinye izimo. Kodwa futhi kwakha dichotomy wamanga enikeza izakhamuzi abajwayelekile behlaselwa ukukhetha sobala ukuba noma asekele amasosha ahlaselayo ezweni kwabo noma ukuxhasa abantu bezama ukubulala la amasosha. Nokho, kukhona kokukhokhiswa azibi ukuhileleka ingxabano hhayi nokukhetha izinhlangothi, okungaba nzima kakhulu ukuyenza uma kukhona nokufa nokubhujiswa ezizungezile nawe. Aid nokunakekela lwezokwelapha kufanele unikezwe akukho okuzosibambelela futhi akukho okulindelwe. Izimpilo zonke izakhamuzi kungenziwa ngcono, futhi amabutho anonya ngeke ukuhlehlela ngokwazo ngaphandle ukusetshenziswa ubudlova ngenxa. Kuwubuwula ukukholelwa udlame kungaba njalo ukuphazanyiswa noma combated ngokusebenzisa ubudlova.

American Army OJenene futhi-ups ephakeme kuhulumeni waseMelika njalo lusichezukise kulokho ngempela abakwenzayo. Lapho kubukana umphakathi ezindabeni, bona pheze ungalokothi bathi zibulala abantu. Basebenzisa amazwi efana “iwukudambisa”, “niwunqobe”, “ukunqotshwa”, “khawula”, “ukuqeda”, “akhiphe isisu,” “ucime,” “kunqobe”, “ukunqoba,” “yenza,” futhi (ingwijikhwebu kunayo yonke ) “umoya wenkosi.” Abantu basuke belwa basuke pheze never ukubizwa ngokuthi “abantu” noma, kodwa kunalokho njengoba ‘amabutho anonya, “” zamasosha isitha, “” tangoes, “” othintana, “” insurgents “noma izisulu uma lokufa abangekho empini. Isitha nje an “isikhubekiso ku mission enkululekweni.” Laba bamane ufuna ukuthatha yesintu aphume abantu basuke ngokubulala ngokusebenzisa lolu hlobo lwabantu abavamile, ukuze umphakathi kungaba kakhudlwana abakwenzayo . Ohulumeni iningi benze okufanayo. Sonke amanga ezidla lokhu imaski amaqiniso ugly empi.

Njengoba ngiye ziye zabonisa, izimpi of zonke izinhlobo phakathi izizwe pheze never eliqhutshwa ngenhloso ukumelela kahle kwezenhlalo noma ngisho ukuvikela ubani. Izinsongo Real akuzona yesizathu nezimpi uqhubeke. Izinsongo ezicatshangwayo, umbango nezixakaxaka emkhatsini ababusi bohulumeni kubangele yezimpi eziningi. Laba ngabanye uhlale kamnandi zawo zobukhosi kwamandla futhi ngokuvamile sihlale zithintwe futhi bengathinteki. Okwamanje, abantu abavamile ubhalisele futhi bafe ngenxa yezimpi abanalo uxhumano siqu ukuba. Asikho isizathu salokhu.

Ohulumeni ukuthi ukusebenzisa isigwebo sokufa ngokoqobo abulale ngabanye njengendlela isijeziso ukubulawa, njengoba zithi bakholelwa lokubulala kuvumelekile engalungile. (Kungase kunengqondo kakhudlwana ukuyeka kwashona abantu ukuba kunjalo.) Izıhlabane Iningi kahulumeni ngubani iyavumelana isigwebo sokufa uyijabulele ngokwazi a ‘lobugebengu’ ifile, ngokomthetho noma ngokungemthetho. Bokufika abaningi bajabulele ngokwazi ekulweni amasosha zethu kokuba abulawe. Kodwa lapho Izıhlabane non-state unquma abulale ezweni yabo siqu ngokungemthetho (yisiphi isizathu), kungazelelwe uhulumeni engenela njengoba ‘negunya zokuziphatha “ukunquma ukuthi yikuphi ngokulandelayo.

Ababusi abathumela izinkulungwane afele izithakazelo zabo siqu abangela ukufa kwabantu abangaphezu kuka ubani uphawu njengendlela amaphekula. Ohulumeni iningi ichaze abaphila njengomuntu ilungelo eliyisisekelo human, (yingakho zizolijezisa ababulali kangaka kabuhlungu) kodwa kuphela banquma ngubani uvunyelwe ukugcina lelilungelo hhayi abhekane ukujeziswa ngokwenza kanjalo. Ke, kumelwe uhlaziye le zokuziphatha kanye nezimo of zokubulala nokuthi yini esingayenza ukuze ushintshe institutionalization kobudlova ukuze adale nokuthula.

6.12 The azimele of Impi

Njengoba Ngiye kuboniswe, izinkampani eziningi inzuzo lukhulu izimpi. Ngaphezu kwalokho izinkampani ukuthi ahlinzeke izimpahla for izimpi futhi akhiphe imithombo kusuka izindawo matasa kuya, sekunabantu amakhulu ezinkulungwane zangasese osonkontileka kwezempi emhlabeni wonke kanye. Sinenkosi ilayisensi ukubulala futhi akuzona kuncike imithetho efanayo empi wokuthi kwamasosha ngoba asebenza ngaphandle Ikhodi Uniform of Military Justice. Ngakho, abaningi bangawela emthethweni. Lokufa kwabo kanye nokulimala nazo akabalwa ezinjengezikaNkulunkulu amasosha, kanye nemali esetshenziselwe imisebenzi yabo akabalwa noma, ngakho akukho cishe akukho wokwengamela kwangaphandle.

Izinkontileka Military ezikhokhelwa okuningi ngaphezu amasosha US, yize ngokuvamile zithatha engozini le esingaphansi, futhi iningi izinkampani basebenza ukuze benze izigidigidi. Academi (ngaphambilini Blackwater USA) ikomkhulu Arlington County, Virginia, uyisibonelo ovelele. Lokhu nkampani ubelokhu ekhona eMpumalanga Ephakathi for engaphezu kweyishumi, futhi osonkontileka zabo ziye baze abayiswe e-United States. Ngo 2005 Blackwater osonkontileka abangu atshalwa lapho kuvele iSiphepho uKatrina ngenjongo ulahle “abaphangi kanye nezigebengu.”

Eziningi zalezi “security” izinkampani kanye izingalo wabenza ezinkulu nazo ziye conglomerated, beba namandla ngaphezu kwanoma yinini. Zangasese izinkontileka wezempi can ngaphezulu ukugwema umthetho umthetho kalula ngaphezu zangasese ejele opharetha futhi basuke pheze never bajeziswa ngenxa ukubulala abantu abangenacala noma amalungelo eziboshwa. Njengoba nje besho lokho abakwenzayo iwukuba “ukuphepha kazwelonke,” bambalwa abantu amelane.

Danny Heydenreycher, a usonkontileka security osebenzela Aegis, a British enkampanini yangasese wezempi e Iraq, ungomunye osonkontileka abaningi oye wabulala abantu abangenacala ngokungakhethi ngaphandle ebhekene ukujeziswa. Heydenreycher kwadingeka yebo abangane bakhe ifilimu naye ubugebengu zakhe, kanti tape oputshukile futhi elasakazwa sites azungeze eziningi ezahlukene like YouTube. In the ividiyo yena lingabonakala kokudubula nomaphi at abangenacala izakhamuzi Iraq emgwaqeni omkhulu. Heydenreycher nabangane bakhe (ngubani ngemoto naye nxazonke kanye taping) ezingazange yicala yimuphi zobugebengu ezempi futhi ngokusho izitatimende ezivela US ezempi “base ukusebenza ngaphakathi imithetho force.” Uma ngaphakathi imithetho force kusho lokudubula engahleliwe izimoto emgwaqeni omkhulu ke imithetho kufanele ushintshwe.

The azimele of war akukusha. Izinkampani bebelokhu sizuza egazini lichithwa njengoba uMbuso WaseRoma. Kodwa ngokungafani ohulumeni, izinkampani iningi abanandaba yiziphi side abayikho on, inqobo nje? Bakhokhelwa. Abaningi US izinkampani ngesikhatsi WWII, isibonelo, wawuhweba amaNazi. The Ford Motor Company empeleni etholakala enecala ngokusebenzisa izigqila eJalimane lobuNazi ngesikhathi computer yesiBili iMpi Yezwe no IBM nabo bathengisa kuze amaNazi. Texaco and Coca-Cola ihwebelana amaNazi kanye. (Empeleni, Coca-Cola wadala Fanta ikakhulukazi ezimakethe eJalimane lobuNazi.) Nangabe Axis lase won impi, izinkampani zaseMelika cishe esakhulekela ukwenza ibhizinisi amaNazi.

Isimo lwamanje amajele iningi kwezempi emhlabeni wonke buyenyanyeka. Amajele Military ingaba noma eyihlazo ngaphezu emajele avamile ngoba osopolitiki ngokuvamile bathi yimuphi wokwengamela abazimele nhlobo kwakuyoba engozini “ukuphepha kazwelonke,” futhi lena indlela abagwema it. Guantanamo Bay ekamu engangiboshelwe lezempi akhiwe eCuba buphakathi amajele izinengiso kunazo Emhlabeni. Ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi, nokuswela sezinzwa nezinye izinhlobo zokuhlukunyezwa ngokomzwelo nasemzimbeni zivamile khona. Umengameli Obama wazwakalisa isifiso ukuvala Facility ngisho wenza isithembiso sokwenza kanjalo ungakapheli nonyaka ngo-2008, kodwa passage isiGele of the supplemental Ukwabiwa Act of 2009 kwavimbela ukudluliselwa yimuphi iziboshwa. It edlula ivoti ka 90 kuya 6 Yena aphinde Wafunga ukuyivala, kodwa ke wasayina NDAA of 2010, okuyinto lokhu futhi zivumele zokuboshwa eliku-ubani okusolakala zobuphekula.

Gitmo namanje evulekile nanamuhla yokungabikho inkani Congress no Obama sika ukwehluleka, noma ukuntula isifiso ukulandela ngokusebenzisa. Abezombusazwe eU.S. ngubani angazamukela ukudluliswa kanye ecaleni Guantanamo iziboshwa ziye waphika izicelo anjalo ngoba abafuni ukubukeka ‘ithambe on nobuphekula. “Nokho, kuyinto nomthethosisekelo ukuba unganikeli lezi zinsizi ngabanye. Obama noma okukhulunywa le ngesikhathi egijima on September 8 2008 Farmington Hills Town Hall e Michigan: “Uma nina misa Habeas Corpus – okuyinto bekulokhu ukuphola umgomo ngaphambi noma ezweni lethu. Kuyinto isisekelo komthetho Anglo-American, ethi kakhulu ukumane uma uhulumeni uyayibamba kuwe, khona-ke wena ilungelo lokungenani ukubuza “Kungani ngambamba” futhi bathi “Hey, ingabe uke got nomuntu ongafanele. Niyazi, isizathu onayo ukuthi ukulondeka yokuthi asivamile njalo ukubamba umuntu unelungelo. “Uma uvivinyo bavumela, laba ngabanye at Gitmo kwakuyoba adalule omningi zokuhlukunyezwa ziye bakhuthazelela. Kuzokwenza futhi avimbele abantu efanayo ngamandla ekuqhubekeni ahlupha abantu emajele eyimfihlo. (Lokhu kungani osopolitiki abaningi kangaka bafuna ukugwema izilingo lezi abasolwa ngazo zonke izindleko.)

The wangasese sezempi eziyinkimbinkimbi zezimboni Manje likhiqiza ngaphezu $ 100 billion ngonyaka kanti lukhulu yalesi mali uya Fortune 500 amafemu. [Cxxvii] Kwakukhona okungenani 100,000 yangasese osonkontileka yezempi ngo-Iraq ngo-2009, futhi yokutjhejwa kanye counter-amaphekula ejensi futhi kude izikhathi okusetshenziswe inani inani langempela labantu bafuna. Ukuze umane ushayele le imboni bloated kungaba yingozi a ukukhuluma okungababaziyo. Lezi zinhlangano abahlehla imigqa emhlabeni wonke futhi ukukhomba iningi lethu izitha njengoba anonya, futhi babekwazi ubhidlize emhlabeni ngaphandle uma thina ningabenqabeli.

Ingxenye ziyisikhombisa: ukwakha Iziphetho

7.1 Inkinga eyisiSekelo kanye Isidingo uhlaziye Ukuziphatha

Kule ncwadi I baye badingida izinkinga eziningi kanye izakhiwo ngamandla ukuba usibuse. Kodwa angizange sixoxe ngendlela ukulungisa inkinga eliyisisekelo ngokuthi Ngikholelwa kuyisihluthulelo kokushintsha la zikhungo. Lezi zakhiwo bamandla usibuse sonke musa siphathe imithombo ezithinta kakhulu kakhulu ungubani, ubude wokuphila, futhi kahle ngokomzwelo nasemzimbeni njengoba wesintu amalungelo ayisisekelo. Amanzi, ukudla, imithi, ukwelashwa, ezemfundo, indawo yokukhosela, lwezempilo zokuzala, uthando, futhi ocansini ngesivumelwano kungukuthi ziphathwe njengabantu amalungelo by yisiphi sezakhiwo bamandla ukuyilawula. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi inzuzo nokungalingani kanye bezincisha abanye ala malungelo.

Iningi nababusi bethu bazizwe esithi ukulawula la imithombo futhi ngaleyo ndlela ukulawula singobani ngoba bakholelwa babalulekile ngaphezu kwethu sonke. Iningi laba bantu musa siqaphele ukuthi sonke nje imikhiqizo emvelweni yethu futhi lokhu nokungaqondi ivumela ukuba ukuzithethelela indiva, ukulimaza noma ukubulala abanye abashikashikana. Ngikholwa lena nkinga ayisisekelo, ngoba ukungezwani kwabo lisakaza nabanye abaningi ngenxa ububanzi ithonya labo.

The abacebe amaphesenti omunye ngabanye babe nje mayelana konke babezobasiza njalo sifuna noma sidinga, (noma uthando lwangempela kwezinye izimo) futhi kuqondakale iningi lethu lokucabanga kunesizathu okunenjongo ukuthi bakwenze. Kodwa akukho ezimweni eziningi. Asikho isizathu hoard izigidigidi zamaRandi ngenxa le inani ngengcebo kuyinto ekude okweqa lokho okudingekayo ukuze asinde. Iningi labantu abacebe Emhlabeni akuzona noma bajabule, kodwa bayaqhubeka baphile izimpilo ozwakala ukuthi bazame sigcwale namathoyizi kwezobuchwepheshe, short-term izinjabulo, nezinye iziphazamiso kuyilapho lonke ezisicasulayo zomhlaba by lokusinda.

Osopolitiki iningi bakholelwa production, capital kanye nohulumeni kuyizinto ezibaluleke kakhulu, kanti ezicebile abaphathi iningi ezinkampani uyayazisa imali noma emsebenzini wabo ngenhla konke okunye. Abaholi benkolo iningi bakholelwa bona noma uNkulunkulu zibaluleke kakhulu. Kodwa ambalwa kakhulu laba ngabanye ezinamandla bakholelwa bonke abantu emhlabeni wonke kanye namalungelo abo zibalulekile kakhulu, futhi izenzo zawo sibonakalise ukuthi.

Ohulumeni abaningi bayakhathazeka ukuthi uma bonke abantu banikwa ukufinyelela izinsiza eziyisisekelo noma izindlela ukuthola kubo, ziyokhawuka ukukhiqiza noma okungenani ayisekho bazuze zababusi. Kodwa akuthina Ngokwemvelo ivila noma abakhiqizi futhi akukho sizathu sidinga siqhubeke sisekela laba bantu ngamandla. Ukube bonke abantu kwakufanele yindlela efanayo namathuba ukuhlinzekela ngokwabo, siyobe senze kanjalo, ngoba lokhu kuzuzisa thina sonke. Sasifika neqhaza ezindleleni zethu siqu esiyingqayizivele. Kuphela uma abantu baphucwa inkululeko yabo eyisisekelo, amathuba kanye nezinjabulo ngeke iphendukele ukuziphatha bazonda umphakathi ukuba zilimaze abanye.

Sex ingenye izibonelo okungenani ezisobala zalezi imithombo elawulwa. It is a isidingo womuntu ezinjengalezi imithombo nezinye, kodwa hhayi lithathwa njengenye. Sex waba umgoqo ngokuyinhloko ngenxa abaholi benkolo nabezombangazwe wasitshela kuyinto eyihlazo, ngaphandle uma wenziwa emva komshado nabobulili obuhlukile bazalane. Imithetho emhlabeni wonke ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ucansi iphathwa ngale ndlela futhi abantu abaningi baye babulala eboshelwe hhayi uthobele le mithetho. Inzalo, kwezisu, ubulili ngaphambi komshado, umshado gay, futhi sex gay nazo kwenqatshelwe ohulumeni abaningi nezinkolo. (Amanye amazwe nawo namanje abulale abantu gay nalabo ubanjwe ocansini kobungqingili.) Bavame khubaza ocansini abayitoho for fun futhi ukuthuthukisa kahle kanye yokuthi abaningi bakholelwa nokuzila is bayahlonishwa uNkulunkulu. Kodwa abantu ngokuvamile abajabule lapho kungukuthi ocansini noma esimthandayo, ikakhulu lapho befuna kokubili kodwa hhayi abakwazi ukwamukela kubo.

Abanye bethu ngubani beswele angaqala aphathe ucansi njengoba transaction esiqinile. Ntu bazithengise noma uthenga ucansi ngokuvamile sinento esifana, okuyinto lokuthi abanalo uthando. Izimo zengqondo bagcina zibe amakhanda ethu yilezi zikhungo ngokuvamile zisenze sikholelwe imizimba yethu kufanele priced, wathenga futhi ithengiswe futhi lokhu luqhuba ngabodwa nezinganelisi ukuthengiselana ocansini, ngisho abanye ‘ebudlelwaneni. “Sex liphushwe zibe ezimakethe isicebi lapho kuba’ Won “by the Abavunyelwe ukubhida aphakeme kakhulu ngisho nothando ngokuvamile affixed nge ithegi ngentengo. Amalungu amaningi emiphakathini isicebi zivame enesizungu futhi ezingazodwa, ngisho nalapho basuke ezinabantu abaningi kakhulu.

Abanye ohulumeni lesichubekako kakhudlwana namasiko zinikeza kwezempilo universal nekhwalithi, imfundo free, kodwa imithombo engiye okukhulunywa akuzona wonke ziphathwe njengabantu amalungelo by yimuphi uhulumeni. Eqinisweni, ohulumeni abaningi kanye izinkampane sehlise ukutholakala kwalezi imithombo bese andise nezindleko zawo. Ohulumeni eGuatemala, Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador and Honduras, isibonelo, amanzi bavumela, le nto eyisisekelo yokuphila, ukuba privatized futhi elawulwa izinhlangano ake abantu bebulawa amanzi emzimbeni abangakwazi ukukhokhela amanzi. (Abanye balaba ohulumeni noma yenza kwaba emthethweni ukuqoqa emanti emvula.) Akukho nhlangano, umbuso noma umuntu kufanele akwazi bagodle noma yimiphi imithombo yokuphila esindisa kubantu abayidingayo. Emhlabeni kungokwalabo sonke nakubo bonke izinhlobo zokuphila.

Kubalulekile ngathi sonke ukuba sazi indlela yokwenza of (ahlanzekileko) amanzi ahlanzekile. (Kamuva I sizoxoxa it kungenziwa njani emithonjeni ehlukahlukene.) Nale lwazi besingeke kudingeka bathenge amanzi izinkampani ezinkulu, futhi kwakuzoba abambalwa kakhulu ukubulawa ukuphelelwa amanzi emzimbeni futhi izifo namanzi ezithwalwa. Amalungelo amaningi wobuntu kungenziwa kwasekela ngokumane ukufundisa abantu.

Ilungelo lokudla kungabuye wasisekela kubantu abavamile besebenza ndawonye. Asidingi izinkampane ezinkulu ukuze bondle us. Singakwazi sikhule izitshalo zethu siqu futhi aphakamise imfuyo (uma kungenjalo imifino), kanye ukuthenga ukudla okuvela nemifelandawonye ukulimela okuncane kakhulu. Lokhu akulula njengoba nobe ekahle njengoba ukuthenga cheeseburger at McDonalds for 99 cents, kodwa yesikhathi eside kuba lula, eshibhile, esimeme kakhudlwana futhi kunempilo. Engekho emphakathini amapulazi emhlabeni wonke, kuyohlale kukhona nabantu abalambile emigwaqweni ecela ushintsho ukuthenga okungenamsoco, cheap ukudla esithile franchise giant, ngoba ngokuvamile sithatha dlela okungenani ukumelana kanye abampofu phakathi kwethu sihlupheke kakhulu njengendlela japan.

Nokudla eshibhile futhi imali yokuthenga it Kulula ukuzithengela emazweni acebile. Cheap, ukudla okusheshayo Nokho, cishe njalo ukudla okungenampilo ngenxa yokudla okunempilo kuyabiza kakhudlwana ukukhiqiza. Uma abantu bakhule kudla kwabo siqu noma uthenge emapulazini amancane, izinkampani ezinkulu ngeke zikhwantabale. Ukudla okunempilo akudingeki sibize kubantu zansuku zonke kanye namapulazi ezincane kakhulu, ikakhulukazi lezo kukhona emphakathini enophephela, kukhona engabizi. Ngokuvamile nje nzima ukuthola kuka amaketanga enkulu efana Whole Foods, kodwa kuwufanele befuna ukuphuma.

I kalula kunazo atholakalayo, ukudla ezishibhile kusuka fast emaketangeni nokudla ngokuvamile okunamafutha elihlale, trans-isomer fatty acid, ushukela elicwengiweyo, eziphilayo izakhi, (GMOs) futhi “kilojoule ezingenalutho.” Ukudla elinabantu nje ukudla ezishibhile fast kungabangela ezahlukene izinkinga zezempilo like arthrosclerosis, isifo senhliziyo, umdlavuza, ukukhuluphala nokufa. Ukukhuluphala kuyinto Inkinga enkulu phakathi abampofu emazweni acebe nge fast ngamaketanga ukudla, futhi ngenxa yokuthi abampofu ngokuvamile in izinhlungu, abanye eze ukuncika ngokudla efana indlela sesiqongweni efana izidakamizwa, okuyinto kubanga izinkinga ngaphezulu. Emiphakathini yethu ezingabalulekile kokuba ngokweqile (noma wezidakamizwa) ngokuvamile kwenza kube nzima ukuba ukhuthaze nokulondoloza ubudlelwane enempilo. Bangabuye babe Khama emnothweni ngenxa yezinkinga zempilo like ukukhuluphala kanye umlutha (okwamanje) zidinga izinkonzo ezibizayo yezokwelapha nemithombo.

Lezi imithombo eziyisisekelo engiye okukhulunywa abanelisa abantu okufunayo efanayo kanye nezidingo. Abanye bangase alivume it, kodwa thina sonke bafuna ukusinda, sijabule futhi bazizwa omthandayo. Ngikholelwa izidakamizwa kukhona ilungelo kanye ngenxa yalesi sizathu ngoba abantu abaningi baphendukela nabo ukungabikho injabulo, uthando noma lokusinda lula. Yiqiniso, lezi akuzona kudingekile ukuze wonke umuntu, (futhi inyonga) kodwa ngoba abanye abantu benomuzwa isidingo ukusebenzisa izidakamizwa futhi azinakwenzeka yokuqeda, kumele benza itholakale ephephe, ngendlela wemfanelo kunazo ngenkathi sizama angenze bonke kanzima kabi kwezidakamizwa njengoba okuningi esingakufunda ngokusiza abantu nezinkinga zabo.

Lezi imithombo ebalulekile bafakwa okuningi ehlukile ngaphambi abantu basungule amathuluzi, ohulumeni, izinkolo kanye corporations. Ukufinyelela kwethu kulezi izinsiza lacekelwa enqunywe zofuzo zethu kanye izindawo zethu zemvelo. Imvelo yethu athuthukiswe ngokuyinhloko ukuze kuzuze wonke zemvelo, hhayi abantu ngabanye. Eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane edlule Fifty, abantu abazange babe namathuluzi noma ekhonweni ecishe ngokwanele ukuba ahlele ukuthonya izimpilo namaqembu amakhulu. Kodwa namuhla singakwazi, ngakho akuyona nature nobe DNA (yedwa) elawula izinga izimpilo zethu. Kuyinto Abantu ngabanye. Ababusi kwamandla ethu izakhiwo azinqumi yiziphi izinsizakusebenza kanye namathuba abantu kufanele futhi akufanele ube. Laba bantu abanamandla akuzona eziphila eliphakeme, kanjalo wokusakazeka futhi ukuphumelela kwabo akusho ukuqinisekisa wonke emhlabeni zezempilo njengoba ukuziphendukela kwemvelo enza. Ke, Ngikholelwa ukuphumelela kwabo kungqubuzana kwemvelo.

Zonke-izinhlobo zokuphila baqhutshwa ukusinda nganoma iyiphi kusho kungenzeka, futhi lokhu kungaba isazela qala ezinye, izenzo zobugovu ezibhubhisayo ezilwaneni eziningi. Kodwa le isazela akakubangeli ukubhujiswa mass. Lokusakaza kubaluleke kakhudlwana kwezinye izinhlobo iningi kunalokho kuba kubantu, futhi abanye eziphilayo uyokufa noma uma kudingekile ukuze asakaze. Abantu ngokuvamile bengayi futhi nomthamo mkhulu ukubhujiswa.

Life ubelokhu ngokungafanele ukuba bonke eziphilayo ngomqondo njalo. Ngisho nezinto eziphilayo khulu lokuqala ezincane kuya njalo siphilele cishe kwadingeka izinzuzo ezithile kuka omunye nomunye. Ayengeke waziphendukela okuhlukile. Kodwa amathuluzi kanye izakhiwo namandla le ncwadi imayelana kakhulu washintsha amasistimu ethu zokuziphatha futhi kanjalo indlela imithombo kanye namathuba abelwe.

Nakuba singeke ukuthi kungani DNA lithuthuka kahle kakhulu noma uma kukhona isizathu ‘okunenjongo “kakhulu ukhona, siyazazi sameness esizalwa naso. Siyabona ukuthi sonke yakhiwe udaba olufanayo eziyisisekelo futhi eliqhutshwa amakhemikhali efanayo futhi kanjalo axhunyiwe. Kusuka le singafunda ukuthi kungani kufanele niphathane kangcono. Asibi abazalwa ekhethekile ngokuba nezinzuzo ezinikezwe noma okubi ngokuba bokwenza ezinikezwe noma okuphambene nalokho. Akekho ingcono abazalwa kunanoma ubani omunye, futhi sonke sifanelwe amalungelo ayisisekelo efanayo namathuba.

Ukuphatha okulindelwe zethu abantu kungasisiza sifinyelele kulingana kanye namalungelo eziyisisekelo bonke abantu. Ngokwesibonelo, labo abacebile, bejabule, wayemthanda, lilimale, free, abafundile futhi banikezwe ukufinyelela emathubeni amaningi emhlabeni kufanele agcinwe kuya standard zokuziphatha esiphezulu. Basuke sikhundla omkhulu kunayo ukusiza abanye, ngakho kufanele bazizwe bebophekile ukusiza wonke umuntu ezingakamvumeli nenhlanhla kangaka. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, labo abaye banikezwa okungenani zalezi imithombo futhi asebenzelana le amashwa iningi kufanele bazizwe esithi ekuphileni okungcono wahlulelwe engaphansi ngokhahlo. Kuyavunywa, lo mqondo iyefana eyodwa okutholakala eNcwadini uLuka eTestamenteni Elisha: “Lowo owayengasazi akazi futhi enza izinto esifanelwe sijeziso niyoshaywa nge amagalelo ezimbalwa. Kusuka wonke onikwe okuningi, kuyofunwa okuningi; futhi kusukela ngovivinyiwe abaphathiswe okuningi, wabuza okuningi izobe “-. (Luka 12:48) Lo ndima alikukhuthazi udlame, kodwa uhlanganyela umqondo ubuyekeza okulindelwe zethu abantu ngokusekelwe izimo zabo futhi imilando.

Abahluleli, izikhulu nomthetho, ejele onogada, abashushisi kanye bonke abahilelekile kule isijeziso abanye abantu kufanele ezokuba kuya indinganiso ephakeme kunazo zokuziphatha kanye. Far Abantu abaningi kakhulu aphishekele izikhundla ezinjengalezi kuphela ngenxa kwenzondo, self-ukulunga, ukuhaha noma ego hhayi ngekholi zokuziphatha ukuvikela umphakathi. Abantu abaningi ejwayelekile ngubani ubuyele ubugebengu, ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuye kwadingeka izimpilo ezinzima futhi baqhutshwa ikakhulu ngentando yabo ukusinda nganoma iyiphi kusho kudingekile.

Kungakhathaliseki kahle yethu ngabanye ngokomzwelo noma kwezezimali (nobe ukungabi kwabo), sonke sizuze ukuzama nsuku usuku ngcono thina ukuphila kwabanye. Azidele in nokulinganisela nge self-ngcono kubalulekile ukuze kuzuze sonke. Thina kufanele sonke ayathandana ngenxa wonke umuntu ucezu lwesintu ukuthi sinomthwalo wemfanelo ukuvikela. Njengoba abantu, nathi kuyinto sodwa endaweni yonke ebonakalayo, kanjalo ngaphandle uma sifuna ukuba indawo yonke ibe ngaphandle kwethu, kufanele sizame ukuba aqaphele nemiphumela imikhondo yethu yamanje futhi singaba kanjani ngcono kubo. Nginesifo omningi ukukwenza ngokwami​​.

7.2 Yini Engenziwa?

Anginayo zonke izimpendulo Yiqiniso, kodwa ngingasho ukuthi yini engikukholelwayo kuyadingeka. Abaningi izixazululo seziye zadingidwa futhi ngiyaqiniseka une imibono yakho mayelana izixazululo. Kulesi sigaba I sizoxoxa imibono yami kabanzi futhi eyisebenzisa kanjani, kanye sibala ezinye izibikezelo zami ngalokho cishe kunazo okuzokwenzeka.

Right manje Akuqinisekwa kuyinto noma kungenzeka noma cha ukuze athonye bengenandaba kunazo, abantu abanamandla ukuba baqonde ungubani nokunakekela ngalabo zisebenzisa bese indiva. Abanye bangase ungalokothi kushintshe futhi labo bantu kufanele nje asuswe ngamandla. Kodwa singakwazi okungenani sebenzisana nge wonke umuntu. Ngethemba le ncwadi ngeke ukukholisa abantu abambalwa esinamandla bekhathalela kakhulu emhlabeni futhi benze ngokuvumelana naso. Le ncwadi kuyinto call wonke umuntu. Kodwa iqiniso esilaziyo ngeke cishe ifundwe abaqondisi abaningi abanamandla noma osombusazwe. Ke, sonke sibe ingxenye ukudlala uma sifuna ukuphila ukuphila okungcono. Sine ukuthuthukisa kanye nokusebenzisa solutions ethu ngaphesheya emhlabeni for kukhona ukuba ushintsho ehlala njalo.

Lezi zakhiwo ngamandla ukuthi ukulawula lethu kangaka ukuzihilela ezindabeni zethu zansuku zonke kungaba nzima nje bawasika away konke ngesikhathi esisodwa. Kunalokho, kungase kudingeke ukuba kancane kancane lubhidlikile zibe,, izinhlangano zomphakathi-run amancane engaphansi enamandla. Kukhona kufanele ekushintsheni ezingqondweni nasezinhliziyweni, hhayi nje ushintsho abaholi. Izinguquko abaholi musa ngaso sonke kuholele izinguquko eziphawulekayo nezinqubomgomo wombuso.

Intando yeningi Direct kuyindlela ephumelela kakhulu futhi engaphansi ezibhubhayo kahulumeni kunanoma iyiphi uhlobo kahulumeni omele ngoba unika amandla ngqo kubantu. Ke, democracies eqondile emincane nemikhulu ezithandwayo kufanele ande. Small, democracies eqondile ngokuvamile kulula ukugcina ngenxa yokungezwani nokungavumelani babe kuphela luxazululwe phakathi abantu abambalwa. Bavame ziphenduke ngoba kukhona vele kuvumelana noqondayo phakathi kwabo. Nokho, ngo democracies enkulukazi ngqo, ngokuvamile kuthatha isikhathi okuningi ukwenza izinqumo, kanjalo imiphakathi angase anqume ukuba babe amancane (kodwa onobunye) phezu kwesikhathi. Ngingakhetha ukuqagela ukuthi ohulumeni emikhulu efana America sika ekugcineni kwayeka abe igunya lapho ngabanye imizi, amadolobha nemiphakathi banquma ukuzibusa futhi sisebenze ngokubambisana kanye ubumbano omunye nomunye.

Kakade ezizimele, abantu ezinokuthula abangekho engozini kufanele sisale sodwa umphakathi international, ngaphandle uma zifuna zihilelekile. Ngokuba bonke imiphakathi wethu usebenze, kumele kube khona obala zonke sikhungo elinamandla, inkhulumomphendvulwano ezinenjongo phakathi wonke amaqembu ukuthi bafuna ukuba ahileleke ezindabeni zamazwe ngamazwe, inkululeko imininingwane, ukubekezelelana, noqondayo phakathi kwabantu. Lezi singasebenza zonke izinhlobo yezohwebo kanye ubudlelwano kanye ukuzuza wonke umuntu, kungakhathaliseki uhlanga, inkolo, ubulili namkha orientation.

Ukuze basekele amalungelo esintu ayisisekelo, kumelwe ngqo ukuguqula yamanje power izinhlaka endaweni ngezindlela ezihlukahlukene. America usesikhundleni amazwe angaphezu kuka-130 futhi has ezingaphezu kuka-900 elisekela wezempi emhlabeni wonke. Kukhona amasosha aseMelika 50,000 in Southern Germany yedwa, nakuba ngingathi kuphephile ukuphetha uHitler akuseyona usongo. (Wabulala ngokwakhe ngo 1945). Lokhu ubukhona global omkhulu wezempi kudala nje izinsongo ngempela emhlabeni wonke. Ukuze kuncishiswe ingozi impi, America, izwe elinamandla kunawo wonke emhlabeni futhi usongo wezempi kunawo wonke emhlabeni kufanele kuphele cishe zonke “sokuzivikela” nezinhlelo, kanye nalo lonke izwe. Zonke amazwe kumele baqale ukuqaqa izikhali zawo eziyingozi kunazo kuqala nokuvala ezokuvikela ngokungadingekile futhi abenzi enkulu nezikhali. Kufanele ukuhoxisa yonke amasosha, ngaphandle kwalabo wamisa ngenxa nje imisebenzi zokuzivikela futhi zezenhlalakahle lapho kudingeka. Amakamu ababaleki kumele njalo avikelwe ngu onozwela amabutho ezempi kanye nezinye nabasebenzi, nengxabano kufanele njalo wayemthanda phezu force. Akukho izwe emhlabeni ukuthi siyingozi yimuphi usongo langempela America Kukhona, nokho nohulumeni walo phikelela udinga ukuchitha ngomunye trillion zentela zamarandi ukuzivikela njalo ngonyaka. Uma leyo mali kunalokho waya emazweni ampofu, singase kuqedwe ububha, futhi lokhu kungenza ukuqeda esiningi ngentando ukuba ngowakho futhi obhubhisayo.

Kungaba futhi ewusizo kakhulu ukwandisa izintela for abacebile, njengoba nje intela yethu waya Imizamo ewusizo futhi base labelwe ngu ivoti ethandwayo. Izinkampani ezinkulu futhi elimazayo YeSizwe enecala zobugebengu kumele icala, intela, bese wahlawuliswa kuze abasebabili enenzuzo. Abasebenzi Innocent babengase inikwe umsebenzi ofanele kwenye. I top Izinga lentela (okubhekisele nabantu abenza kuka $ 300,000 ngonyaka) kufanele senyukela lokungenani 50%, futhi kumelwe siqinisekise intela kuphela asetshenziswa ukusiza abampofu yokukhokhela izinsizakalo sonke bayavuma esikudingayo.

Imiphakathi ezilambayo kufanele banikezwe usizo lokudla nemfundo kwezolimo esimeme nemfuyo baze lingaqinisa ngokwabo. Ezinye izindlela ukuthuthukisa umnotho of izifunda abampofu kungaba ukuheha kwezokuvakasha kanye namavolontiya ukusiza ukwakha umnotho. Zokuhamba zomphakathi nazo kufanele abe free ngoba viva isigaba sabasebenzi. Ohulumeni kufanele futhi anikeze abantu inkululeko eyengeziwe futhi bayeke asihlola kwabo. Ubuchwepheshe koda like RFID chips futhi esingasifanele nemishini ukubhekwa kumele luqedwe. Akudingeki ukuyeka inkululeko yethu ukuze uphephe, kanye nohulumeni yokutjhejwa ejensi iningi kanye namagatsha ngasese kahulumeni kufanele ukuqaqwa ngokuphelele.

Kwanoma isiphi isikhungo okucatshangwa ukunikeza imisebenzi ebalulekile efana emajele, izikhungo ngokwengqondo, amawadi zengqondo, imitholampilo nokuvuselelwa, izibhedlela, izinkampani zomshuwalense wezempilo, futhi izikole kumele kwenziwe phakathi non-inzuzo futhi ngilunge kakhulu. Amazwe ukuba babe kwezempilo jikelele Ngokuvamile aphansi izindleko kwezempilo ngenxa iziguli sibonakala lapho kudingeka babe, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ngengcebo yabo, kanjalo izimo siba sincane isikhathi yinkimbinkimbi futhi siba sibi. Ezamahala kwezempilo izinhlelo kungenziwa run kahle kakhulu futhi uvimbele kugula okuningi ezingabakhona. Izifunda ukuthi kakade zezempilo ubhubhane efana Eastern and Central Africa zidinga ukunakekelwa esithile. Imitholampilo HIV kufanele amise lonke Afrika kanye amakhondomu kufanele basakaza khona for free. Ngini imali yentela kufanele futhi bangene ukucwaninga amakhambi for AIDS kanye nezinye izifo ezifanayo ukuphela.

Esinye izinguquko esiwusizo kwakuyoba ukunikeza zonke iziboshwa amaseli zabo siqu ukuvimbela ukushaya. (Lokhu kungaba nokwenzeka ukube kwezidakamizwa ezasuswa babengekho ejele ngoba labantu ejele laliyodluliselwa wancipha.) Isiboshwa kumele babe kuphela ohlala naye uma yena kanye nomunye isiboshwa bobabili bafuna umuntu azohlala naye. Babekwazi bakhethe abahlala ndawonye letsite esekelwe esivumelwaneni mutual. Amajele kwabesifazane nabesilisa kungashiwo futhi ahlanganiswe ngaphandle ukuhlukunyezwa okwenzekayo. Iziboshwa ezingabangela babengaba babe ubudlelwane enempilo, futhi lokhu bekungeke ukunciphisa kakhulu intando for ukuhlukunyezwa ngokocansi kanye nodlame. Amajele zangasese kufanele futhi esiyoshatshalaliswa, futhi izinhlaka ezizimele ukuba angakwazi ukuqapha imibandela amajele nokuvimba ukuhlukunyezwa kufanele aqine. Impi izidakamizwa kumelwe futhi kugcine zonke lizwe. Akukho umlutha kufanele baye ejele ngenxa yokuluthwa. Imilutha kufanele bathole usizo abaludingayo in izimilo kahulumeni-uxhaso imitholampilo.

Ngabanye abaye zaphendukela ubugebengu ngenxa destitution yabo kumele anikezwe imfundo namathuba emisebenzi. Kunzima kakhulu ukuthola umsebenzi lapho bededelwa ejele futhi lokhu kwenza iziboshwa eziningi bangaphambili babuye ebugebengwini. A Umlando lobugebengu akufanele ngaso sonke isikhathi kuvimbele abaqashi, futhi akukho sizathu zobugebengu ezincane kufanele ivele Amarekhodi obugebengu. Ekugcineni, amajele sezizonke zingaba esiyoshatshalaliswa lapho intando for ubugebengu engekho.

Ucwaningo okuningi futhi kudingeka yenziwe yisifo sengqondo efana bipolar disorder ne bayasangana, nodokotela kanye nabasebenzi esibhedlela sabagula ngengqondo ezigcemeni kumele ayeke kabi iziguli ukuze kuzuze bona. Ejele nonogada nezinduna amaphoyisa kumele kudingeke ukuthi umbonye bonke abasebenzi ukuze ubandlululo ukuvimbela babaqashela ngabanye ngubani nje ngiphishekele lo msebenzi ngoba bafuna ukulawula futhi ngonya izingxenye ezithile emphakathini.

Ngikholwa omunye izinguquko ephuthumayo kakhulu okumelwe kwenziwe izinhlangano ezinkulu iwukuba ibe cooperatives isisebenzi, enikeza control ngqo kubasebenzi futhi ukuphinde sihambise namapheshana yabo enkulu ezweni nempahla ukuthi akukhona ukuthi asetshenziselwa abasebenzi, abantu abangenamakhaya, abalimi abampofu nabanye abangakwazi athuthukise izwe esimeme nangayo esiphezulu nemtselela social. Kufanele uqale ne amabhizinisi kunayo kuqala like Walmart. (Yiqiniso, ngenxa ubungako Walmart, bekuyoba kudingeka bahlukana baba nemifelandawonye eziningi ezahlukene.) Control Worker sika yelinyenti ekuthathweni adingekayo kunoma iyiphi yezabasebenzi force ohlelekile. Ngikholelwa kwaqedwa nokubekwa kanye nokugcizelelwa uqede konke amaholo abasebenzi kanye nobugqila emhlabeni jikelele buphakathi izinguquko ezibaluleke kakhulu kungenziwa kahle.

Uma emafektri okugqilazwa Walmart e-China yaphendulwa cooperatives isisebenzi, izisebenzi zaziyoba zifune iholo ephakeme kanye nezimo zokusebenza ezingcono futhi abanikazi Walmart (umndeni Walton) bekuyokwenza nemali engaphansi yalokho. Imikhiqizo Walmart sika Ngeke futhi kudingeke ukuba aliyise phesheya ngenxa yenzuzo xaxa, nokuncipha kwabo carbon lokungcolisa. Akudingekile ukuba ukhokhe xaxa ukuze imikhiqizo ukuba kahle ukushintsha umsebenzi wethu izimo. Uma franchises ezinkulu abangu bahlukane collaboratives non-hierarchal ke abasebenzi babezothola amaholo ohloniphekile ngokwenza imikhiqizo efanayo futhi akekho kwakuhilela babe ngendlela emangalisayo ecebile kusukela zabasebenzi kwabanye.

Imithetho kufanele wadlula lowo mkhawulo bese ichaze inombolo, ububanzi kanye nezindawo of izikhangiso zomthetho. Takeovers abanobutha futhi njalo nokungenzeka sihlangane zenkampani kumele criminalized ukuvimbela izinkampane ekubeni enamandla kakhulu. Imithetho eqinile kufanele wadlulela lokwenqabela izinkampani kusuka amanga mayelana nemikhiqizo yazo. Amanga mayelana nemikhiqizo has ngalutho nenkulumo free, abanye izinkampane kubulale. Liphinde kufanele kube lula ngabanye kwansuku zonke zibophe izinkampani for umonakalo obangelwa izikhangiso edukisayo. Ngikholelwa izinkampani akufanele bavunyelwe ukuba axazulule uma wamangalela for amanga noma kubabulali ukulimala noma, ngoba ivumela ukuba ungalokothi sivume obala yimuphi ebubini noma athathe igunya ngezenzo zabo.

The falsification izindaba kufanele bavinjelwe. Izindaba izinkampani kanye Izindaba Ubuntu kudingeka azithathayo uma amanga. Siyobe sizuze ukube wezindaba zabezindaba babenenkululeko imithombo emihle kakhudlwana futhi onokulinganisela ukwaziswa akuzange nje ugijime Tindzaba phatha abantu ngokuyenga ukwesaba noma inzondo. Izindaba basengaba olunembile ngaphandle kokuba ezilusizi, esesabekayo nobe ngendlela embi okungafanelekile.

Kukhona kufanele tibe ukuxhashazwa yezindaba efinyelela futhi zindaba on osaziwayo kanye tindzaba okuningi mayelana yezinkinga ezinkulu izwe libhekene. Fox News nezinye iziteshi ezintsha olubandlululayo ukuthi amanga nsuku umphakathi futhi ngasebenzisa bethonywe izithakazelo bezinkampani ezinkulu kanye nohulumeni kudingeka ozoba bayolandisa ngethonya labo kubantu, kanye abakhangisi babo nolukhohlisayo.

Izinkampani Broadcasting giant esilethela nje imininingwane bafuna ukuba sibone kufanele behlukana bese ahlale esikhundleni ezincane ukunciphisa inkohlakalo kwandiswe nokunemba kanye umnqopho ezindabeni. Ithelevishini komphakathi kanye nomsakazo kufanele ukwandisa kusukela ubizwa eliqhutshwa abathengi zayo hhayi bezinkampani ezinkulu. Nokho, abanye izikhungo ukuba ngobuqili bazibiza “umphakathi” (efana NPR) akuzona. Azitholayo imali izilaleli ngabanye kanye nohulumeni, kodwa futhi namanje ukusekela futhi zikhangisa izinkampane ezinkulu. Bathi nje ukwenze esingaphansi njalo kuka izinkampani ezizimele ngokucophelela. (NPR uye ikhangiswe for Walmart.) Ngakho-ke, kufanele sibe baqaphele abasakazi ngobuqili okuthiwa.

Abasebenzi akumelwe selashwe bezinhlangano noma omunye amathuluzi njengoba nje zokukhiqiza, kanye Outsourcing inzuzo kumele criminalized ngezizathu ezisobala. Izinkampane ezinkulu kufanele outsource kuphela ngcono umnotho emazweni angaphandle. Wonke amazwe zidinga imithetho ubuncane zamaholo, ikakhulukazi ampofu kakhulu futhi bexhashazwa izinkampane ocebile kodwa ukufuna labour ezishibhile. (Le mithetho babengase iphoqelelwe IGOs wemfanelo noma ama-NGO.)

Ngikholelwa izinkampani akufanele futhi bavunyelwe ukuba patent yimuphi Sezinto Eziphilayo noma isicelo nobunikazi phezu yini enye yemvelo efana umoya, namanzi, space. Izinkampane ezinkulu kudingeka kudingeke ukuba kuphele ukusetshenziswa bonke zokubasa ezimbiwa phansi futhi usebenzise ehlukile kuphela, zihlanzekile imithombo energy. Yimuphi inkampani kulimaza imvelo kufanele kanzima wahlawuliswa. Amabhange Community kanye namabhange ukuthi kufanele bamele umphakathi zingase futhi indawo yabo enkulu, amabhange ukuxhashazwa zamanje.

I-Dodd Frank Wall Street and Protection Act Consumer Obama esayinwe ngo 2010 emthethweni akuqhubeki ecishe ekude ngokwanele futhi kungazange ngokuphawulekayo ashintsha uhlelo lwethu kwezomnotho. Inhloso lalo washo kuhambisana umphakathi futhi has ezinye malungiselelo ezibalulekile, kodwa namanje beyisebenzela omningi izinhlangano. Lo Mthethosivivinywa naye co-eyabhalwa Chris Dodd, lobbyist owayekade for the MPAA ngubani yagunyaza Ukuhlengwa of $ 170 billion imali yentela ngoba kokuhluleka AIG giant. $ 165 billion kwakusakazwa njengoba amabhonasi. Yimuphi umthetho ezinde ibhalwe unapologetic crony isicebi onjengaye (ngubani ngeze ngokwanele sibala umthethosivivinywa emva ngokwakhe) kufanele sibuyekezwe ngokucophelela.

Loan izinkontileka akufanele kube eside ngokweqile noma eligcwele ijagoni zomthetho, ukuze abantu kwansuku zonke baqonda nabo. A loan kuyinto isivumelwano elula, futhi uma kukhona okukhulu walokubhaliwe emihle, kukhona cishe ezinye afihliweyo, amalungiselelo exploitive. Kufanele kube emthethweni for amabhange ukuba bahlanganyele kunoma yiluphi izilwane imikhuba abolekise kanye loans ezohwebo for inzuzo xaxa. Amabhange kufanele edingekayo ukuze cap nesithakazelo sabo rates on ezikweletini, futhi asazi ngisho ukusebenzisa credit cards nangabe sikhetha hhayi. Baye bayizigqila abaningi ezikweletini futhi zisetshenziselwa ukulandelela imikhuba zokuthenga. Usebenzisa ukheshe noma ngemali oda kukhona ezinye izindlela ezimbili ezinhle. Kubalulekile kakhulu ukuthi sizama ukuchitha zingakapheli izindlela zethu futhi abathathi loans siyazi angeke, ngoba abakwazi ekugcineni ukushayela us wacwila ezikweletini.

Ohulumeni Rich nazo kudingeka ayeke kwemali evela kwamanye amazwe kanye nezikweletu lesizwe le America kufanele ikhokhwe ngokushesha ngangokunokwenzeka. The Federal Reserve System kufanele uqediwe. Imali angeke lathathwa bebhange ezizimele ngubani ngokoqobo uzitholele imali futhi ichaze amaholo abo siqu. Akukona ukwenza mqondo. Kuyacaca futhi kubalulekile ukuthi bonke amandla eyodwa ukuba usibuse babe unqamukile ngoba lokhu kuyinto indlela azitholayo okuningi kwamandla abo.

7.3 Yini Ukukwenza

Asinakukwazi ukwesatshiswa noma waphoqa yilezi zakhiwo ngamandla. Singasho ukususa thina ezimisweni elimazayo zezimali kanye nezombusazwe ukuba abaningi bethu athembele, futhi esikhundleni salokho ujoyine noma udale izinhlangano zomphakathi ukuthi ukuhlinzeka zonke izinsiza efanayo kanye namasevisi ohulumeni omele kanye izinkampane ezinkulu ahlinzeke. Asidingi kubo, futhi uma senza ahlele bengakwazi ukulawula us ngombana nathi izikhathi okusetshenziswe ababusi zethu.

Ukungabaza ukubaluleka igunya yonke semmango, becabanga ngelihlo, futhi beza iziphetho zethu siqu kubaluleke njalo. Abantu abafuna ngifane banayo ngezinye izikhathi imibono ephikisayo ukusebenzela ohlangothini olufanayo bengazi umphakathi. Ke, kufanele sizame ukuba sicabangele yonke amaphuzu umbono, funani imithombo engachemile kakhulu ulwazi kanye benze lokho esicabanga kungcono, hhayi ukumane yinoma yimuphi umuntu noma inhlangano usitshela ukuba sikholelwe (kuhlanganise nami) ngaphandle kokuba kuqala unolwazi. Akukho muntu oyedwa zonke izimpendulo, futhi kokuba allegiant ukuba imibono esikhundleni umholi eyodwa, party noma inhlangano kunengqondo okungaphezulu ngoba abantu, amaqembu kanye nabaholi babo ziyashintsha. Beza nihambe futhi ziyafa kanti i Imibono efana ukuphikiswa nesigwebo sokufa kuyinto esobala, umqondo unomphela. Izimpikiswano kanye nabantu zithinta zibalulekile kakhulu, hhayi abaholi bethu.

Uma singazinaki izikhangiso ezivela izinkampani ngobukhulu bese bayeke wabasekela, bayohlala bagcina go isidle. Singagwema usebenzela la zinhlangano baze babe cooperatives eziyizisebenzi. Kunalokho, singakha adale, emsebenzini futhi basekele amabhizinisi amancane ukuthi babelana amagugu ethu futhi ahlinzeke izinsizakalo ngekwenhlalo ewusizo kanye nemikhiqizo. Abathengisayo nabathengayo zabasebenzi akuholeli ubudlelwano ejabulisayo. Nokho Ukuhweba umshikashika wethu nasekwaziseni nabanye abantu njengabantu abahlukene kunazo zonke ingabe iholela ubudlelwano ekufezeni,. Ukuphishekela msebenzi sijabulela kungenzeka kungabi lula njengoba njengoba esebenza imisebenzi ekhona kakhulu, kodwa ekugcineni kangaka ngcono kithi. Life okwamanje esifushane, futhi ngeke sikwazi ngogwayi ukwenza umsebenzi esibhekene ngokhuluma.

Labo kithi abathi bayasonta nakho kufanele sicabangele lokho izinkolo (ikakhulukazi abaholi babo) ngeke basisize esikhathini eside-term. Kufanele sincike thina nezinye esikhundleni Gods, afisa nemithandazo. Kufanele nokholo lwethu nomunye, esikhundleni uNkulunkulu ngoba singakwazi sonke ngokoqobo ukuzwa, bheka, uzizwe futhi uxhumane nabantu bangempela. Bangempela ngokuvamile eziqinile kanye eside kangaka njengoba bashukunyiswa futhi benakekela. Kufanele Yiqiniso, hhayi babandlulule ubani ngenxa yezinkolelo zabo ezingokwenkolo nje ungawoni nobe balulaze abanye abantu. Kodwa ngikholelwa kufanele senze izinqumo ezinengqondo ngezinkolelo zethu ezingokomoya.

Sinenkululeko ukukholelwa lutho esifuna. Kodwa akukhona ezinengqondo ukuzivocavoca le nkululeko by ngenkani sinamathela ezinkolelweni ezithile futhi ungalokothi sicabanga ezinye izindlela. Kusekuningi bakufunde, kodwa singakwazi amukele lokho asazi okwamanje bazi futhi sifunde konke isayensi njengamanje engasitshela. Singasho sonke athole induduzo isayensi, ngoba izimpendulo zivela kukhona futhi okuthakazelisayo ukuthi ingene sokuphila kwethu. Sasikwazi ukubona ushintsho omkhulu ekhulwini lama-21. Isayensi cishe ukunweba ubude ezimpilweni zethu kakhulu futhi ingenza ngisho ukungafi kungenzeka. Isayensi kuthuthukisa ukuqonda kwethu emhlabeni nsuku zonke, futhi ingasinikeza kangaka ngaphezu imibhalo zenkolo ongashintshi.

Kubantu benkolo abathi azitholayo lukhulu ngomthandazo, I sasikisela ukusebenzisa ezinye izindlela a omuhle ezimbalwa ukuthi ukunikeza izinzuzo ezifanayo, kodwa lokho musa adale ukulindela ukuthi ikusasa zizoshintsha ngenxa yokungenela kwaphezulu. Ngokwesibonelo, ukuzindla, yoga, zikhathi of uthule, introspection, travel, sigcina space, okade ne Earth, ngokufunda wesayensi Earth, futhi sivumele ngokwakho ukuzwakalisa inkhulumomphendvulwano kwangaphakathi noma ngaphandle nabanye abantu bonke athwale izinzuzo wokuthi umthandazo akwenzayo. Kodwa lezi zinzuzo babe lutho noNkulunkulu. Kokuthandaza nje ukunika abantu isikhathi sokuzindla, bhekani ngaphakathi, futhi wenze izinqumo benolwazi ekuphileni kwabo.

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela imicabango yethu azizona okunenjongo nobe ephawulekayo njalo. Thoughts kungaba yize, kusize ngalutho, futhi okungahleliwe. Zizodwa ukuzindla mlingiswa. Kuyinto esiziphatha ngayo enqumayo mlingiswa yethu. Abakholwayo UNkulunkulu angakwazi ukuzwa imicabango wethu Paranoid kakhulu futhi isibonelo yokucabanga imilingo. Kodwa asikho isidingo sokuba njalo ukhathazeke babephilela ukujabulisa uNkulunkulu. Uma ukhona Nkulunkulu futhi yena, yena, noma has umuzwa asethuthukile zokuziphatha, umsebenzi wakho ukusiza isintu ngeke nendaba ezingaphezu kuNkulunkulu kunokuba okunye.

Lena kancane inothi side, kodwa mina uhlushwa imicabango awayiphazamisi kakhulu ngokuvamile ngokuthi ngizama ukulawula kodwa ngiyazi la imizamo alunamsebenzi. Nokho, ngiyaqonda ukuthi kungani abanye abantu bazame ukulawula imicabango yabo kanye uhlobo ngobuhlungu ukuthi abanye bantu benkolo zidlule lapho beba bakhathazekile imicabango “esinesono”. Lapho ngisemncane futhi namanje yenkolo, Ngangikhathazeke UNkulunkulu yeswa imicabango yami. Kodwa kamuva nje kwaba I akwazi ukuthi okungenamsoco le ukukhathazeka kwaba. Sonke siqu kwethu iziwombe ‘imicabango emibi,’ kodwa indida wukuthi yilapho ukucindezeleka mayelana imicabango emibi ethize, cishe abanye bayothambekela nakakhulu ekuthululeni babe naye nemicabango “zimbi”. Kangaka of energy yethu obuyichitha izimpi engokwengqondo engapheli lapho sasingakwazi ukusebenzisa amandla ethu kangaka ngokuyimpumelelo emizamweni ingabonakali nge ulinganiseke, value bomhlaba wangempela kwezenhlalo, futhi uma singenza lokhu, singakwazi adale nokuthula kwengqondo thina nabanye .

Uma uhlala kunalokho ngokunethezeka futhi uke waba nokuphila kuqhathaniswa nobuhlungu-free, ngangiphuza kukukhuthaze ukuba ucabangele abantu abaye babhekana nayo nobuhlungu okuningi ekuphileni kwabo. Uma unikeza lokho ongakwenza ukuze nabo, bangakwazi ngokwawo amandla. (Kukhona uhla ezuzisayo zosizo ungakwazi banikele kuze ekupheleni kwalesi ncwadi. Umsebenzi wokuzithandela ubuye option olukhulu.) Singasho asize ngokwandisa ukuqwashisa ukungalingani okuhambisana nezenhlalo kanye netindlela kanye ngabanye obhekene nabo.

Labo kithi abanamalungelo nebhizinisi noma izindlela ukwakha eyodwa (nobe eziningana) nakho bangasiza kakhulu ngokusebenzisa labaphuyile zezwe futhi egijima amabhizinisi ethu njengoba angabacwasi ngangokunokwenzeka. Singasiza ukushintsha uhlelo kwezomnotho emazweni ampofu futhi ahlinzeke imiholo ukujabulisa kubantu abampofu abadinga umsebenzi kanye nokudla nje ngokushintsha kuphi senza ibhizinisi.

Ezimweni eziningi futhi ukuba aqaphele ekuziphatheni kwethu jikelele nendlela imithelela abantu. Ngokwesibonelo, uma ubhekana umuntu abangenamakhaya emgwaqweni kunokuba ezidlulayo uyisize, ungase futhi ukumazi umuntu. Abantu Homeless pheze njalo izindaba ezithakazelisayo, futhi uma une iseluleko noma isiqondiso ngokusekelwe kulokho bahlanganyela, ungase wabelane lokhu futhi mhlawumbe ukushintsha ukuphila kwalowo muntu. Uzwela ezingalindelekile ngokuvamile iya elide. Ukusiza ukuze sivuselele nabantu ngaphandle emakhaya libaluleke okungaphezu kokumane enikeza akanandaba nabo ephaketheni ushintsho noma ukuziba ngokuphelele. Kungaba usizo kakhulu ukunikeza abantu ngabanye abangenamakhaya nge lutho elenza bazizwe okuhilelekile emphakathini futhi kwandisa amathuba abo okuthola umsebenzi, ezifana izingubo zihlanzekile, imikhiqizo yenhlanzeko, omakhalekhukhwini, amathiphu job kanye ukudla okuphekwe ekhaya.

Abantu imisebenzi ehlukene kanye nekhono lishona futhi babe namathuba ahlukene ukusekela amalungelo esintu ayisisekelo. Ngokwesibonelo, uma udokotela, ungase ucabangele ukuvolontiya Doctors Without Borders noma inhlangano efanayo esinikeza ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha free kubantu abasengozini kakhulu eMhlabeni. Ungase wenze imali eningi encane kakhulu ukwenza lokhu, kodwa wena ngeke cishe nomthelela nokusindisa izimpilo eziningi ngaphezu ungase eMelika noma kwelinye izwe ecebile. Njengoba Ngiye kuxoxwa, amazwe iningi abampofu babe ubhubhane zezempilo nokuqeqeshwa olunzulu akudingekile ukuba enze nomthelela. Uma unesi noma ezinye izisebenzi zezokwelapha, kukhona izifunda eziningi ingazuza usizo lwakho. Uma une izindlela, ungase futhi ukuvula i emtholampilo HIV / AIDS e-izingxenye zomhlaba (efana Africa) abahlushwa kakhulu kulezi zifo. Ungaya ukufundisa abantu indlela yokuvimbela umalaleveva, izifo sohudo nezinye izifo ezivamile, sesithathu emhlabeni, kanye abaziphatha ngayo. Ukuqeqeshwa kanye bendawo eziqasha nakho kusiza abanike umthombo engenayo futhi ungadala umkhuba olukwazi ukwelapha abantu abengeziwe.

Uma wena unjiniyela, ezinye izindlela ezinkulu ukusebenzisa amakhono akho ukuze wandise umthelela wakho kutenhlalo ukwakha imithombo, izitshalo ukwelashwa amanzi, amapayipi izinhlelo, amanzi abathelisi namanzi izihlungi kuphi emhlabeni ukuba angacabangi amanzi ahlanzekile. Onjiniyela zibalulekile kakhulu, njengoba kungaba nemiphumela emikhulu on enhlalakahleni okuhambisana nezenhlalo. Baphinde badlala indima ebalulekile ekwakheni energy nekghono. Ngikholwa yocwaningo ukuthi kufanele yenziwe nekghono ezitokisini elanga (ikakhulukazi lezo asidingi ukushisa high nobe silicone ukukhiqiza), umoya energy, amangqamuzana fuel emifula turbines sea ezisebenzisa amandla avela amagagasi, futhi yisiphi ezikwaziyo ukubophela energy yemvelo ukuthi ayisetshenziselwa okwamanje. Lezi imithombo evuselelekako of energy kungaba ushibhile kakhulu kunanoma uphethiloli futhi kungaba ngokuphelele undamaging emvelweni. Bangabuye ukuhlinzeka energy kuya ezingxenyeni abampofu kakhulu emhlabeni. Kungaba kungenzeka ukuba kuzuzwe amagesi inetha-zero kuzo zonke izindlela zokukhiqiza ukuba onjiniyela imvelo nobungcweti babengaba ahlele ukuqalisa imibono yabo ngaphandle kwezithiyo leyakhiwe izikhungo ezinkulu asebenzisa laba ngabanye ngenxa yenzuzo yabo.

Uma umlimi, noma nawe nokudla wholesale, omunye option omkhulu ukuthuthukisa umthelela wakho nabantu ngokuthengisa imikhiqizo ngqo abathengi kanye enikeza nokudla away kulabo abangakwazi ukulikhokhela. Yokuqasha abangenamakhono, abasebenzi abampofu ubuye option ethuthukayo. Abasebenzi abangenamakhono kungasiza kakhulu ngoba imisebenzi eminingi kwezolimo kakhulu elula. Bangakwazi ukuthatha utshalomali eside, kodwa futhi ungajabulisa kakhulu. Amapulazi eziningana zingase futhi bahlanganisa imithombo yabo ukudala zokudla izimakethe run by abalimi. Lokhu kungaba ukukhiqiza kakhudlwana inzuzo zabalimi umkhiqizo kungaba ushibhile futhi nempilo ukwedlula umkhiqizo atholakalayo esitolo ngamaketanga ezinkulu. Ngini umlimi-run izitolo zokuthenga ukudla, ipulazi zezitsha kanye CSAs kwakuyoba ukuhlehlela amaketanga ezinkulu ukudla zimane nje abakhonza njengamaphayona yenzuzo-enophephela abaxhumanisi phakathi abalimi kanye ngabathengi. Ukusekela la ezinye izindlela kwakuyobasiza ngenkani bonke amaketanga ukudla bagweme ukusika emagumbini futhi uthenga kusetshenzwe, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi kunalokho ngcono amazinga abo siqu. Very abalimi nobungcweti zingase futhi ngokuzithandela lapho kukhona isomiso ezinkulu nezinye izinkinga zemvelo futhi afundise abantu bendawo mayelana amasu ahlukene zokulima kanye nezitshalo ezidinga kancane kwamanzi (efana namazambane), kanye nginikele kubo.

Ngomphefumulo emhlabeni wezempilo kubaluleke kakhulu ukusekela amalungelo zonke izinhlobo zokuphila, ngakho ezemvelo sezulu, izazi zokuma komhlaba, kwezenkolo, futhi amalungelo yezilwane izishoshovu nazo zifeza indima ebalulekile. Ngikholelwa isihluthulelo ngomphefumulo emhlabeni yezempilo kungenzeka ukuvumela kwemvelo busebenze ngisho esheshisa it up ngokunikeza izimo ezifanele. Singakwenza lokhu ngokwenza asisekela nasekusindiseni sezinto eziphila ezinkulu, amahlathi emvula, [18] emahlathini, ezindaweni ezilamatshe uhlaza, nezilwane kanye nezitshalo engozini yokuqothulwa.

Ukulima ezweni ngaphandle kokulimaza it nobe kuncishiswe eziphilayo nakho kubalulekile kakhulu. Amahlathi Food kwakusho ukuba alondoloze imiphakathi emincane kungasiza ukuhlangabezana nalezi imikhawulo, kanye emapulazini nomphakathi nge ezihlukahlukene zezitshalo nezilwane. UMhlaba kumele eziphila ezihlukahlukene ngoba lokhu kwandisa kwemvelo of bonke eziphilayo. Izilwane nezitshalo ziphenduke nge abaningi ubudlelwane nama ngangokunokwenzeka. Kodwa zanamuhla mass yokulima ikhiqiza imigqa engapheli izitshalo ngqo ofanayo (monoculture) kanye embonini amapulazi ukuthi mass ukhiqize izilwane ziye kwadingeka imiphumela elimazayo kakhulu imvelo. Zakha okukhulu imfucuza ukuthi ayibuye isetshenziswe futhi zidinga imishini isisi sikagesi like ugandaganda. Zokulima akudingeki bungakhiphi isiphi amagesi. Kuyinto elula kakhulu ukulima ngaphandle kule imishini, kodwa luvame walungisiswa uzibeka ngokwalokho ‘umvuno ephakeme. “It is konke eliqhutshwa nzuzo. Abaninimhlaba Huge abafuni ukukhokha abasebenzi basebenze amasimu ngesandla, kanjalo imisebenzi yabo ngokuyisisekelo ukuya lingcolisa, imishini emikhulu zokulima. Kuyinto ongenangqondo. Monoculture akusho ukwandisa isilinganiso kwemvelo izilimo ngezinga elifanayo njengoba nature enza ngokuzenzekelayo. Ezizalela ngezandla nge phenotypes wayefisa endaweni eziphila ezihlukahlukene kanye umehluko eminingi ngokuvamile iningi ephumelelayo. Monoculture nakho kwandisa izinga kwemvelo izinambuzane ngoba ngokuyisisekelo kwakha emhlabathini yokudla amaqembu letitsite kakhulu izinambuzane. Izinambuzane ukuzivumelanisa zinambuzane kusetshenziswe, futhi lezi amakhemikhali kungase futhi zilimaze izitshalo futhi zonke izinhlobo zokuphila. Ukuze kuxazululwe le daba zwe nobunikazi kumele abiwe ngokungakhethi futhi yeningi noma emphakathini kwabelwane. An ukunwetshwa ezolimo namahlathi, ukufuya nokulima izifundo at emakolishi kungasiza kakhulu.

Ukwenza desert umhlabathi olimekayo nokuvimba ugwadule kuqakathekile for Earth zezempilo lonke. Ukuze wenze lokhu kwawo amanzi enhlabathini kumele lenyuke. Lokhu kungenziwa sibasize ezweni angenalutho futhi ovula khona. Sand ezicijile, yokukhosela amabhande, woodlots kanye windbreaks ingasetshenziswa ukuvimbela ephephukela phansi kwenhlabathi ukuhwamuka okusheshayo amanzi. Izitshalo Leguminous okuyinto ugibe nitrogen kungase futhi ukwandisa lokucuketfwe nitrogen emhlabathini.

Ngomphefumulo emhlabeni zezempilo kungaba njalo nje ufinyelelwe ngokunciphisa carbon yethu lokungcolisa kanye, futhi kukhona izindlela eziningi esingakwenza ngazo lokhu bese ugcine imali le nqubo. Usebenzisa lights fluorescent (ikakhulukazi abanhliziyo compact nobe CFLs) futhi LED (nokukhanya likhipha diode) izibani, esikhundleni incandescent ama kuyindlela elula futhi kulula asindise energy. Usebenzisa reflectors parabolic ubuye kuyindlela enhle ukwenza okuningi ama zakho. Ungakwazi futhi ufake panel akho solar, ukwakha noma athenge ophephela komoya, ngeza ukwahlukanisa ehlalankosi kwakho, kwenze kube moya ngokubeka uphawu bonke imifantu, sebenzisa energy geothermic noma wenze zonke lezi ukudala ekhaya inetha-zero. Lwati ezinhle nemiphumela bokwakha, nohlaka imbobo, namafasitela on Ukuhamba kanye lokushisa ushintsho kungasiza kahle. Ukuhamba, (noma ukugijima), asebentisa zokuhamba zomphakathi noma amabhayisikili, esikhundleni izimoto powered by amandla omlilo kwangaphakathi nakho kungasiza imvelo bese imali. Kabusha nobe reusing yonke zepulasitiki, emaphepha, izinsimbi, ingilazi, namalahle akhiwe Kuyadingeka kakhulu nempilo Earth.

Uma usosayensi wezokwelapha noma isazi sezinto eziphilayo, ngingathanda ukukhuthaza ukuba usebenzise izinsiza zakho kanye nolwazi ukuthola amakhambi ngoba izifo okubi kakhulu efana umdlavuza nengculazi, futhi uma nenza ukuthola ikhambi, sicela musa ulawula kuso. Kunalokho, ukunikeza ikhambi emazweni ampofu for free futhi adayise it ngemali low for ngabanye acebile. Jonas Salk, umsunguli we-umuthi wokugoma uvendle, wakwenza nje le. Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi kwakukhona patent for umgomo, wathi: “Akukho-patent. Kungenzeka yini nawe patent ilanga? “(Uma izinkampani ukukwenza ngaphambili, cishe bazame. [19])

Uma uMklami computer noma umkhiqizi, cabangela usebenzisa lwati lwakho ngoba uzama emihle kakhulu. Ubuchwepheshe Computer iye yasetshenziswa ukulandelela abantu futhi adale uquqaba of izikhangiso ukuze kuzuze abambalwa abacebile, futhi ube khona ngenxa eziyigugu okuyinto ikakhulu ivela yezimayini ngaphansi kwezimo ukuxhashazwa kakhulu. Nokho, singakwazi ukusekela abakhiqizi wemfanelo ukuba ungasebenzisi insimbi okunjalo futhi ukuthuthukisa computer asebenzisa ezingaphansi kubo, kanye akugwema usebenzela yimuphi abangaphili ngezimiso ukubhekwa agency.

Has isayensi Computer ikhono ukuze isetshenziselwe okuhle okukhulu. It Ungaxhuma abantu. Kungaba basakaze ukwaziswa okubalulekile. It angasetshenziswa ukudala izitho yokufakelwa ezisebenzisa ubuchopho kuya umsebenzi, futhi angasetshenziswa ukudala amarobhothi ukuba benze imisebenzi ukuthi akekho ofuna ukukwenza. Kukhona ucwaningo nanobots okungatholakala zifakwa emzimbeni ukuze avimbele izifo. (Le Ubuchwepheshe unakho ukuba Nokho kabi, futhi ingasetshenziswa ukuze alawule abantu. Lokhu kufanele kubhekwe yinoma ubani ngokuphumelelayo kwenza technology okunjalo.) Uma i program ngaphezulu sagxila ulwela ukwenza konke lokhu, imiphumela laliyozwiwa emhlabeni wonke.

Kungakhathaliseki isimo sakho omsebenzi noma isihloko somsebenzi kungenzeka, sonke singaba ngandlela thile. Ukuya kwamanye amazwe futhi umane okade nabantu nokuhlanganyela nolwazi lwakho kanye nesipiliyoni bangaba izinzuzo ezingenakulinganiswa. Ukunikeza isandla uzimisele noma olalelayo kubantu ongabazi futhi kukusiza ukwakha ukwethembana phakathi esintwini.

Uma njengamanje ongemuhle nomthelela esintwini, ngingathanda kakhulu ibonisa uzihlele kabusha indlela abantu enziwa. Zibuze kanjani kumiswa umcabango wakho of identity kwetinhlavu kanye ifanelwe. Uma it yayithonywe kakhulu inani yezinzuzo uphiwe futhi “izifundo” wena ziye zafundiswa ngabanye eyayivela ke kungase kube isikhathi ngicabangisise imiqondo le. Ngisho ngabe usuvele uke balinyazwe noma ngisho yabulala abantu abaningi, it futhi akukhona sekwephuzile ukushintsha. Thina Ungashintsha ngokwethu. Uma senza kanjalo, siyobe sonke siphile izimpilo ojabulisayo yalokho.

Uma ucabangela ngokuba yingxenye yenkinga, zibuze bangaki abantu abangase ezinkulu ibhizinisi noma ukumaketha aphile ngokwabo empeleni bajabule. Impendulo ezimbalwa kuya none. Ngaphandle kwalapho Umgomo wakho oyinhloko ukusiza abantu abampofu ngokuthola zibe ebhizinisini elikhulu, kungani inkathazo? Marketing akudingeki ukuba ube ibhizinisi kutenhlalakahle negative. Uma wena ekukhangiseni noma marketing ungase ucabangele ukumaketha imikhiqizo ewusizo kunazo kutenhlalakahle, hhayi abanenhliziyo enenzuzo kakhulu kuphela. Kunokuba usebenzise amandla akho lokukholisa ukukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa, ungase futhi usebenzise lelo khono ukukhuthaza abantu ukuba anike kulabo abayidingayo kunazo. Kwamanje imisebenzi kunawo nokumaketha ukwandisa kuphela ingcebo inamba encane kakhulu yabantu, kodwa lokho akudingeki kube njalo.

Uma isikhulu komthetho, ngingathanda basikisele ukugxila ekuvimbeleni ubugebengu futhi njalo usebenzisa amandla njengoba i ezingezinhle, inketho odlule. Ngingathanda futhi basikisela ukugwema abopha yezidakamizwa nezinye nabantu abahluphekayo, ngisho noma umthetho ekutshela ukuba wenze okuhlukile. Phonsa amaphoyisa kanye isigaba sabaphathi wezempi ngefasitela. Kunalokho, ungakwazi ulethe scruples akho ukuba lo msebenzi futhi anikeze olwisana nabantu izeluleko futhi mhlawumbe wenze umehluko wangempela. Ungakwazi kusimangaze abathile nje lindela ehlukunyezwa noma esilimaza. Besingeke noma badinga amaphoyisa ukube wonke umuntu kwadingeka thuba alinganayo, kanjalo ungaya ucabangele ukuyeka futhi yokufeza ukuhlinzeka ukuthi nokulingana nangezinye izindlela.

Uma wena ingxenye ibutho kahulumeni, cabangela indlela izenzo zakho zingase ukuzoqhubekisela imijikelezo zodlame, futhi zama ukusebenzela ukuthi ingxabano. Uma ngajoyina ibutho manje, zama ukudlulisa esikhundleni non-enobudlova uma ungakwazi. Uma usebenza emkhakheni ubuchwepheshe izikhali, mhlawumbe cabangela refocusing imizamo yakho noma ukuyeka. Izikhali kakade iyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu, ikakhulu labo enzelwa nomonakalo omkhulu efana amabhomu enuzi. Uma ugqozi wenu nezikhali, ngingathanda basikisele ngokwenza izikhali ezincane, izikhali okungezona ebulalayo, futhi gear ukuzivikela like bullet-ubufakazi amasudi, uwumnikazi wenkampani, izivikelo, izigqoko, kudingeke izibhamu, njalonjalo. (Nemigubuzelo ezenziwe polyurethane ukuthi angabavikela abesifazane ekuhlaselweni acid nakho kungaba usizo kakhulu ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba.) Noma yimuphi gear ukuzivikela kwakusho ukuba amandla labo behlukumezeka (ezincane ayebandlululwa abesifazane, abantu abakhubazekile, kanye nokunye) kungaba emihle kakhulu. Nezikhali iningi namuhla Nokho, nje unikeza amandla xaxa kuya onamandla kakade, ngakho kufanele sisebenze ekushintsheni lokhu.

Kungaba ngcono kakhulu ukugwema ukuthengisa izikhali kuya amasosha noma enkulu amabutho amaphoyisa, futhi kunalokho qhubeka nabo ukulawula ezivamile kuze amabutho ukuhlehlela futhi akudingeki izikhali nhlobo. Uma usosayensi enuzi, ungasebenzisa lwati lwakho ukudala fission yenuzi (noma Fusion) Izitshalo ephephile ukuthi anganikeza energy ezishibhile. (Amandla Nuclear Nokho, akuyona energy ekahle, ngenxa izindlela zamanje zokukhiqiza udale imfucuza enemisebe. Ukusebenza on izindlela enye kungenzeka onenzuzo.)

Ngingathanda futhi basikisela ubani ingxenye CIA noma kwenye ihlozi, inkolo-like “ukwazi” inhlangano ukuwuyeka futhi bazame adalule nenjongo yangempela yalezi zinhlangano. Lo msebenzi luqhuba uchuku okungaphezulu kunalokho sivimbele. Imiphakathi Secret zigcinwa kuyimfihlo ngoba bambalwa kuphela emhlabeni impela azuze kuwo. Abantu abaningi e-CIA agcinwa kusukela izimfihlo enkulu kunazo ngoba laba izimfihlo bazuze idlanzana labantu kuphela, futhi ubani waphathisa ukugcina yimuphi mfihlo kungabonakala njengendlela usongo ukulondeka nje kokuba lowo “ukwaziswa nelungelo.” Lesi esinye sezizathu la zinhlangano kungaba yingozi kangaka. Izikhulu ngokuvamile kufanele abe ngangabethemba ngokwedlulele futhi Paranoid ukuze izimfihlo wangcwatshwa, futhi okuphawulekayo yangaphakathi nangaphandle izingxabano imiphumela. Nikholwe une indawo unomphela enhlanganweni yakho, kodwa ngokushesha nje lapho ngitjho umuntu oyedwa enhlanganweni iyeke bakwethembe, ngokufanele noma ngokungafanele, ungase abulawe, nokufa yakho cishe bazokhavwa up, njengoba nje okubulala ezingenakubalwa operatives of ihlozi ziye ithukusiwe. Akukho nesithunzi in abafayo ndlela.

I CIA nezinye izinhlangano intelligence kudingeka sibone indlela lo nenkinga ukuphepha ngumqondo ngobuciko ukuthi asize ukudala bese ukuzoqhubekisela. It is a dichotomy bamanga. Ukusongela akudingeki khona uma sifuna ukuba ngabangane wonke umuntu bese ngcono inhlalakahle okuhambisana nezenhlalo yazo zonke izizwe. Kumelwe ayeke kokubona emhlabeni njengoba isitha sethu. The ubandlululo, ukuhaha, ukungathembani nokungaqondi kulezi zinhlangano ngasese adale nje imingcele ezihlukanisa abantu futhi ngokuvamile kuholela ingxabano.

INkantolo Ephakeme Kufanele futhi ngilunge kakhulu. Sinenkosi namandla kakhulu kangangokuthi, futhi nje benze izinqumo lesichubekako emva isikhathi eside njengabanye amaqembu kahulumeni ngamandla kanzulu kakhulu. Njengoba abantu abaningi bazi, iNkantolo Ephakeme kuphela sakhiwe eziyisishiyagalolunye ngabanye eU.S. ngubani uthole anothi lokugcina on yikuphi lomthethosisekelo. Biases nenkohlakalo akunakugwenywa nge Court encane kangaka, elingalodwa, futhi zinamandla. Kunalokho, iNkantolo Ephakeme babengase owakhiwa zonke izakhamuzi bakwazi ukuvota. Lokhu kungaba yenengi kunazo futhi kwakuyosho intuthuko ngokushesha. Kukhona futhi akukho isidingo namanje ukusebenzisa umthetho-sisekelo wethu. Wawuthi uma ubugqila kanye ukucindezelwa aboMdabu baseMelika kwakuyinsakavukela futhi waqhubeka mThethosisekelo ngokwaso. Kumele sitlolwe ukubonakalisa zanamuhla amagugu ethu suku.

Kungakhathaliseki wena isosha, a COP, isikhulu ihlozi noma serial killer, uma ukubulala noma ukulimaza abantu bayingxenye umsebenzi wakho, ngicele kuwe, okungenani kakhulu, hhayi ukubulala noma ingozi ngokungakhethi ngenxa “oda “noma imali. Kunalokho, cabanga kuqala ungubani wena ebuzwa ukulimaza noma ukubulala futhi kungani. Ucabange egxeka noma cha kuyinto elungile ngokusho umcabango wakho siqu zokuziphatha kanye namazinga jikelele zokuziphatha. Life akuyona eshibhile, kodwa ukwehlukana ephakeme e-hierarchies wamabutho, izinhlangano obugebengu, futhi ohulumeni ngokuvamile siphathe umusa njengokungathi kusho lutho. Bathi Yala underlings zabo ukwenza umsebenzi wabo ezingcolile kuyilapho zilokhu izandla zabo zihlanzekile futhi ngokuvamile uphephile phezulu, futhi kumele sizibuze noma cha lokhu kuhle ubani. Amasosha foot alandele la oda ngokuvamile ngoba bafuna linyukele ezinhlwini esiphezulu, kodwa bambalwa yenza lokho. Abaningi noma abulawa, athumba noma ezilimele irreparably ngaphambi kokuba njalo uthole khona. Bephathwa njengabantu ezingaqedwa. Kuphela amadoda amoral kunazo, uyakhohlisa, sinekhono, futhi ngasese abazimisele ukuba allegiant amadoda ambalwa in control njalo sifinyelele it phezulu nabo.

Abanye abantu elusizi impela bazizwe sengathi asinalutho ulahlekelwe ngoba abanye babo, eqinisweni, ungalilahli, (eceleni kwabo) kanye ocebile ngokunenzuzo le amashwa. Ngokuvamile Ocebile ziqasha abampofu ukuthatha izenzo ngokumelene izithakazelo zabo siqu kwezomnotho futhi ababhubhise Ukushikashikeka class yabo siqu. Ilungu gang in a ububha yaphahlazeka ghetto kungenziwa waqasha abanye thug zombusazwe noma ezinkampani ukujivaza noma ngisho ukubulala othile yokulwela nokulingana kwezomnotho uma amanani okulungile. Kodwa akukaze kuwufanele yisiphi isamba semali noma uthanda ukusiza abhebhezela lolu mjikelezo esidelelekile zobumpofu nobudlova by ukuthulisa abaphikisi bombuso.

Ngeshwa, uquqaba kubayekise ngokuvamile kuthiwa waqasha ukuthulisa ngokwawo, futhi abacebile iminwe phuzu at abanye abantu abampofu bangemva futhi zangaphakathi izingxabano imiphumela. Abantu uzama phala emini nosuku angabona ezinye njengezitha, esikhundleni abacebile, yingakho amalungu gang in ghettos okuningi kuwo wonke ngokudubula at nomunye, hhayi ngaso abantu empeleni adale kakhulu umcebo iphutha ngokwenza hoarding ngemali . Labo cha ngokudubula at ngalinye ngokuvamile okwagqugquzelwa ukuba abe abanobudlova amabutho ezinkampani futhi ekhohlakele nemigomo amabutho ezikhokhelwa ngu wezwe by “elite.” Okwamanje, iningi lethu ume phezu eceleni kwalezi izingxabano yayisetshenziswa ocebile, abantu abanamandla udonsa izintambo. Lolu hlobo ukungqubuzana akudingeki ukuba bube khona futhi akufanele. Uma, izimo ukujabulisa alinganayo kwadalwa ukuba bonke, ubudlova, nempi kanye nobugebengu kwakuyoba cishe zinyamalale. Ke, kuyilapho mina bayangabaza eziningi amalungu gang asebenzayo ozofunda le ncwadi, ngithemba bakwenza uthathe lesi seluleko, ngoba abanye basuke sesimweni sokusiza ngokwabo kanye nabanye. Bangasiza ayeke le udlame ongenangqondo futhi kuvuselele imiphakathi yabo.

Uma ilunga gang, esikhundleni ngokudayisa izidakamizwa eziluthayo futhi ilimaza abanye abantu abampofu abafuna out nje okuningi njengoba njengoba okwenzayo, ungase usebenzise amandla akho ukuhlela bese bekhalazela okukhulu ukungalingani okuhambisana nezenhlalo eyenza abantu abasha in ghettos ukujoyina amaqembu. Abanye amaqembu, kuya credit wabo, kakade lokhu. Ngokuvamile abantu isilinganiso bathathe imibhikisho by ezigebengu kakhulu namabutho yamalungu ezigelekeqe omasha ezitaladini cishe ukuphazanyiswa amaphoyisa, kuyilapho yobuzwe evamile yama-hippie nama nempi ngubani lokubhikisha ukuthula sibonakala njengabantu izisulu ezilula. (Amaphoyisa Cishe ngokufanele ngesaba ukungenelela nge gang umbhikisho enkulu futhi kufanele abanaso isizathu enze vele kangaka eside kangaka njengoba abazi aphule umthetho.)

Uma wena abakhuthele lezigilamkhuba, kubalulekile ukukhumbula ukuthi ngubani izitha zakho zangempela. Ababona amaqembu ezigelekeqe, ngisho noma beye babulawa noma abalimele Abantu abaningana close nawe. Cishe kuye kwadingeka sabo of causalities kakhulu, njengoba ezigebengu amaningi emhlabeni jikelele. Izitha zethu zangempela abantu ukuba abhebhezela lesi simiso kwezomnotho okungalungile kuzuze bona. Iningi amalungu gang oyimbangi bahlanganyele amaqembu ngezizathu ezifanayo futhi okuningi esifana kunabo musa abahlukanise. Ngakho-ke, kungaba ukulwa isitha ezivamile esikhundleni nomunye. Bangakwazi ukulwa big zamabhizinisi zenkampani ohulumeni kanye crony yethu komnotho isicebi ukuthi kuqhutshekiselwe ububha.

Uma wena ejele, ngingathanda batusa kakhulu ukuthi ukuhlela, ukulwela amalungelo akho ezivamile ngamazwi akho, wazi izitha zakho zangempela. Bayazi ukuthi nakuba zingase zikwazi ukuthatha away inkululeko yenu, azisoze okususa inkululeko yakho yokucabanga. A esihogweni kungenziwa iphendulwe izulu izulu esihogweni ezimweni ezithile. Konke kuncike ezingqondweni zethu kanye nendlela eya esisabela ngayo izimo zethu.

Ngesikhathi mina kakhulu singabaze yimuphi amaphekula ozofunda le ncwadi, ngingathanda basikisele kuwo kanye: Sicela ucabangele indlela izenzo zakho ezithinta wena kanye nalabo obakhathalelayo. Ngisho uma nje obakhathalelayo wena nabantu bakho kanye nabantu ofuna ukubulala noma ingozi zimbi ngempela, cabangela lokho kuyoba imiphumela uma uyenza. Ngisho ngabe ukholelwa uyothola kwelizayo, kuthiwani ngalabo kwesokunxele bephila? Kuthiwani uma umphakathi wakho yonke is yayiqothulwe ukuhlaselwa ukuziphindiselela? Lokhu kwenzeka ngaso sonke isikhathi, ngenxa uma babonise ukubacabangela for elingenacala, izimpilo nomaphi ke ohulumeni ngeke basabela ne misanthropy efanayo. Ubuphekula akusoze kwasilethela izinguquko eyakhayo.

Lapho le abaduni 9-11 yaphahlazeka angena World Trade Center nePentagon, babengavunyelwe nje lokubulala abaseMelika. Izenzo zabo wagcina owabangela ukufa kwabantu abaningi abangenacala kakhudlwana Muslim. Yiqiniso, ukusabela Bush sokuqondisa wezempi ukuze lesi senzakalo kwaba ngokungadingekile ngokwedlulele futhi ezibhubhisayo, kodwa kwaba njalo netitfombe kakhulu ngenxa conservatism Bush sika unokudlova kanye nokuntuleka nokukhathalela ukuphila komuntu. Le abaduni kwadingeka ukwazi lokhu, kodwa noma kunjalo bahlasela. Ukube Bin Laden wayengazange kuhlelwe nalabo ukuhlaselwa, cishe izimpi e Afghanistan and Iraq ngabe lalwa babulala amaningi kangaka. Iphuzu liwukuthi ngisho noma abanye amaphekula anezikhalo ezisemthethweni, ngokubulala abantu abangenacala basuke sina bekhinyabeza izimbangela zawo futhi nokwenza imiphakathi yabo more sengozini ukuhlaselwa ezingahleliwe.

Ekugcineni, ngizizwa I kumele kulungiswe labaphuyile zezwe eziye kwadingeka ubuhlungu kakhulu ezimpilweni zabo. Kuyilapho mina ngazi iningi lalaba bantu azinalo computer nobe bene-internet, ngizozama ukwenza le ncwadi njengoba zizathengeka imiphakathi empofu ngangokunokwenzeka. Ngithemba ukuthi njengoba abaningi ngabanye abampofu ozofunda le ncwadi ngangokunokwenzeka ngenxa nginakho ezilula, kodwa iseluleko esibalulekile ngabo. Lesi seluleko sisebenza bonke abantu, kodwa kubaluleke ngokukhethekile kubantu abangenaso izinsizakusebenza eziyisisekelo ezidingekayo ukuze basinde.

Njengoba Ngiye kuxoxwa, enye yezindlela eziphumelela kakhulu ukuthuthukisa inhlalakahle emphakathini wenu ngokwandisa enhlanganweni nokuzwana phakathi kuwo. Uma abantu emphakathini wakho lingama bayavumelana futhi eyashukumisela, maningi amathuba ukufezekisa izinhloso zabo. Kukhona Kuhlale izikhwepha in izinombolo futhi basinde kuyinto elula ngamaqembu amakhudlwana, ikakhulukazi lapho wonke umuntu usuke ecabangela izithakazelo umphakathi.

Akudingeki ukuthenga ukudla uma sonke sibe anele ondle ezilimweni. Wokutshala izihlahla, izitshalo notshani hhayi nje kwandisa carbon sayo sokushaqa, okuyinto kunciphisa carbon dioxide emkhathini bese ezenzé zaba carbon kwekhabhoni, kuphindze edonsela ezinye izinhlobo zokuphila efana grazing izinkomo. Ukunyakaza kwabo, imfucuza nemizimba ngokomzimba ngcono umhlabathi wenzalo, ukwehlukahluka kwezinto eziphilayo. Ukukhulisa imfuyo kungaba option omuhle, uma kungenjalo imifino, ukuba lula uzibuse. Uma wenza kanjalo ukukhulisa imfuyo qiniseka ukusebenzisa animal imfucuza njengoba umquba.

Land singenziwa umhlabathi ngokungeza pasteurized imfucuza yezilwane, izitshalo efile, igazi, amathambo sakusihlwa, greensand, humates, moss, uphawuda sakusihlwa, ngezizathu ikhofi, imifino imfucuza, nezinye izinto zemvelo ezingaba ukudiliza lingene plant umsoco emhlabathini. Lezi kufanele kube ixutshwe umhlabathi kakade lapho ukwenza kube umhlabathi noma kwesobunxele in inqwaba umquba ukubola wabe esenezela enhlabathini. Lutho organic futhi okubolayo kungenziwa kabusha ukuze umquba futhi isetshenziselwe sikhule ukudla. Ukwenza inqwaba umquba kulula futhi ezishibhile. Ash kusuka amaziko kanye imililo, Sawdust, izinkuni chips, futhi egcekeni imfucuza kungabuye kwenezelwa inqwaba umquba. Lezi yinqwaba adinga aeration ngezikhathi ezithile kuphela. Yinqwaba umquba kufanele ibe carbon kuya nitrogen isilinganiso ngu-30 kuya 1. Lokhu kuyadingeka ukuheha futhi asekele amagciwane abangela ukuba yokubola. Yinqwaba ukuthi eziphakeme kakhulu in carbon kuyoba ukubola kancane kanti nalabo nitrogen eningi kakhulu kungadala ammonia igesi.

brown noma ophuzi (ngokuvamile bok) plant kwakuyisimo eliphezulu in carbon, kanti green plant kwakuyisimo eliphezulu in nitrogen, kanjalo laba kufanele wanezela ku olinganise lesingiso okudala carbon ekahle nitrogen isilinganiso.

Land tilth kungabuye kukalwa izici eziningana efana nokuba khona kokuphila plant kanye ukhunta endaweni, umhlabathi egcina amanzi, kwabantu kanye nokuba khona ukungabikho kwamanzi. Uma une izindlela, imishini zingathengwa ukuhlola izakhi ngokuqondile futhi PH amazinga emhlabathini. Lezi nenhlabathi test for okuqukethwe kwabo acid futhi ngokuvamile izakhamzimba ezintathu ezibalulekile kakhulu: nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) kanye umanyolo (K). Uketshezi ukuthi kukhona azibukhali kakhulu bangambulala izitshalo futhi engaphephile ukuphuza. Ngokuvamile yisiphi kufanelekile amanzi ukudliwa abantu kufanelekile izitshalo. Izimila ziphuze gray amanzi, elivele ngokwengxenye baphathwe kwamanzi nendle. Lokhu kungasindisa deal esihle amanzi. Uma ukufinyelela izinsiza ezimbalwa nje esingokwemvelo, (umhlaba, ukukhanya kwelanga, amanzi, imbewu) ungalokothi kudingeka ukuthenga ukudla. Imbewu zingathengwa nobe kuvuna ezitshalweni abavuthiwe. Kungcono ukuba zibuthe kubo kusukela izitshalo umhlabeleli lizalele ukuba ukhiqize phenotypes ezifiselekayo.

Uma amanzi kumtfombolusito okulinganiselwe, imali ukuvuza irrigators kanye abaqoqi nemvula nakho kungaba ofaneleka kakhulu. Water zisindiswe, kodwa hhayi hoarded noma ngokusaphaza. Imisele Water kungabuye amba emifuleni ehlanzekile kanye nemicengezi endorheic (manzi kufanele desalinated ngaphambi kokuba kudliwe uma has a nosawoti wokuqukethwe high) ukukhonza izinhloso ezifanayo. Kubalulekile ukuthi amanzi nemisele ahlale ehlanzekile empilweni yomphakathi. Wells nemisele ngezinye izikhathi ngenhloso ingcoliswe amaqembu inzondo, kanjalo ukufihla nabo kungasiza ekuvimbeleni lokhu.

Kwamanzi olwandle akusho rehydrate umzimba, ngakho angeke iphuzwe engiye okukhulunywe, kodwa ingasetshenziswa desalinated. Nokho, lokhu akukhona khulu okusebenzayo kubantu ngaphandle ukufinyelela isilinganiso esihle capital. Abilayo amanzi a, indlela enhle eshibhile wokuhlanza amanzi eziphilayo contaminants ezithile. Uma ungenalo kagesi (noma isitofu for leso udaba) emanti kungabuye ukufuthelana ngomlilo zokukhipha igciwane it. Le zinezithiyo ezithile kukhona ukuthi amanzi abilayo kuyinto energy olunzulu futhi akusenzi izinsimbi ezisindayo noma amakhemikhali anobuthi uma asemanzini. Water kungabuye amakhemikhali baphathwe ukukhipha ubuthi eziyingozi. Ukukhanya ukuchayeka Ultraviolent obulala amagciwane athile kanye.

Uma ayikho kulezi tisombululo kukhona esisebenzayo (akukho imvula, akukho umhlabathi, akukho imisele), ungase uzame ukufinyelela zokudonsa ngokumba umthombo ngezandla zakho, a lokwela, noma lokwela esikhashana. Nokho, uma uhlala endaweni eliwugwadule kakhulu like Kenya, imithombo kumele amba nge imishini ebizayo ngoba etafuleni amanzi kanjalo ajulile. Hand bemba imithombo nazo zingaba yingozi ukwakha. Abantu baye bafa ngenkathi kwakhiwa yabo. Isixazululo engcono ukuqasha imishini imishini ukumba umthombo ukuthi kungaba ephephile equkethwe, kodwa lokho ikhambi eqolo. Ngokuba imiphakathi empofu kakhulu, kungaba nengqondo ukuze bahlanganisa dollar elilodwa nje umuntu noma emndenini ngamunye. Uma abantu noma imikhaya 500 kuya 600 angakwenza lokhu, bayoba nemali eyanele yokwakha umthombo engajulile.

Lapho kwendle kuyinkinga noma amanzi lingcolile ngenxa ukutheleleka kusuka imfucuza, kubalulekile ukuthola lapho imfucuza uyeza kusuka. Ukukhomba izindawo ezithile for waste ukuthi kukhona kude imithombo kwamanzi (futhi kungcwatshwa khona) kungasiza ekuvimbeleni ukusilaphazeka. Imfucuza ngeke aphambane phansi baser izakhamzimba ukuba angcwatshwe. Akukho sizathu noma ngubani kufanele balusebentise ubani ogulayo kukho.

7.4 Amazwi okugcina

Njengoba nje sinesikhathi intando kanye nolwazi ukwazi kanjani, singaphinda sikuthole ukulawula izimpilo zethu siqu kanye nezindaba futhi asekele wonke amalungelo esintu in sokuphila kwethu. Lapho senza lokhu, siba uyobe babe imithombo nobuchwepheshe ukuze ukuhlola umkhathi ukuphishekela okuningi ngokuqhubekayo futhi ekugcineni ziqale terraforming namaplanethi. (Lokhu inqubo yokwenza amaplanethi habitable abantu.) Lokhu kuyoba kokubili okuthakazelisayo futhi kudingekile kakhulu kusukela ukwanda ngokushesha eba inkinga. Labantu wavuka 1.65 billion kuya mayelana billion eziyisithupha phezu Ekhulwini lama-20, futhi inani labantu manje kuka ayisikhombisa billion njengoba of 2013. Kukhona kakade ngaphezu izinsiza ezanele wonke umuntu osemhlabeni nemithombo ngezigidi ezingaphezu, eqinisweni. Kodwa naphezu kwalokhu, izigidigidi zabantu ngaphandle kwabo. Growth kwemiphakathi etlhagako kwandisa abantu abengeziwe abaswele. Property futhi siba ezibizayo kakhudlwana ngoba kukhona mancane litholakala emphakathini.

Sasikwazi ukukhiqiza angabacwasi kalula nabantu esingaphansi. Sekuvele kukhona izigidi zezingane ezisezweni ngaphandle abazali, futhi imibhangqwana ngubani njengamanje ofuna izingane babekwazi ukunikeza kulezi abantwana ukunakekelwa by wawathola, esikhundleni sokuzenzela izingane zabo siqu. Ukutholakala emhlabeni wonke of zokuvimbela inzalo kanye lwezempilo zokuzala kungasiza ukuhlangabezana nalezi emikhawulweni.

Kuncishiswe izinga lokukhula labantu kungadingeka kakhulu kusukela phambi growing zomuntu libuye ebangela Holocene ukuqothulwa lomcimbi, ukuqothulwa esheshayo njalo zenzeka emlandweni Womhlaba. Izinhlobo Fifty ngosuku baba yokuqothulwa. Ngakho-ke, kudingeka sicabange eside-term imiphumela khona kwethu on konke okuphila Emhlabeni futhi sicabangele nje indlela abantu abaningi bangaphila ngokunethezeka Emhlabeni futhi kanjani. Ngaphandle kokuba sikwazi ukulawula iqhaza labantu, siyobe wagcina kudingeka enze ezinye amaplanethi habitable noma uhambo namaplanethi habitable kakade. Lezi amaplanethi bayoba imithombo free, futhi uma izinkampani kanye nohulumeni abavumelekile bathi ubunikazi kubo, mhlawumbe imiphakathi ngeke kudingeke khona imali futhi bakwazi laphenduka autonomously futhi ngentando yeningi. Ukuhlola indawo kungasiza ukuba siqonde kangcono injongo yethu lapha. Uma singase sithole enye ukuphila, kwakungase nethonya elikhulu umcabango wethu injongo yethu lapha kunanoma isiphi ukutholakala ezenziwe emlandweni wethu.

Abantu Everyday cishe ngeke zikwazi ukuya amaplanethi ezikude esikhathini esizayo esiseduze, kodwa. The abacebe cishe ukuthola ukushiya kuqala, ngakho kufanele senze okungcono zezwe lethu nokuqinisekisa it lingabulewe. Lokho esingakwenza singayikhohlwa ukuthi lokhu planethi yethu. Akukona ne kulokho ulawula nathi. It ubuye akwenzeki kuzuzwe ukuzilawula ngokuphelele ekuphileni kwethu siqu ngabanye. Abanye abantu kanye environments kuyohlale usithonye. Kodwa lokhu kungaba oqondile nje singakwazi ukukhetha namathonya zethu bese sizizombeleze ongisekelayo nabantu abanothando uma ukugwema futhi ukuguqula amabi sinquma asifuni ezimpilweni zethu. Uma siqashe izimiso engiye wakhuluma, lokhu kungenzeka kakhulu, ngakho kufanele sibe nethemba, kodwa baqaphe. Emhlabeni wonke okuhambisana nezenhlalo ukulingana, ukuthula, kanye nenkululeko kungaba ngokoqobo kanjalo eside sisebenze sonke kanzima ngokwanele sokuyifinyelela.

Uhlu esifushane izinhlangano zosizo, amasevisi free kanye nemithombo:

Izinhlangano ezikhuthaza iqhaza eqhubekayo, ukuvikelwa, futhi ucwaningo energy ukuthi elihlangabezana ukufuneka imvelo futhi womuntu zibalulekile kangaka okwamanje ngoba izimo emhlabeni kukhona ukungalingani kangaka. E America, kungaba nzima ukuthola umsebenzi, kodwa ngo Uganda (kanye nakwamanye amazwe amaningi abampofu) kungaba nzima ukuthola amanzi ahlanzekile noma ukudla.

Izinhlangano zosizo onganikeza aid yesikhashana, kodwa abanhliziyo kahle ephethwe zingakhiqiza zesikhathi eside solutions ukuba anikeze ngabanye amandla ukuhlinzekela ngokwabo, (noma “ngesandla abadala”, esikhundleni ‘ngesandla ukuphela kwesitokwe “). Lezi zixazululo ezihilela amandla nabantu zansuku zonke (ikakhulukazi ezincane, abesifazane, izingane, asebekhulile nabakhubazekile) ngokukhuthaza ukuba sebenzisana, babuse autonomously futhi ngaphandle kokubandlululwa, nokwakha izinhlangano ezikhuthaza inhlalakahle okuhambisana nezenhlalo futhi alondoloze nezwe zemvelo.

Uma ufuna ukusiza ekwenzeni izwe athe esingaphansi ezingalingani, cabangela sandla omunye zosizo ezibalwe ngezansi. Angikhulumi abasemaqenjini yisiphi kubo (ngaphandle NESEA ngokungaqondile), kodwa ngicabanga kunjalo konke izinhlangano run kakhulu ngekucaphela kanye izimbangela Uyakufanelekela.

Uma ususa lutho kusuka kule ncwadi, ngithemba kuyinto inkolelo ezimaphakathi ukuthi amanzi, ukudla, indawo yokuhlala, kwezempilo kanye nenkululeko bangabantu babantu eziyisisekelo amalungelo, hhayi zokunethezeka. Ubumpofu, ukuhlupheka, ukuqothulwa kohlanga nezifo okwandile kukhona izinkinga ukuba akudingeki zikhona. Sinazo namandla wemfanelo kuqedwe kubo kanye zosizo sokunene kungasisiza sifinyelele lowo mgomo, futhi sikhona. Ngezansi ezimbalwa nje.

Kunabantu abasebenza kanzima kakhulu ukuqonda nokulinganisela emkhatsini ukulawula imithombo for semvelo nabantu. Bathi akhona futhi uma udinga isizathu ukuba enze ukwazi ukuthi likhona ithemba futhi ungenza izinguquko eziphawulekayo emphakathini wakho futhi nangale. Izigidi lapho abantu belwa nsuku kwamalungelo esintu kanye nezemvelo kanti nawe ungaba omunye wabo uma ungeyena kakade.

Kunzima kakhulu okwamanje ukubeka inani kwemizamo yabantu kusizwe abanye abantu. It is okwenyanga nezenzo zezigidi zabantu emhlabeni wonke futhi izenzo eziningi zingaba kuyaqapheleka. Ngicabanga ukuthi kubalulekile bakhomba kulezi izenzo okuningi njengoba singabona kubo, sibasekele, bese andisa nabo. Abantu abaningi ngempela sifisa inhlalakahle emhlabeni wonke, kodwa abaningi abazi ukuthi kanjani lapho, futhi wadukisa ukukholelwa sobuntu esiphatha kabi impatho. Kodwa uma wonke umuntu emhlabeni babenolwazi, inhlalakahle emhlabeni wonke kungaba kungenzeka.

Lokhu akuyona uhlu oluphelele, futhi ngizobe kokunezela kulo ngokuvamile website yami. Izinhlangano eziningi ohlwini unemigomo ngamazwe, kodwa bambalwa nje zendawo. Uma ungathanda asikisela Ngaphezu ohlwini, azizwe free.

Ukuqedwa nakhaya nokuhlupheka

http://www.endhomelessness.org/

http://www.oxfamamerica.org/

http://www.accion.org/

http://www.finca.org/

(Boston)

http://www.rosiesplace.org/

http://homestart.org/

http://bostonrising.org/

Amanzi ihlanzekile

http://thewaterproject.org/

http://waterwellsforafrica.org/

http://www.muslimaid.org/index.php/what-nathi-do/current-imikhankaso-live/pakistan-flash-izikhukhula

kwekudla kanye namalungelo yesisebenzi:

http://www.foodandwaterwatch.org/

http://www.bluemountainproject.org

http://www.UNEP.org – United Nations Environmental Program. Ayenzile ukufaka ezinkulu elanga eNdiya.

http://iuf.org/ – Esihlanganisayo Ukudla, Farm, no Hotel Workers Worldwide

http://www.thp.org/The Indlala Project

http://www.care.org – Okwamanje abasebenza Inkinga in South Sudan

http://www.freedomfromhunger.org/

http://www.wwoofusa.org/

http://gbfb.org/ (Boston)

Ukulondolozwa kwemvelo, ukudla kanye nokuphepha, Ukuvikelwa yokuphila olwandle, Ukwehlisa nokufudumala kwembulunga:

http://www.greenbeltmovement.org/ – Kuqalwe Wangari Maathai, liye batshala izihlahla million 51 eKenya.

http://www.peacebrigades.org/ – ubulungiswa bezemvelo nezenhlalo yomphakathi engenzi nzuzo

* http: //www.rainforestfoundation.org/

http://www.worldwildlife.org/

* Http://fseee.org/ – Forest Service Abasebenzi for Environmental Ethics

http://www.nrdc.org/ – National Resources Defense Council esivusa aphansi lamalunga million 1.4 ukuthi ulwela ukunciphisa ukungcoliswa, ukulondoloza amahlathi emvelo, ukunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke, ukudla kosizo ukulondeka quality, nokuvikelwa kokuphila olwandle.

http://www.seethewild.org/

http://www.sierraclub.org/

http://ase.org/

http://www.conservationfund.org/ – TINHLELO izigidi zezihlahla, ebuyisela watersheds, akwenzayo esimeme namahlathi

http://www.chemistswithoutborders.org/

http://www.ewb-international.org/

http://www.ewb-usa.org/

Okusimeme ocwaningweni energy nentuthuko:

http://www.nesea.org/ (Lokhu akuyona sa, kodwa inkampani ethuthukayo nodadewethu wasebenza.)

Ezenziwa ngokubambisana, imiphakathi zokulima efundisayo:

http://eastwind.org/

http://secmol.org – Student sika Educational kanye nokunyakaza Cultural of Ladakh, India

http://www.growingpower.org/ – nzuzo ezweni trust ukuthi unakekelwa likhula kokudla okunempilo kanye esezinika ngokulinganayo.

Amalungelo wobuntu kanye nokuthula:

UNRWA.org – United Nations Impumuzo Works Agency for Palestinians eMpumalanga Eseduze

http://www.peacebrigades.org/

http://www.amnesty.org/

http://www.unhcr.org – United Nations Refugee Agency

http://www.achpr.org/ – African Commission on Human and Peoples ‘Rights

http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/

http://www.aclu.org/ American Civil Ukukhululeka Union

http://www.splcenter.org/

http://www.ctcinternational.org/

Ezemfundo global nemithombo lokufunda:

http://www.shinecharity.org/

http://www.boundless.com

http://collegeopentextbooks.org/

ukunakekelwa kwezempilo zokuzala namalungelo abesifazane:

http://onebillionrising.org/

http://reproductiverights.org/

http://www.pathfind.org/

http://www.globalfundforwomen.org

http://www.plannedparenthood.org/

http://www.edwon.org/index.htm

http://www.populationconnection.org/

kwezempilo:

http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/

http://www.pedaids.org/

http://www.ipacademy.org/

Amalungelo Izingane:

http://www.childrensmedicalemergency.com/

http://www.smiletrain.org/

http://www.unicefusa.org/ – Okusebenzayo emazweni 100, esindisa izimpilo zezingane.

http://www.nobodyschildren.org/

http://www.children.org/

http://www.burnrescue.org/Non-nzuzo for ezishile izisulu

http://wonderwork.org/

http://www.tanzanianchildrensfund.org/

Imizamo Ezwe zosizo:

http://cjpip.org/ – Committee for Peace Just kwaIsrayeli Palestine

http://www.ffrf.org/about/ – Freedom kusuka Inkolo Foundation

http://richarddawkins.net/

http://www.secular.org/

http://foundationbeyondbelief.org/

http://www.iheu.org/

Lwezinguquko law izidakamizwa:

http://norml.org/

http://hemp.org/

http://www.tdpf.org.uk/

Ejele izinguquko:

http://www.justdetention.org/

http://www.howardleague.org

http://www.prisonpolicy.org/

http://www.prisonsucks.com/

http://www.realcostofprisons.com/

Ukuvikelwa Nenkululeko, Izintatheli Whistleblowers:

http://americancensorship.org/

http://cpj.org/

Nocwaningo yezempilo yengqondo kanye namaqembu nokumela nesineke:

http://bbrfoundation.org/

http://www.narpa.org/

Occupy

http://occupywallst.org/

http://strikedebt.org/

Enye indlela yokusiza out iwukuba ngokuzithandela. Sengikwenze isilinganiso esihle Ngokuzinikela kanye ukukhankasa, yize ngidinga ngempela ukwenza okwengeziwe. Nothing kukwenza uzizwe ungcono kunokuba ukwenza into wokuzidela. Ungase ngokuzithandela kwelinye izinhlangano ngenhla noma ezinye progressives efana WWOOF.

Ngithathe futhi ngifuna amavolontiya ukusiza sebenzisana nami emapulazini ngokubambisana, ngakho sites, izitshalo ukwelashwa kwamanzi, ukucelela izinhlelo, nempilo-ukunakekelwa okuphuthumayo sites emazweni ampofu kakhulu. Iningi la maphrojekthi asalokhu lapho behlela, kodwa mina ngikwazi njalo ukusebenzisa usizo ukuhlela. Ngithathe futhi sihlela on ngokudubula nemadokhumenthari eziningana. Uma ungathanda ukuthola ukwaziswa okwengeziwe mayelana yimuphi lokhu, zizwe ukhululekile ukuxhumana nami.

(Ngaphandle kwalezi zinhlangano, ezinye izinhlangano zosizo best ukusekela mincane, unobuntu uthembekile, abanhliziyo endawo, okungezona njalo atholakala kalula. Ungahlola umbiko amabhodi, izikhala ohlanganyelwe noma ucele azungeze kanye.)

© copyright 2014: Adam Goldstein

amanothi

[1] A ovelele, Isibonelo mlando ka ikhemikhali owadalwa izinhlangano kwaphumela ekufeni Yande Agent Orange. Ngesikhathi iMpi yaseVietnam Monsanto no Dow Chemical wadala le ukhula, okuyinto kwaba airdropped phezu Vietnam ukubhubhisa emahlathini, kodwa yini kwakucatshangwa babengazi ngaleso sikhathi kwaba ukuthi chemical bona olufuthwe wawusungenwe dioxins nobuthi ngokwedlulele. 400.000 wafa futhi 500,000 Sazalwa zamehlo ezinzima ezingokomzimba yalokho. Abantu abaningi Vietnamese basaqhubeka ehlaselwe la ubuthi nanamuhla.

[2] Iningi ababulawa uKatrina zazibangelwa le ukunganaki of the US Army Corps of Engineers owaklama levees kwesiphepho, FEMA kanye Bush nokuphatha, kanye bezinhlangano ezisebenzisa noma kukhishwe namalahle.

[3] ubudlelwano Kwezihlobo zazivame ezinganekwaneni Ancient zaseGibhithe.

[4] Ababhali yeTestamente Elisha, sasivumela nokugabadela. Bathi eyahlelwa idokhumenti yenkolo ebaluleke kakhulu abantu bamaJuda, iTestamente Elidala, wakhethelwa izingxenye ezikuthandayo futhi wasebenzisa sona yisethulo ukunika “iTestamente Elisha,” ingqikithi yabo, okuyinto kungabukeka njengento angabonisi inhlonipho kakhulu abantu bamaJuda (nobe at okungenani umqondo womunye kunalokho unapologetic).

[5] Uma wenza kanjalo, nawe uzofa ngokushesha kusukela amanzi emzimbeni ngenxa uyobe zishobinge kwamanzi ngaphezu uphuza ukuze izinso zakho kungaba ukuhlunga usawoti emanzini olwandle.

[6] English Standard Version.

[7] Okuphawulekayo lokuqala oluyimpumelelo Parallax lezinkanyezi kwenziwa ngu Friedrich Bessel ngo 1838. Walinganisa Parallax of a star elikude (iminyaka ukukhanya nxazonke 11 away) eyaziwa ngokuthi 61 Cygni. Wakwazi ukukala Parallax lezinkanyezi ngenxa telescopic technology kwase kakhulu ngcono futhi sasikwazi ukubona izinkanyezi okuningi phambili away. Nakuba sathola ngaphezu bufakazi ngokwanele ngalesosikhathi ukufakazela isimiso sethu sonozungezilanga kwaba heliocentric futhi sasazi kungani singakuboni Parallax lezinkanyezi, kwaba i observation ebalulekile yize kunjalo.

[8] Ukukhanya White siqukethe amagagasi anobude eziningi ezahlukene. Banemibono engafani okukhanya bangabantu imibala ehlukene. Uma shine imisebe yelanga ngokusebenzisa nezibhebhe (iphiramidi piece esifakwe glass) ukukhanya ngeke iyahlukana ibe ingxenye yayo imibala. Lezi imibala abizwa spectrum nombala. The yamaza okukhanya okubonakalayo eside kunazo bavele obomvu.

[9] uTed ukhathele uyisibonelo esihle. Washumayela mayelana ‘bubi “ngobungqingili phambi zemidlalo ezigcwele amaKristu ababesebusweni nje bigoted njengaye. Kodwa ngenxa izinsolo kusuka obhucungayo in2006 wesilisa, kwatholakala lapho uTed wayengakhulumi ekwenzeni la izinkulumo, wayengakhulumi ocansini nezifebe zesilisa nokubhema crystal meth. Ted Namanje kubhekwe insika wesabelo gay-ukuzonda umphakathi lobuKristu.

[10] icala lokubulala umuntu kuyinto ukubulala ngephutha.

[11] Uma sivumela kubo, akufanele kube eside ngaphambi bezinhlangano ukuwenza uvumelane ilungelo enkulumweni free njengoba ilungelo ‘Yibani it indlela yakho’ at Burger King.

[12] Uma lokhu kwenzeka njalo, ungakwazi nje kuthathe isihluthulelo emotweni ukuze ume uma uyagijima aphume umfutho.

[13] Kuthatha semali kakhulu iTHC, lo cannabinoid main psychoactive ku insangu, ukubulala isilwane. Ezenza Cannabinoid nazo ingangeni akhiwe kule brainstem, okuyinto elawula emishinini yokuphefumula, ngakho cishe akunakwenzeka afele kusukela izidakamizwa. Ngokusho edition-12 we-Merck Index, iTHC washisa ngomlomo ine LD50 ka 1270 mg / kg for amagundane angamaduna 730 mg / kg for amagundane female. (Bebelokhu Kukhona imibiko aphansi ekuhlolweni ezahlukene.) Nakuba rat cannabinoid ezenza zihlukile kunabantu (futhi cishe esingaphansi ukubekezela of iTHC), singakwazi balinganisela kusuka kulesi imininingwane Ngokwesilinganiso, wesilisa enempilo ngubani ukala 77 khilogremu (169.75lbs) azodinga ukudla 97,79 amagremu of iTHC elihlanzekile (nobe 1955 amagremu of insangu equkethe amahlanu amaphesenti iTHC) afe, okuyinto kwakuyoba umthamo omkhulu. Kuthatha esingaphansi ibuprofen kuka iTHC ukubangela ukufa. ITHC esibangela ukulahlekelwa ukwazi at amazinga okukhishwa sasivumela ongaphakeme, ngakho ngokomzimba engenakwenzeka ukubhema ukuthi okuningi. A ebulalayo umthamo lemali babengase kudliwe, kodwa ukuze bafe, omunye kwakuzodingeka adle umthamo ezibulalayo konke ngesikhathi esisodwa, ngoba uma kungenjalo, umuntu ngiyophinde balahlekelwa ukwazi ngaphambi le ususondele kulesi umthamo nobuthi. Iphuzu lokuba kunzima kakhulu babulawa insangu noma izingxenye zalo. Insangu ubuye self-zokulawula ngomqondo ngenxa ukumuncwa is engavimba serum lipids futhi abanye cannabinoids babe nemiphumela ephikisayo ukuthi ibhalansi nomunye out like iTHC and CBD.

[14] insangu Sativa kuyinto enemicu okuningi ngaphezu insangu Indica, okuvamise iDemo futhi bushier. Insangu Ruderalis lesifisha kuka kokubili.

[15] Ezinye psychedelics, efana LSD Nokho, kungaba ebulalayo ngisho imithamo emincane kakhulu. Ephindaphindiwe, ukusetshenziswa nsuku zonke psychedelics othile nakho babe imithelela engemihle on ekusebenzeni kobuchopho. Nokho, le esetshenziswa ngokuvamile psychedelics are ephephile kude futhi engaphansi sibulala kuka ugwayi noma wotshwala.

[16] Baclofen and GHB kukhona naseGeba agonists, eyayibonakala kwatholakala ngaphambi 1939, kodwa sasingawohloki kwaziwe ngesikhathi wokuthi Baclofen zingasetshenziswa ekwelapheni ngotshwala zokuqaleka kanye GHB kuhlelwe umqondo akatholakalanga ukudliwa abantu kuze kwamashumi kamuva. Nokho, utshwala zokuqaleka kungabuye ziphathwe amanani ngokuqhubekayo ezincane utshwala, kanjalo base akakaze ngokuphelele kudingekile.

[17] A eziphawulekayo side-inothi siwukuthi ngokuvamile uranium imali abasele ngu thermobaric, ezicitshwayo Ballistic, okuyinto ukumunca oksijini lapho qhumisa abese Ukwakha ukushisa kwecilongo eside. Labo ngaphakathi engaba blast ivame ehlatshwa wamaphaphu nciphisa abese zishiswe ziphila kuqhuma noma bebulawa amagesi elimazayo. Ziyakwazi izikhali ezimbi kakhulu futhi nemiphumela babo wazizwa izizukulwane ngenxa emisebeni yenuzi izishiya.

Amaphesenti [18] 40 amahlathi emhlabeni njengamanje esongelwa Izimayini ngokusho eSierra Magazine.

[19] Owesifazane Spanish okuthiwa Angeles Duran waba ngowokuqala bathi buniyo zomthetho kwelanga.

Imibhalo Ekhonjiwe

[i] UNODC: “. izilungiselelo Prison” October le-12 2010 PDF.

[ii] The isihlalo sasesontweni Trusts Accounting: “Omunye ngo 100 Behind inkantini eMelika ngo-2008” January 26 2008, PG. 6 Phrinta.

[iii] Harrop, Froma: “obuningi noma izidakamizwa: Ukwenqatshelwa Eyenza No Sense.” The Providence Journal. 2008. Newspaper.

[iv] Thompson, Derek: “Lezi Emashadi Four Chaza kahle indlela baseMelika Chitha 52 Billion on Pets wethu A Year.” The Atlantic. February 23 2013. Newspaper.

[v] Harper, uRobert Francis: The American Journal of Theology, uMqulu 8, No. 3, July 1904 PG. 601. Journal. .

[vi] Johnson, Janet H: “Yabesifazane Legal Rights eGibhithe Yasendulo” University of Chicago Press. 2002 Phrinta.

[VII] Bennett, uPawulu: “Lapho Kuyaqala Burial.” British imivubukulo, August 2002 Magazine.

[viii] Grun, R. no Stringer, CB “Tabun abuyele emuva: wabukeza ESR Ukuhlelwa kwezenzakalo kanye ESR ezintsha futhi U-uchungechunge ihlaziya Kwendaba yamazinyo ezivela Tabun C1.” Journal of Human Evolution 39: 601-612. 2000. Journal.

[ix] Bermudez de Castro et al .: Paleodemography of the Sample Atapuerca-SH Muddle Pleistocene Hominid. 1997 Phrinta.

[x] Barker, uGraeme: The Agricultural Revolution e Prehistory: Kungani Foragers babe Farmers? Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955995-4. March 25. 2009. Phrinta.

[xi] Kramer, uSamuweli uNowa:. nesi Mythology, kk 42 no 57. 1944. Phrinta.

[xii] Blackwell Gary, uPatricia no Talcott, uRichard: “Star-nigqolozele eGibhithe Yasendulo.” PG. 62, Astronomy Magazine. April 21 2006.

[xiii] Arriaza, Bernardo T .: “Beyond Death: The Chinchorro ezidunjini ezomisiwe of Chile Ancient.” Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1995. Phrinta.

[xiv] inganakeki, Eric H: IJerusalema phama, University of Michigan Press. November 7 2005 Phrinta.

[xv] Qur’an, kuyiSurah: 17,93.

[XVI] Tassoul, uJean-Louis & Monique: A History of Concise Physics Solar kanye Stellar. 2004 Phrinta.

[xvii] Bheka ukulandisa odlule.

[XVIII] Bull “Origins” Oxford History of the Zokholo. kk. 32-34. Phrinta.

[xix] Jacob, uMargaret C .: The Newtonians kanye English Revolution, 1689-1720. 1976 Phrinta.

[xx] Sagan, uCarl: idemoni-Haunted World: Science njengendlela Candle in the Dark, PG. 325. Phrinta.

[xxi] Alfano, Sean. Ucwaningo: Iningi Wenqabe Evolution. CBS News, February 11 2009.

[xxii] <Catholicbishops.org/nrb/johnjaystudy/cleric2.pdf>

[xxiii] Zoll, uRachel. Izincwadi: ababhishobhi bamaKatolika waxwayisa ngo ’50s wabapristi enhlamba. Cindezela ezihambisana e USA Today. 03/31/2009. Phrinta.

[xxiv] Kuepper, uJustin. “Izimayini Izinkampani Babengaphila Bheka Big Inzuzo in the Congo.” Theotcinvestor.com. Okthoba 26 2010 Online.

[xxv] Hochschild, Adamu: Ghost King ULeopold sika. Mariner Books. 1999. Phrinta.

[xxvi] Forum isihlalo sasesontweni Research Center sika on Inkolo & Public Life. Christianity Global, December 2011. Phrinta.

[xxvii] The isihlalo sasesontweni Forum: “Ikusasa Global Muslim Population.” January 2011. Graphic.

[xxviii] <http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14811/14811-h/14811-h.htm&gt;

[xxix] New York Times: “General Butler Bares itulo lwamaFascist.” Newspaper. November 21 1934.

[XXX] Moore, uMichael: capitalism: A Love Story. 22:16. 2009. Film.

[xxxi] <AFLCIO.org>

[xxxii] DeNavas Walt, uCarmen, et al: Income, Ubumpofu, Nempilo Insurance Ukufunda e-United States. 2011 US Census Bureau <census.gov/prod/2012pubs/p60-243.pdf>

[xxxiii] Bloomberg Buisnessweek: “Wal-Mart Stores INC” (WMT: New York). 2013. Online.

[xxxiv] CNN: 500 Companies Global. 2013. Online

[xxxv] Bloomberg BusinessWeek: “Kungani Abantu Thenga Stock in Companies isidle.” Tiffany kary. May 19 2011. Journal.

[xxxvi] CIA: World Factbook. 2011. Phrinta.

[xxxvii] <xe.comcurrrency / xaf-cental-african-CFA-franc-beac? r = 1> 05/02/2013. Online.

[xxxviii] Priceline.com. Izibalo ezenziwe 2013. Online. (Hhayi an ukuvumela.)

[xxxix] Priceline.com. Izibalo ezenziwe 2011. Online. (Hhayi an ukuvumela.)

[XL] World Bank: Izinkomba Development. 2008. Igrafu.

[xli] World Health Organization, World Health Statistics: Death Distribution: 2011. (. PG 169-170) Phrinta. <www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index1.html.>

[xlii] UNICEF: Nezingane Rate Drops ngumuntu Third Kusukela 1990. September 17 2010 New York. Phrinta.

[xliii] United Nations Development Program: 2007 Human Development Report. November 27 2007. Phrinta. PG. 27.

[xliv] World Health Organization: “The Top Ten izimbangela Death”. Phrinta, 2008. <http: //: http://www.who.int.mediacentre.facesheetfs310 / en / index.html

[xlv] World Health Organization, “The Top Ten izimbangela Death by Broad Income Group.” 2004. Phrinta. <http://www.premierheart.com/webapp/downloads/who_stats.pdf&gt;

[xlvi] <http://aids.gov/hiv-izinsiza-basics/hiv-izinsiza-101/statistics/&gt;

[xlvii] <www.unicef.org/infobycountry/chad_statistics.html>

[xlviii] CIA.gov, Country Ukuqhathaniswa: Infant lokufa, 2012. Phrinta. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-emhlabeni-factbook/rankorder/2091rank.html&gt;

[xlix] State of the World, Issue 287. February 1997, New Internationalist. Journal.

[l] UN Development zahlelwa (UNDP), Human Development Report 1998. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, PG. 37. Phrinta. <http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/hdr_1998_en_chap1.pdf&gt;

[li] Chomsky, Noam: Manufacturing Imvume: Noam Chomsky kanye Media. Amafilimu Zeitgeist. 1992.

[lii] IRIN: “Vuna Umunyu-Sweet:. War New Afghanistan sika” PG 37. Julayi 2004 PDF.

[liii] Glaze, uJohn A. “Opium and Afghanistan:. Reassessing US Counter nezidakamizwa Strategy”) Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. October 2007. PG. 5 Journal.

[Liv] UNODC: 2007 Annual Survey Poppy e Afghanistan. PG. 9. <www.unoduc.orrg / PDF / yocwaningo / AFG07_ExSum_web.pdf>

[lv] John A Glaze, Opium and Afghanistan: “Reassessing US Counter nezidakamizwa Strategy.”) Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College. October 2007. PG. 6. Journal.

[lvi] Prupis, Nadia: Opium Production in Afghanistan: Strong kanye abakhohlakele njengoba Ever. Truthout. January 6th 2011. Online.

[lvii] CIA World Factbook 2012

[lviii] CIA: Major Narco Ukushushumbisa Imizila kanye Nqampuna Areas, 2000. Graphic.

[lix] UNODC: World Drug Report 2007, PG. 230. Phrinta.

[lx] REDLA: Inqubo kusukela Umhlangano we-Red Latinoamericano de Investigadores sobre ManualidadFacilisimo. June 2008 PG 55. <http://www.cicad.oas.org/oid/research/REDLA%20Report%202008%20eng.pdf&gt;

[lxi] UNODC: World Drug Report 2007, PG. 230. Phrinta.

[lxii] CIA: Major Narco Ukushushumbisa Imizila kanye Nqampuna Areas, 2000. Graphic.

[lxiii] CONEVAL: 2009 Iqiniso Sheet. US Embassy eMexico City. Online Publication.

[lxiv] International Monetary Fund, 2012. Phrinta.

[lxv] UNODDC: Umbiko World Drug 2009. Phrinta.

[lxvi] UNODC: World Report Drug 2011 PG. 46. ​​New York. Phrinta.

[lxvii] Miller, M. Petru, PhD: “Izimiso of Addiction: Comprehensive Yama Ukuziphatha okuyingozi futhi Kwemizwelo.” Academic Press. PG. 168. Phrinta.

[lxviii] Luch, Andreas: samangqamuzana ezinto, kuyisayensi ecwaninga ngobuthi Clinical no Environmental, 2009. PG. 20. Phrinta.

[lxix] UNODC: World Report Drug, 2007. Phrinta.

[LXX] UNODC: Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007. Phrinta.

[lxxi] <www.macsmith.com/index.php?page=uk-poppies>

[lxxii] Herndon, GM, “Hemp e Virginia Colonial,” 1963.

[lxxiii] Robinson, uJudith: The Hearsts: an American Dynasty, PG. 89. University of Delaware. 1991. Phrinta.

[lxxiv] Bheka ukulandisa owedlule

[lxxv] Booth, uKevin: American War Drug: The Last White Ithemba. 2007. Film.

[lxxvi] Young, Francis: Marijuana LWEZIKHALAZO Rescheduling. Idokodo No. 86-22. September 6th 1988.

[lxxvii] Currie, Elliott: Ubugebengu kanye Ukujeziswa eMelika. Metropolitan Books, 1998. Phrinta.

[lxxviii] The isihlalo sasesontweni Trusts Accounting: “Omunye ngo 100 Behind inkantini eMelika ngo-2008” January 26 2008, PG. 34. Journal.

[lxxix] Jeffrey A. Miron & Kathrine Waldock: “The Impact kwesabelomali Drug Ukwenqatshelwa” Phrinta. 2010.

[lxxx] UDkt Grinspoon, uLester uDkt Bakalar, uJames B: “marihuana:. The Medicine Akuvunyelwe” 2007. amakhasi abahlukahlukene. Phrinta.

[lxxxi] National Cancer Institute: “insangu and Cannabinoids.” 01/17/2013. Online.

[lxxxii] Consroe P, et al: “Kubikwe Marijuana Effects in Iziguli emgogodleni Ukulimala.” 1998 Symposium on Cannabinoids. International Cannabinoid Research Society. PG. 34. 1998 Phrinta.

[lxxxiii] Fergusson DM., et al. Ukusetshenziswa komama of insangu and imiPhumela Ukukhulelwa. NCBI. Online. <www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11843371>

[lxxxiv] Brockington, Ian: wokuya esikhathini Psychosis kanye Process Catamenial. University of Birmingham. Eyry Press, 2008. Phrinta.

[lxxxv] UNODC: World Report Drug, 2011. New York. Phrinta.

[lxxxvi] Sarah Aldington et al. “Imiphumela insangu on yamaphaphu Isakhiwo, Function kanye Izimpawu.” Thorax: An International Journal of Medicine zokuphefumula. NCBI, December 2007, uMqulu 62. Journal.

[lxxxvii] Bheka ukulandisa odlule.

[lxxxviii] Mike Ruppert: Nexus Magazine, uMqulu 8, Inombolo 6 (October-November 2001) Journal.

[lxxxix] Pelaez, Vicky: The Prison Industry e-United States: Big Business noma New zobugqila? Ucwaningo Global. March 10 2008.

[xc] Bheka inothi owedlule.

[xci] Crowe, UZweli: ubusela Sigxile Ukudlwengulwa Ejele. Houston Chronicle, October 16, 2004. Newspaper.

[xcii] E. Fuller Torrey, MD More Engqondweni Ill Abantu Ingabe abasemajele Nasemajele Than Izibhedlela: A Survey of the United. Ukwelashwa Advocacy Center, May 2010.

[xciii] Grohl, uJohn M., Psy. D: Top 25 Psychiatric Imithi nemiyalelo 2011. 2012.Online. <-ngengqondo-imithi-nemiyalelo http://psychcentral.com/lib/2012/top-25-for-2011/&gt;

[xciv] Labaton, uStefanu: “IsiZulu-Drug Maker uyavuma Settlement ngo Price Ukubeka Case.” New York Times, July 13 2000. Phrinta.

[xcv] Laura A. Pratt, Ph.D., et al. NCHS Data Okufushane: Use Antidepressant ngaBantu Nabakhulile 12 no Over: United States, 2005-2008. Okthoba 2011.

[xcvi] <http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020392&gt;

[xcvii] Ellsworth Fersch: “Ukucabanga Cishe Ukungaphili engqondweni Defense,” 2010 PG. 12. Phrinta.

[xcviii] Canter, uDavide: A Very Isingeniso iDemo kuya Forensic Psychology 2010 PG. 7. Phrinta.

[xcix] Findlaw.org: “Ukungaphili engqondweni The Defense Phakathi States.” 2013. Thompson Reuters. Online.

[c] Jeffrey Rosen: “Ubuchopho othini.” New York Times. March 11, 2007. PG 13. Phrinta.

[CI] Moreno C. et al. National Trends in the olunothando Ukuhlolwa kanye Ukwelashwa Bipolar Disorder Ebusheni. NCBI. <Pubmed.gov> September 2007 Phrinta.

[cii] Izindaba-Medical.net: “. Psychosis Pathophysiology” Retrieved June 21 2013. Online.

[ciii] Joanna Moncrieff noJonathani Leo: “. Ukubukezwa esihleliwe nemiphumela Antipsychotic Izidakamizwa on Brain Volume” PSYCHOLOGICAL Medicine, September, 2010 Journal.

[civ] Brady, KT. no Sinha R .: Ukubuyekezwa Co-sokwenzeka Mental kanye Substance Abuse Yokukhathazeka: The Neurobiological Imiphumela Ukucindezeleka njalo. AM J Psychiatry, August 2005. Phrinta.

[CV] Hornstein, Gail A .: Ukuze Sebenzisa Omunye umuntu ukuba Sebenzisa World: A Life of Reida Fromm-Reichmann. Simon no Schuster, January 10 2002 Phrinta.

[cvi] Mcwilliams: Psychoanalytic Ukuxilongwa, Edition Second: Ubuntu Ukuqonda. (The Guilford Press, 2011) PG. 196. Phrinta.

[cvii] Chomsky, Noam: Manufacturing Imvume: The Political Umnotho Human Rights Lecture no Q & A. March 15, 1989. <Pdxjustice.org.> Lecture.

[cviii] Lenin, uVladimir: The kukhululwa of Women: Imibhalo VI Lenin. Publishers International. November 30 1933 Phrinta. (Lokhu iqoqo izinkulumo kukaLenin eyanyatheliswa ndawonye emva kokufa kwakhe.)

[cix] Trotsky, Leon: The Imibhalo Military of Leon Trotsky. 1918 Trade Union Printing Services. Phrinta. <Marxists.org/archive/Trotsky/works/pdf/mw1.pdf>

[cx] Beaumont, uMathewu. Hemingway, Andrew et al. Njengoba Radical Njengoba Sinjalo Wona: Tindzaba on Marxism and Art for the 21st Century. 2007. Phrinta.

[cxi] Toronto Star Daily: ‘Man Elikhulu’ Premier Stalin Churchill Kucoca Commons, November 7 1945. London. Phrinta.

[cxii] Chomsky, Noam & Ruggiero Greg, “The Umbrella of the Power US: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights kanye kuwukuphikisana US Policy.” Stories Seven Cindezela, 2002. Phrinta.

[cxiii] Jacobs, Seth: Cold War Mandarin: Ngo Dinh Diem kanye Origins of War LaseMelika eVietnam, 1950-1963. Nooks, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-4447-8. 2006 Phrinta.

[cxiv] Stanley, uDiane: For the Record: United Isithelo yeNkampani Ayisithupha Nesithupha Years eGuatemala. Centro Impresor Piedra Santa., 1994. PG. 179. Phrinta.

[cxv] Curry, uJohn. Crisis in America Central on PBS Frontline. The New York Times. April 9 1985. PG. 16. Newspaper.

[cxvi] Ababazi bakha, uTom et al. “CIA: unguMenzi Policy, noma Tool?” The New York Times: PG. 20, ikholomu 3. April 25, 1966 Newspaper.

[cxvii] Peter Jennings: kokubulawa Kennedy: Beyond Uzungu. November 20th 2003. Film.

[cxviii] Maholy, uMichael. The CIA Pipeline. Phoenix Archives, March 26, 1996. PG. 16-20) Newspaper.

[cxix] Seelye, uKatherine Q .: “John F Kennedy Jr, indlalifa a Uyisitha Dynasty.” The New York Times. July 19 1999. Phrinta.

[cxx] Alenander, uRuthe: “Yimuphi umqashi enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni?” BBC News. March 19 2012 Magazine.

[cxxi] Cockburn, Andrew noPatrick: “Out of Emlotheni: Ukuvuswa Saddam Hussein.” October 2002 Phrinta.

[cxxii] Timmerman, Kenneth R .: The Death sakhiwo: kanjani West Armed Iraq. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company. 1991. Phrinta.

[cxxiii] Mackay, uNeil Arbuthnot, Felicity: “Kanjani Iraq Get Izikhali Its? Sadayisa Them. “Sunday Herald. September 8 2002 Newspaper.

[cxxiv] Morgan, uDavide: Eks-US Official uthi Baathists CIA Besizwa, CIA Izipesheli No Comment on Icebo lika Izinsolo. Reuters, April 20th 2003 Newspaper.

[cxxv] CIA: The Story California. April 25 2007 Online. <https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-Imibiko-1/cocaine/report/background.html&gt;

[cxxvi] Corben, Billy: cocaine Cowboys. 2006 Film.

[cxxvii] Yeoman, uBarry. “Amasosha Good Fortune,” umama Jones, 06/01/2003. Journal.

Sibonga ekhethekile nodadewethu, uKate Goldstein owafa le usemncane kakhulu, uDkt Noam Chomsky, uDkt Scott Allen, uDkt Ian Dell Antonio, uDkt Kenneth Miller, uDkt Ellsworth Fersch, Froma Harrop, Anne Lundblad, uJosh Spitzberg, uSara , le Occupy Movement, Anonymous, futhi wonke umuntu belwela amalungelo abantu emhlabeni jikelele.

Advertisements

2 responses to “Yini elawula nathi – What Controls Us in Zulu

  1. I feel so insulted as a proud South African Zulu woman. Couldn’t you have asked a Zulu speaking person to proof read this for you before you decided to publish it. The way you chopped our language there is sickening, I could not eve complete one paragraph without feeling sick. I don’t really know what your intentions were when you decide you wanna write this book of yours in this language that you used, but you certainly won’t help any Zulu speaking person because they won’t understand a word you just said here.

    • I’m sorry. I don’t speak Zulu. I don’t know a word of it. I used google translate as stated so technically Google is to blame. I was just hoping to reach as many people as possible. If you’re willing to translate my book into Zulu that would be much appreciated. I could give you credit for doing so on my website, of course.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s